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History > 19th, 20th century > Australia

 

 

 

Description: Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (SBR).

 

The soldiers are from the 45th Battalion,

Australian 4th Division

at Garter Point, Ypres sector,

27 September 1917.

 

Source:

Australian War Memorial catalogue number E00825.

 

Date: 27 September 1917

 

Author: Photo by Captain Frank Hurley.

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Australian_infantry_small_box_respirators_Ypres_1917.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 March - 27 November 1941

 

North Africa        Cyrenaica (a province of Libya)        Siege of Tobruk

 

 

Between April and August 1941

around 14,000 Australian soldiers*

were besieged in Tobruk

by a German–Italian army

commanded by General Erwin Rommel.

 

The garrison, commanded

by Lieutenant General Leslie Morshead,

consisted of the 9th Division

(20th, 24th, and 26th Brigades),

the 18th Brigade of the 7th Division,

along with four regiments

of British artillery

and some Indian troops.

 

It was vital for the Allies'

defence of Egypt and the Suez Canal

to hold the town with its harbour,

as this forced the enemy

to bring most of their supplies

overland from the port of Tripoli,

across 1500 km of desert,

as well as diverting troops

from their advance.

 

Tobruk was subject

to repeated ground assaults

and almost constant

shelling and bombing.

 

The Nazi propagandist

Lord Haw Haw (William Joyce [ 1906-1946])

derided the tenacious defenders as 'rats',

a term that the Australian soldiers

embraced as an ironic compliment.

 

The Royal Navy

and the Royal Australian Navy

provided the garrison's

link to the outside world,

the so-called 'Tobruk ferry'.

 

These ships included

the Australian destroyers

Napier, Nizam, Stuart,

Vendetta and Voyager.

 

Losses comprised two destroyers,

including HMAS Waterhen,

three sloops,

including HMAS Parramatta,

and 21 smaller vessels.

 

Half the Australian garrison

was relieved in August,

the rest in September-October.

 

However,

2/13 Battalion

could not be evacuated

and was still there when the siege

was lifted on 10 December,

the only unit present

for the entire siege.

 

Australian casualties

were 559 killed, 2450 wounded,

and 941 taken prisoner.

http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/tobruk/

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/categories/c55230/

https://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/tobruk/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

War and pleas:

propaganda posters

from 20th century Australia – in pictures

 

 

 

 

Talk less. You never know – c 1944.

 

Photograph: By Charles J Noke.

Issued by the Ministry of Home Security

and printed by James Hawthorn & Brother Ltd

 

War and pleas:

propaganda posters from 20th century Australia – in pictures

 

Posters played a crucial role in the wars of the 20th century,

firing up patriotic sentiment and sending out calls to arms.

 

The exhibition Propaganda

draws on the Australian War Memorial’s extensive collection,

showing how illustration and graphic design

were used to speak directly to people during times of conflict

 

The Guardian        Sun 22 Apr 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/apr/22/
war-and-pleas-propaganda-posters-from-the-20th-century-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Australia has promised Britain 50,000 more men – 1915.

 

Illustration:

Issued by the South Australian government

 

War and pleas:

propaganda posters from 20th century Australia – in pictures

 

Posters played a crucial role in the wars of the 20th century,

firing up patriotic sentiment and sending out calls to arms.

 

The exhibition Propaganda

draws on the Australian War Memorial’s extensive collection,

showing how illustration and graphic design

were used to speak directly to people during times of conflict

 

The Guardian        Sun 22 Apr 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/apr/22/
war-and-pleas-propaganda-posters-from-the-20th-century-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Posters played a crucial role

in the wars of the 20th century,

firing up patriotic sentiment

and sending out calls to arms.

 

The exhibition Propaganda

draws on the Australian War Memorial’s

extensive collection,

showing how illustration

and graphic design

were used to speak directly to people

during times of conflict

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/apr/22/
war-and-pleas-propaganda-posters-from-the-20th-century-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World War One        Australia

 


http://www.firstworldwar.com/posters/australia.htm

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.naa.gov.au/collection/explore/defence/conflicts.aspx#section2 

https://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/ww1.htm   

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/australia_01.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2018/apr/18/
letters-photos-and-a-diary-a-first-world-war-soldiers-suitcase-of-souvenirs-in-pictures

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/17/
suitcase-of-first-world-war-mementos-could-unravel-mystery-of-forgotten-soldier

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Country profile: Australia

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1250188.stm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia

 

 

 

 

Maps of Australia

http://www.ga.gov.au/map/

http://www.nla.gov.au/map/

 

 

 

 

Timeline

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1255673.stm

 

 

 

 

Settlement of Australia

http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/australianhistory/

 

 

 

 

battle between Aboriginal people and settlers

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/12/australian-war-memorial-ignores-frontier-war

 

 

 

 

Australia's relationship with Britain

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/australian_republic/50981.stm

 

 

 

 

migration

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3550241.stm

 

 

 

 

The fatal shore > Convicts and the European Settlement of Australia        1850-1868

http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/convicts/

http://www.trinity.wa.edu.au/plduffyrc/

http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/dickens/ge/huang.html

http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/jun1999/fat-j25.shtml

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/australia/

 

 

 

 

Guardian special report > Australia

http://www.guardian.co.uk/australia/0,12070,723254,00.html

 

 

 

 

Australian History > Historical documents online

http://www.nla.gov.au/oz/histsite.html

 

 

 

 

Australian Bureau of Statistics

http://www.abs.gov.au/