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History > 19th, 20th century > Australia > Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

Description:

Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (SBR).

 

The soldiers are from the 45th Battalion,

Australian 4th Division

at Garter Point, Ypres sector,

27 September 1917.

 

Source:

Australian War Memorial catalogue number E00825.

 

Date: 27 September 1917

 

Author: Photo by Captain Frank Hurley.

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Australian_infantry_small_box_respirators_Ypres_1917.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 March - 27 November 1941

 

North Africa        Cyrenaica (a province of Libya)        Siege of Tobruk

 

 

Between April

and August 1941

around 14,000

Australian soldiers

were besieged in Tobruk

by a German–Italian army

commanded

by General Erwin Rommel.

 

The garrison,

commanded

by Lieutenant General

Leslie Morshead,

consisted of the 9th Division

(20th, 24th, and 26th Brigades),

the 18th Brigade

of the 7th Division,

along with four regiments

of British artillery

and some Indian troops.

 

It was vital

for the Allies'

defence of Egypt

and the Suez Canal

to hold the town

with its harbour,

as this forced the enemy

to bring most of their supplies

overland from the port of Tripoli,

across 1500 km of desert,

as well as diverting troops

from their advance.

 

Tobruk was subject

to repeated ground assaults

and almost constant

shelling and bombing.

 

The Nazi propagandist

Lord Haw Haw

(William Joyce [ 1906-1946])

derided

the tenacious defenders as 'rats',

a term that the Australian soldiers

embraced as an ironic compliment.

 

The Royal Navy

and the Royal Australian Navy

provided the garrison's

link to the outside world,

the so-called 'Tobruk ferry'.

 

These ships included

the Australian destroyers

Napier, Nizam, Stuart,

Vendetta and Voyager.

 

Losses

comprised two destroyers,

including HMAS Waterhen,

three sloops,

including HMAS Parramatta,

and 21 smaller vessels.

 

Half the Australian garrison

was relieved in August,

the rest in September-October.

 

However,

2/13 Battalion

could not be evacuated

and was still there when the siege

was lifted on 10 December,

the only unit present

for the entire siege.

 

Australian casualties

were 559 killed,

2450 wounded,

and 941 taken prisoner.

http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/tobruk/

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/categories/c55230/

https://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/tobruk/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

War and pleas:

propaganda posters

from 20th century Australia – in pictures

 

 

 

 

Talk less. You never know – c 1944.

 

Photograph: By Charles J Noke.

Issued by the Ministry of Home Security

and printed by James Hawthorn & Brother Ltd

 

War and pleas:

propaganda posters from 20th century Australia – in pictures

 

Posters played a crucial role in the wars of the 20th century,

firing up patriotic sentiment and sending out calls to arms.

 

The exhibition Propaganda

draws on the Australian War Memorial’s extensive collection,

showing how illustration and graphic design

were used to speak directly to people during times of conflict

G

Sun 22 Apr 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/apr/22/
war-and-pleas-propaganda-posters-from-the-20th-century-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Australia has promised Britain 50,000 more men – 1915.

 

Illustration:

Issued by the South Australian government

 

War and pleas:

propaganda posters from 20th century Australia – in pictures

 

Posters played a crucial role in the wars of the 20th century,

firing up patriotic sentiment and sending out calls to arms.

 

The exhibition Propaganda

draws on the Australian War Memorial’s extensive collection,

showing how illustration and graphic design

were used to speak directly to people during times of conflict

G

Sun 22 Apr 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/apr/22/
war-and-pleas-propaganda-posters-from-the-20th-century-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Posters played a crucial role

in the wars of the 20th century,

firing up patriotic sentiment

and sending out calls to arms.

 

The exhibition Propaganda

draws on the Australian

War Memorial’s

extensive collection,

showing how illustration

and graphic design

were used to speak

directly to people

during times of conflict

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/apr/22/
war-and-pleas-propaganda-posters-from-the-20th-century-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 1926

 

Forrest River killings

 

 

Until 1969

Oombulgurri

was a punitive

Anglican mission

called Forrest River.

 

In 1926

tensions between

Aboriginal people

on the mission

and residents of the nearby

Nulla Nulla station,

on their ancestral lands,

came to a bloody head.

 

Some of them

returned to the station

and speared some cattle.

 

Then Nulla Nulla’s

co-owner Frederick Hay

was murdered

by an Aboriginal man

named Lumbia,

for the rape of his wife,

Anguloo.

 

Police constables

Graham St Jack

and Denis Regan

led a posse of 13 police

and local white people

to find Hay’s killer,

taking along

an arsenal

of Winchester rifles,

500 to 600

rounds of ammunition,

42 horses and shotguns.

 

They inflicted

ruthless reprisal attacks

on Aboriginal men,

women and children

at Forrest River.

 

The mission later

reported

30 Aboriginal people “missing”,

while an initial police inquiry

concluded

that 16 people

had been killed

and their remains burned.

 

A subsequent

royal commission

into the killings

confirmed

that at least

11 Aboriginal people

had been killed

and their remains burned

– in three purpose-built

stone ovens.

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/mar/08/
a-very-tragic-history-how-the-trauma-of-a-1926-massacre-echoes-through-the-years

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/mar/08/
a-very-tragic-history-how-the-trauma-of-a-1926-massacre-echoes-through-the-years

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World War One        Australia

 


http://www.firstworldwar.com/posters/australia.htm

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.naa.gov.au/collection/explore/defence/conflicts.aspx#section2 

https://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/ww1.htm   

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/australia_01.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2018/apr/18/
letters-photos-and-a-diary-a-first-world-war-soldiers-suitcase-of-souvenirs-in-pictures

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/17/
suitcase-of-first-world-war-mementos-could-unravel-mystery-of-forgotten-soldier

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1839

 

One day at dawn

in early 1839,

Frederick Taylor

and a number

of other armed white men

rode on horseback

into a sleeping camp

of Aboriginal people

near present-day Terang

in Victoria’s

western district.

 

Most of the people

encamped on the banks

of Mount Emu Creek

were of the Tarnbeere gundidj clan,

members of the Djargurd wurrung

language group.

 

The settlers

killed about 35

of the roughly 50 people

in the camp,

and threw the bodies

into the water.

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/mar/23/
murdering-gully-settlers-killed-35-in-aboriginal-camp-and-threw-bodies-into-the-water

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/mar/23/
murdering-gully-settlers-killed-35-in-aboriginal-camp-and-threw-bodies-into-the-water

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1830

 

Tasmania

 

Liffey Falls massacre

 

 

In 1830,

in response to conflicts

between colonisers

and Indigenous people,

Governor George Arthur

called for every British man

to form a human chain

across Tasmania

to capture and kill

Aboriginal people.

 

More than 2,200

settlers, military,

police and convicts

joined in.

 

“The Black Line”

was the largest force

assembled against

Aboriginal people

anywhere in Australia.

 

Those captured

were forcibly removed

to Flinders Island

in Bass Strait,

where many later died.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/jun/22/
no-blood-stained-the-wattle-a-picture-essay

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/jun/22/
no-blood-stained-the-wattle-a-picture-essay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Country profile: Australia

 

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-15674351 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/mar/23/
murdering-gully-settlers-killed-35-in-aboriginal-camp-and-threw-bodies-into-the-water

 

 

 

 

Australia profile - Timeline

 

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-15675556

 

 

 

 

Settlement of Australia

 

http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/australianhistory/

 

 

 

 

 

battle between Aboriginal people and settlers

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/12/
australian-war-memorial-ignores-frontier-war

 

 

 

 

Australia's relationship with Britain

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/australian_republic/50981.stm

 

 

 

 

migration

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3550241.stm

 

 

 

 

The fatal shore > Convicts and the European Settlement of Australia        1850-1868 

http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/dickens/ge/huang.html

https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/1999/06/fat-j25.html

 

 

 

 

Australian Bureau of Statistics

https://www.abs.gov.au/