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History > 20th century > UK > Northern Ireland > The Troubles    1960s-1990s

 

 

 

A 45-foot “peace wall,”

erected by the British authorities,

separating Catholic neighborhoods, left,

from Protestants in Belfast.

 

Credit Abbas/Magnum Photos

 

50 Years Later,

Troubles Still Cast ‘Huge Shadow’ Over Northern Ireland

By Alan Cowell        NYT        Oct. 4, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
world/europe/northern-ireland-troubles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin McGuinness    1950-2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 The Troubles > Legacy

 

 

In Northern Ireland,

"the Troubles"

— the long and bloody conflict

between Catholic Irish nationalists

and pro-British Protestants —

formally came to an end

with a peace agreement

in 1998.

 

But before the deal

established

a power-sharing

government

in the region,

more than 3,600

lost their lives

in three decades

of sectarian violence.

 

The Protestant

loyalists

wanted to remain

part of the U.K.,

and the Catholic

nationalists

wanted to end

British rule.

https://www.npr.org/2015/07/18/
424120157/in-northern-ireland-terror-gets-old-but-divisions-linger

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2015/07/18/
424120157/in-northern-ireland-terror-gets-old-but-divisions-linger

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2014/11/28/
367183005/for-northern-ireland-wounds-from-the-troubles-are-still-raw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 June 2016

 

Irlande du Nord,

les protestants à l'épreuve

du processus de paix

https://blogs.mediapart.fr/levy-yann/blog/020616/
irlande-du-nord-les-protestants-lepreuve-du-processus-de-paix

 

 

https://blogs.mediapart.fr/levy-yann/blog/020616/
irlande-du-nord-les-protestants-lepreuve-du-processus-de-paix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

murders of alleged informers

by the IRA

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/apr/15/
northern-ireland-police-ombudsman-investigation-murders-informants-troubles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Timeline - Worst IRA bomb attacks on mainland Britain

 

https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-security-bombings/
timeline-worst-ira-bomb-attacks-on-mainland-britain-idUKTRE74F31Q20110516

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ian Paisley    1926-2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 2014

 

Helen McKendry,

daughter of Jean McConville,

files a civil suit against Sinn Fein

 

 

 

Helen McKendry,

daughter of Jean McConville,

has filed a civil suit against Sinn Fein.

 

Tom Jamieson for The New York Times

 

Where ‘Say Nothing’ Is Gospel, I.R.A. Victim’s Daughter Is Talking

By KATRIN BENNHOLD        NYT        MAY 21, 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/22/
world/europe/where-say-nothing-is-gospel-ira-victims-daughter-is-talking.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/22/world/europe/
where-say-nothing-is-gospel-ira-victims-daughter-is-talking.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 2014

 

Man arrested in Northern Ireland

over 1972 case of 'disappeared' mother (Jean McConville)

 

 

 

Jean McConville, left,

with three of her 10 children.

 

She was abducted in 1972

and murdered.

 

Associated Press

 

A Heinous Crime, Secret Histories and a Sinn Fein Leader’s Arrest

By KATHARINE Q. SEELYE        NYT        MAY 1, 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/02/
world/europe/a-heinous-crime-secret-histories-and-a-sinn-fein-leaders-arrest.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

77-year-old held

by detectives investigating

IRA's kidnapping,

killing and secret burial

of Belfast widow

Jean McConville

 

A former IRA

chief of staff

and negotiator

for the Provisionals

with the British government

in 1972

is in custody tonight

being questioned

about the murder

and disappearance

of a widow whose death

in the same year

left 10 children orphaned.

 

West Belfast republican

Ivor Bell

was arrested in the city

earlier today

in connection with one

of the most controversial murders

of the early years

of the Northern Ireland Troubles –

the case of "disappeared"

mother of 10

Jean McConville.

 

The 77-year-old

was detained

in the city earlier today

by detectives

investigating the IRA's

kidnapping, killing

and secret burial

of the Belfast woman

in 1972.

 

Bell was part

of an IRA delegation

that met William Whitelaw

at future Tory minister

Paul Channon's

flat in London

six months

before McConville's

disappearance.

 

He and other IRA leaders

were trying to negotiate

a ceasefire with the British

which broke down

in the summer of 1972.

 

The republican veteran

went on to become

a leading figure

in the Provisionals

but was later

sentenced to death

by the organisation

for allegedly trying

to stage a coup d'etat

against Gerry Adams

in the early 1980s

because

he became convinced

the then West Belfast

Sinn Féin MP

and others around him

were determined

to "run down the war"

and abandon

armed struggle.

 

Since his departure

from the IRA,

Bell has kept a low profile

and effectively bowed

out of republican politics.

 

Jean McConville

became

one of the most famous

of the "disappeared"

and her body

was not found

until 2003

on a beach in Co Louth.

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/18/northern-ireland-
arrest-disappeared-jean-mcconville

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/apr/30/
gerry-adams-held-jean-mconville-killing

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/01/world/europe/
gerry-adams-questioned-over-murder-from-1972.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/mar/24/
gerry-adama-questions-murder-jean-mcconville

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/22/
ira-troubles-murder-ivor-bell-court-jean-mcconville

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/21/
former-ira-leader-ivor-bell-charged-connection-mcconville-murder

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/18/
northern-ireland-arrest-disappeared-jean-mcconville

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 2014

 

IRA Hyde Park bombing:

man accused of 1982 attack

walks free

 

 

Judge rules promise

made by UK government

as part of Good Friday agreement

mean trial of John Downey

cannot go ahead

 

A man accused

of murdering four soldiers

in an IRA bomb attack

in London's Hyde Park

in 1982

has walked free from court

after a judge ruled

his trial should not go ahead

because of British

government assurances

he received

under the Good Friday

peace agreement.

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/feb/25/ira-hyde-park-bombing-1982-attack-john-downey

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/feb/25/
ira-hyde-park-bombing-1982-attack-john-downey

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/feb/25/
good-friday-deal-free-john-downey-ira-hyde-park

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 2011

 

A booby-trap car bomb

kills Constable Ronan Kerr

outside his home in Omagh

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2011/apr/11/
gerry-adams-offers-talk-dissidents 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/apr/04/omagh-bomb-informant-call-sinn-fein

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/apr/04/editorial-ireland-murder-ronan-kerr

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/apr/04/omagh-bomb-politics-stormont-nationalism

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/apr/03/omagh-bomb-policy-chief-tribute

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/apr/03/raf-budget-defence-dalton-libya

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/apr/02/omagh-booby-trap-bomb-policeman-killed

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/apr/02/omagh-murder-officer-1998-atrocity

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-irish-bomb/
car-bomb-kills-policeman-in-northern-ireland-idUSTRE7311X520110402 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2008-2009

 

Republican attacks

 

 

http://image.guardian.co.uk/sys-files/Guardian/documents/2009/03/10/
NIRELAND_EVENTS.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 March 2009

 

Peace protests

across Northern Ireland

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/11/northern-ireland-peace-protests

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/11/ireland-peace-rallies-murders

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/mar/11/gordon-brown-northern-ireland-murders

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/gallery/2009/mar/11/northern-ireland-
peace-protest-rally?picture=344454320

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/audio/2009/mar/11/policeman-murder-northern-ireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 March 2009

 

PC Stephen Paul Carroll

is shot dead

by dissident republicans,

the Continuity IRA,

at Lismore Manor,

Craigavon,

County Armagh

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/mar/11/
ireland-peace-rallies-murders 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/11/northern-ireland-violence-fear

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/11/ira-peace-threat

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/mar/11/northern-ireland-peace-process

http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/leading-articles/
leading-article-politics-and-policing-can-defeat-this-sectarian-menace-1641889.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/northernireland/4970459/
Northern-Ireland-attacks-Policemans-widow-denounces-futility-of-his-death.html

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/7934426.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7935734.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/foyle_and_west/7936622.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/panorama/hi/front_page/newsid_7968000/7968956.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saturday 7 March 2009

 

Sapper Mark Quinsey, 23,

and Sapper Patrick Azimkar, 21,

are shot dead at the gates

of Massereene Army base,

Antrim, Northern Ireland

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8553776.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/8162266.stm

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/cartoon/2009/mar/10/
northern-ireland-attacks-steve-bell 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/
brown-in-northern-ireland-terror-summit-1640407.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/northernireland/4961591/
Antrim-Real-IRA-attack-Murdered-soldiers-named.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/09/real-ira-murders-massereene-soldiers

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/09/northern-ireland-soldiers-azimkar-quinsey

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/09/massereene-security-officer

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/09/brown-arrives-massereene-barracks

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/mar/09/gerry-adams-sinn-fein-soldiers

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/08/faq-northern-ireland-shootings

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/mar/09/british-soldiers-killed-northern-ireland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/gallery/2009/mar/09/northernireland-northernireland?picture=344332207

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/foyle_and_west/7936622.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/panorama/hi/front_page/newsid_7968000/7968956.stm

http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/PeopleInDefence/
SappersPatrickAzimkarAndMarkQuinseyKilledInNorthernIreland.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2008

 

The full extent

of a secret 20-year "back channel"

between the British government

and the IRA is revealed

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2008/mar/18/northernireland.past

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2008/mar/18/northernireland.northernireland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2008/mar/18/northernireland.past1

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/audio/2008/mar/18/watt.powell.part2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Devolution

 

26 March 2007

 

Deal to restore Northern Ireland's

power-sharing administration

 

 

 

 

The Independent

Tuesday 27 March 2007

 

L to R: Ian Paisley and Gerry Adams

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/may/08/northernireland.northernireland4

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2007/mar/27/uk.northernireland 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2007/mar/27/comment.politics 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2007/mar/27/politics.northernireland 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2007/mar/26/northernireland.devolution  

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/mar/26/northernireland.northernireland3 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/mar/26/northernireland.northernireland2 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2007/mar/26/northernireland.devolution1 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/mar/26/northernireland.northernireland1 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6496065.stm

http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/breaking/2007/0326/breaking2.htm

http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/article2393950.ece

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;jsessionid=
1INZ3SNTXIGURQFIQMFCFF4AVCBQYIV0?xml=/news/2007/03/26/nulster226.xml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1969-2007

 

Operation Banner

 

 

Operation Banner,

the British army's

longest

continuous campaign,

comes to a close (...)

after 38 years.

 

The military operation

to assist the police

began in Northern Ireland

when the Troubles

flared up, in 1969.

 

In total,

763 soldiers

would go on to die

as a direct result

of terrorism

in the conflict

with republican

paramilitaries.

 

During the course

of the operation,

the army

was also accused

of murdering civilians,

including the 13

who were shot dead

on Bloody Sunday

in 1972.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2007/jul/31/northernireland.military1

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/aug/01/northernireland.military 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/jul/31/northernireland.military 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/jul/31/northernireland.freedomofinformation

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/jul/31/northernireland.military1  

https://www.theguardian.com/news/gallery/2007/jul/31/northernireland?picture=330305298 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 April 2006

 

IRA turncoat > Denis Donaldson's murder

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/sep/21/
gerry-adams-denies-sanctioning-of-british-spy-denis-donaldson

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/apr/05/
northernireland.northernireland3

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/apr/05/
northernireland.northernireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25 February 2006

 

Orange march

 

 

The first loyalist march

in Dublin since Partition

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/feb/26/
northernireland.ireland 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2006

 

Ken Barrett,

the loyalist gunman

convicted of killing

the Belfast solicitor

Pat Finucane,

is freed under the terms

of the Good Friday agreement,

after serving three years in jail

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/may/24/
northernireland.northernireland 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/may/24/
northernireland.northernireland 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lord Merlyn-Rees        1920-2006

 

Labour home secretary

and Northern Ireland secretary

in the 70s

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/jan/05/labour.uk 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/jan/05/labour.uk1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2006

 

The St Andrews agreement

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/oct/17/northernireland.devolution1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Bloody Sunday inquiry /

Saville inquiry

sat between April 1998

and January 2005

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/11/saville-inquiry-revelations-bloody-sunday

 

 

"... it is expedient

that a Tribunal

be established

for inquiring

into a definite matter

of urgent public

importance,

namely the events

on Sunday 30th

January 1972

which led

to loss of life

in connection

with the procession

in Londonderry

on that day,

taking account

of any new information

relevant to events

on that day"

 

Resolution

of the House of Commons,

30th January 1998,

and of the House of Lords,

2nd February 1998

http://www.bloody-sunday-inquiry.org/

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/15/bloody-sunday-inquiry-key-findings

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/blog/2010/jun/15/bloodysunday-northernireland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/11/saville-inquiry-revelations-bloody-sunday

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/10/bloody-sunday-inquiry-northern-ireland

http://report.bloody-sunday-inquiry.org/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 October 2005

 

A former

loyalist leader

is shot dead

in east Belfast (...)

while awaiting trial

on money laundering

charges

 

Jim Gray, 47,

was a brigadier

in the Ulster

Defence Association

until April this year,

when he was forced out

of the paramilitary group

because of concerns

over his lavish lifestyle

and thuggish methods.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/oct/05/
northernireland.ukguns

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/oct/05/
northernireland.ukguns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 2005

 

 

Belfast riots

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/sep/13/northernireland 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/cartoons/stevebell/0,7371,1568845,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 2005

 

Decommissioning of IRA arms

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/sep/26/northernireland.northernireland1 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,2763,1578767,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,2763,1578828,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,2763,1578815,00.html

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/sep/03/northernireland.northernireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28 July 2005

 

IRA declares

end to armed struggle

 

 

The IRA formally orders

an end to its armed campaign

and says it will pursue

exclusively peaceful means.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/28/newsid_4948000/4948188.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/28/newsid_4948000/4948188.stm

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,2763,1537901,00.html

http://politics.guardian.co.uk/northernirelandassembly/story/0,9061,1537995,00.html

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2005/jul/28/
northernireland.devolution1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 2005

 

Robert McCartney murder

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/sep/15/northernireland.angeliquechrisafis

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/jun/27/ukcrime.northernireland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/mar/08/northernireland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/feb/13/northernireland.focus

http://politics.guardian.co.uk/northernirelandassembly/story/0,9061,1480431,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,2763,1498877,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1440592,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,2763,1411855,00.html

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/4232753.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/4364882.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/31/newsid_4922000/4922296.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968-2003

 

The Troubles        A Chronology of the Conflict

 

 

https://cain.ulster.ac.uk/othelem/chron/ch68.htm 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brian Nelson        1948-2003

 

 

Nelson,

a fanatical

and sectarian Protestant

from Belfast's

Shankill Road,

(...) was recruited

in 1985

by British military

intelligence

to act as an army agent

in the UDA,

which he had joined

a decade earlier.

 

Nelson,

a former soldier,

had served

with the Black Watch,

and later took

a building job

in Germany.

 

He performed

his delicate

and dangerous new task

with great enthusiasm.

 

His house and car,

plus £200 a week expenses,

were paid for

by the British army

(the British taxpayer).

 

In 1987,

soon after his recruitment,

Nelson

went to South Africa

to shop for arms for the UDA

and supervised the shipment

of two huge batches of arms,

at least one of which

ended up in the hands

of the paramilitaries.

 

Throughout his time

in the UDA,

Nelson worked closely

with army intelligence,

whose policy at the time

was shamelessly

to take sides:

 

for the Protestant

paramilitaries,

who were seen

as pro-British;

 

and against the IRA,

who were seen

as the enemy.

 

This policy

drew British

military intelligence

into a gang war.

 

Drawing on his sources

in British intelligence,

Nelson would pass on

the names and addresses

of known IRA activists

to the UDA,

whose gunmen

would promptly

go out and "execute"

the suspects.

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2003/apr/17/guardianobituaries.northernireland

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2003/apr/17/
guardianobituaries.northernireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23 October 2001

 

IRA

begins decommissioning weapons

 

 

The Northern Ireland

peace process

reaches

an historic breakthrough

as the IRA announces

they have begun

decommissioning

their weapons

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/23/newsid_2489000/2489099.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/23/newsid_2489000/2489099.stm

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2001/oct/23/northernireland.northernireland3 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 2001

 

Violence at Holy Cross school

 

 

Catholic schoolchildren

are attacked by Protestants

as they make their way

to a disputed school

in north Belfast

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/sep/04/qanda.schools

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2001/sep/07/northernireland.features11

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/sep/04/qanda.schools

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday July 28, 2000

 

The last of Ulster's

428 political prisoners

are released

from Maze prison

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2000/jul/28/
northernireland.johnmullin

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2000/jul/28/
northernireland.johnmullin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24 July 2000

 

Loyalist killer Michael Stone

is freed from Maze prison

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/24/newsid
_2515000/2515041.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29 November 1999

 

NI power-sharing executive appointed

 

 

Northern Ireland

moves a step closer to ending

25 years of direct rule from London

after the election

of a Northern Ireland Assembly

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/29/newsid_4067000/4067119.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/29/
newsid_4067000/4067119.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 1999

 

Terror group

says Ulster war is over

 

 

INLA confirms ceasefire

amid fear of violence

from republican

splinter groups

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/1999/aug/09/northernireland.audreygillan 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 March 1999

 

Rosemary Nelson murder

 

 

Lurgan solicitor

Rosemary Nelson died

after a booby-trap bomb

planted by loyalists

exploded under her car

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-12972857

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/sep/19/northernireland 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/apr/10/northernireland.northernireland1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8 September 1998

 

Real IRA announce ceasefire

 

 

The dissident

republican group

behind Northern Ireland's

worst atrocity

declares its violence

at an end.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/8/newsid_2503000/2503633.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/8/newsid_2503000/2503633.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 17, 1998

 

Omagh bombing

 

 

Northern Ireland's

worst-ever terrorist attack

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/omagh   

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/mar/01/
omagh-northern-ireland-bombing-case-against-remaining-suspect-collapses

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/apr/10/
man-charged-murder-29-people-omagh-bombing

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2011/jul/07/
real-ira-founder-loses-omagh-appeal

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/northernireland/5476676/
Omagh-bombing-judgment-relatives-win-landmark-civil-case.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/jun/08/omagh-real-ira-leaders-liable

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/jun/08/omagh-bombing-real-ira-leaders

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2000/apr/02/northernireland.henrymcdonald

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/gallery/2007/dec/19/northernireland?picture=331849502

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2002/jul/26/northernireland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2231141,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2230858,00.html

http://commentisfree.guardian.co.uk/mick_fealty/2007/12/omaghs_last_victim_justice.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2230587,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2230590,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2230247,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2230387,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2230357,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,617648,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2230369,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/gallery/2007/dec/19/northernireland?picture=331849502

http://www.guardian.co.uk/graphic/0,,637512,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,638679,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,200430,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,200426,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,615238,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,637514,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,2763,1492979,00.html

https://www.theguardian.com/fromthearchive/story/0,12269,1019591,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 April 1998

 

Good Friday Agreement

 

 

The Good Friday

Agreement

was little short

of an historic

breakthrough.

 

The 65-page document,

signed in 1998,

sought

to address relationships

within Northern Ireland;

 

between Northern Ireland

and the Republic;

 

and between

both parts of Ireland

and England,

Scotland and Wales.

 

The process, however,

was gruelling.

 

The Ulster Unionist leader

David Trimble insisted

that UK Prime Minister

Tony Blair

amend the agreement

to ensure that no one

in the proposed

Northern Ireland Assembly

could take office

if it had links

to paramilitary groups

still engaged in violence.

 

Mr Blair refused

to make amendments

but offered an assurance

that politicians

linked to paramilitaries

who refused

to hand over weapons

would not hold office

in a Northern Ireland

government.

 

He also promised

decommissioning

would have

to begin immediately

after the Assembly

came into being.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/northern_ireland/understanding/events/good_friday.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/feb/23/
good-friday-agreement-irish-brexit-northern-ireland

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/08/
michaelh-higgins-irish-president-speech-parliament

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/10/newsid_2450000/2450823.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/northern_ireland/understanding/events/good_friday.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/4079267.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/07_12_04_ni_agreement_01.pdf

http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/schools/agreement/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/4079267.stm

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2005/may/20/uk.northernireland

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/aug/20/guardianobituaries.politics 

 

http://www.pixunlimited.co.uk/sys-files/Guardian/documents/2001/08/01/westonpark.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27 April 1997

 

Robert Hamill murder

 

 

Mr Hamill,

a 25-year-old Catholic,

was beaten to death

by a loyalist mob

in Portadown,

County Armagh

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-12597209

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/apr/10/northernireland.northernireland1 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 27, 1997

 

Billy Wright murder

 

 

The Loyalist Volunteer

Force founder

was shot dead

inside the Maze prison

by two members

of the Irish National

Liberation Army

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/sep/14/billy-wright-killing-report-mi5

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/interactive/2010/sep/14/billy-wright-maze

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/gallery/2010/sep/14/northernireland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/wintour-and-watt/2010/sep/14/billy-wright-northern-ireland 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/sep/13/billy-wright-assassin-maze-security

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/jun/30/ian-paisley-junior-fined-billy-wright

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/apr/10/northernireland.northernireland1 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12 February 1997

 

IRA sniper

Bernard McGinn

shoots dead

Lance Bombardier

Stephen Restorick,

the last British soldier

to be killed before

the Good Friday agreement

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/21/ira-sniper-bernard-mcginn-found-dead

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/21/
ira-sniper-bernard-mcginn-found-dead

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1996

 

Bomb blast destroys London bus

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/18/
newsid_4165000/4165719.stm 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 June 1996

 

The largest ever IRA bomb

to hit the British mainland

explodes in Manchester

injuring at least 200 people

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/1996/jun/17/northernireland.christopherelliott 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1996

 

an IRA bomb explodes

in London's Docklands

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/1996/feb/10/northernireland.davidpallister

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968-1995

 

Northern Ireland's Troubles        Timeline

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/oct/11/northern-ireland-making-peace-past

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/oct/11/northern-ireland-terrorists-miscarriages-justice

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/20/saville-inquiry-killings-soldiers-troubles-northern-ireland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/20/call-for-ballymurphy-massacre-inquiry

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/16/world/europe/16nireland.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/northernireland/4968645/
Northern-Ireland-A-history-of-the-Troubles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loughinisland massacre        County Down        18 June 1994

 

 

 

 

'No Stone Unturned' - Trailer        IndieWire        17 October 2017

 

From the Oscar winning director of "Taxi to the Dark Side"

comes an unsolved mystery about a deadly mass shooting in Ireland.

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=OB9XqkZD1yc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The funerals of two of the Loughinisland victims,

Barney Green and his nephew Dan McCreanor.

 

Photograph: John Giles/PA

 

Is Northern Ireland a democracy or a police state?

Nobody has ever been tried

for the 1994 Loughinisland massacre

but police arrested two journalists.

It’s a scandal worthy of Kafka

G

Mon 3 Jun 2019        06.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jun/03/
northern-ireland-democracy-police-state-loughinisland-massacre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a loyalist gang

burst into

a quiet rural pub

in County Down

and opened fire.

 

Six men were killed.

 

They had been watching

a World Cup match

between Ireland and Italy,

their backs to the door.

 

Five more were injured.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jun/03/
northern-ireland-democracy-police-state-loughinisland-massacre

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jun/03/
northern-ireland-democracy-police-state-loughinisland-massacre

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/may/31/
northern-ireland-judge-rebukes-police-for-seizing-papers-from-journalists

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2017/nov/12/
no-stone-unturned-review-documentary-alex-gibney-northern-ireland

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2017/nov/03/
why-was-there-a-cover-up-film-maker-alex-gibney-on-a-case-of-cold-killing-in-county-down

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1994

 

Roseanne Mallon

 

The 3,478th victim

of Northern Ireland's

conflict

 

 

One Sunday evening,

Roseanne Mallon

was sitting

on the sofa

at her sister-in-law's

bungalow

near Dungannon,

County Tyrone,

when a gunman

walked up the drive,

aimed his Czech-made

assault rifle

at the living room window,

and pulled the trigger.

 

She was hit

several times

in her back,

arms and legs

and died instantly.

 

The following night,

the Loyalist

Ulster Volunteer Force

telephoned

a Belfast television station

to claim responsibility.

 

Mallon was 76,

and the 3,478th victim

of Northern Ireland's

conflict.

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/apr/13/roseanne-mallon-inquest-troubles-northern-ireland

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/apr/13/
roseanne-mallon-inquest-troubles-northern-ireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1993-1994

 

The Downing Street Declaration

and the IRA ceasefire

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/events/northern_ireland/history/69283.stm

 

http://newswww.bbc.net.uk/1/low/events/northern_ireland/history/69283.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 December 1993

 

John Major and Albert Reynolds

sign a peace declaration

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1993/dec/16/northernireland.
michaelwhite

https://cain.ulster.ac.uk/events/peace/docs/dsd151293.htm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/northern_ireland/understanding/events/downing_street.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1993        Bishopsgate bombing        London

 

 

 

The I.R.A. detonated a powerful truck bomb on Bishopsgate,

a major thoroughfare in London’s financial district, in 1993.

 

Credit Adam Butler/Press Association, via Getty Images

 

50 Years Later,

Troubles Still Cast ‘Huge Shadow’ Over Northern Ireland

By Alan Cowell        NYT        Oct. 4, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
world/europe/northern-ireland-troubles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The I.R.A. detonates

a powerful truck bomb

on Bishopsgate,

a major thoroughfare

in London’s

financial district

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
world/europe/northern-ireland-troubles.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
world/europe/northern-ireland-troubles.html

 

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-43878479 - 24 April 2018

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/24/
newsid_2523000/2523345.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Birmingham six are freed - 14 March 1991

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 February 1991

 

Two IRA bombs

explode in London,

killing one

and injuring

at least 40 people

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/1991/feb/19/northernireland.
duncancampbell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19 October 1989

 

Guildford Four released after 15 years

 

 

The Guildford Four

have their convictions

quashed by

the Court of Appeal

following

an extensive inquiry

into the original

police investigation

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/19/newsid_2490000/2490039.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/19/
newsid_2490000/2490039.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20 March 1989

 

murder of top Ulster RUC policemen

Buchanan and Breen

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/sep/11/ira-murders-claim-to-smithwick

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/sep/11/smithwick-tribunal-ian-hurst-analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sunday, 12 February 1989

 

Patrick Finucane,

a Belfast civil rights lawyer,

is murdered

by loyalist gunmen

working with

British security forces

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/dec/14/wikileaks-revelations-finucane-inquiry

http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/dec/13/gerry-adams-mi5-offer-pat-finucane-murder

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/dec/13/wikileaks-legacy-distrust-finucane-killing

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2003/apr/17/guardianobituaries.northernireland 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2110996,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,2053425,00.html

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/1677046.stm

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,2763,1311707,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,2763,739914,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,1303592,00.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland/Story/0,,938953,00.html

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2003/apr/17/northernireland.nickhopkins 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/12/newsid_2540000/2540849.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belfast's Milltown cemetery massacre        16 March 1988

 

 

March 1988

 

After a bomb and gun attack by loyalists

at the Belfast funeral

of three IRA members killed in Gibraltar,

McGuinness [ left ] goes to the aid of mourners

 

Photograph: David Jones/PA Images

 

A life in pictures – Martin McGuinness

From republican activist in the 1970s

to Northern Ireland deputy first minister,

a look at McGuinness’s political journey

G

Tue 21 Mar 2017        15.38 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/gallery/2017/jan/19/
martin-mcguinness-a-political-career-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Michael Stone, an Ulster loyalist,

attacked an I.R.A. funeral service

at Milltown Cemetery in Belfast in 1988.

 

Filmed by TV news crews,

the attack caused shock around the world.

 

Credit Chris Steele-Perkins/Magnum Photos

 

50 Years Later,

Troubles Still Cast ‘Huge Shadow’ Over Northern Ireland

NYT

Oct. 4, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
world/europe/northern-ireland-troubles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At the funerals

of the IRA members

[ shot by the SAS

in Spain on March 6th ]

in Belfast's

Milltown cemetery

on the 16th,

loyalist gunman

Michael Stone

opens fire

and throws grenades

at mourners,

killing three

and wounding 50.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/three_ira_members_shot_dead_in_gibraltar

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/three_ira_members_shot_dead_in_gibraltar

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2011/mar/08/
archive-ira-gibraltar-bomber

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/16/
newsid_2523000/2523953.stm

 

https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2018/mar/07/
bbc-film-about-ira-funeral-murders-to-air-in-march

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/gallery/2017/jan/19
/martin-mcguinness-a-political-career-in-pictures

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/mar/08/
northernireland

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/nov/24/
northernireland.northernireland

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2003/jun/10/northernireland.devolution 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2001/apr/09/northernireland.features11

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2000/jul/25/
northernireland.johnmullin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 March 1988

 

Spain

 

SAS killing

of three unarmed IRA members

in Gibraltar

 

 

On March 6,

the SAS shoots dead

three unarmed IRA members

in Gibraltar.

 

A car

packed with explosives

is found in nearby Marbella

and Britain says

the soldiers acted

because they thought

they were in danger,

but there is

widespread criticism

from republicans.

 

At the funerals

of the IRA members

in Belfast's

Milltown cemetery

on the 16th,

loyalist gunman

Michael Stone

opens fire

and throws grenades

at mourners,

killing three

and wounding 50.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/three_ira_members_shot_dead_in_gibraltar

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/three_ira_members_shot_dead_in_gibraltar

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/events/northern_ireland/history/68885.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2011/mar/08/
archive-ira-gibraltar-bomber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8 November 1987

 

An IRA bomb kills 11 people

and injures 63 in Enniskillen

 

 

A bomb explodes

during a Remembrance Day service

at Enniskillen in County Fermanagh

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/8/newsid_2515000/2515113.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/1987/nov/09/
northernireland.davidhearst

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/8/
newsid_2515000/2515113.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1987

 

German bombing claimed by IRA

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/1987/mar/25/
northernireland.germany  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 1985

 

The Hillsborough agreement / Anglo-Irish Agreement

 

Britain

and the Republic of Ireland

sign a deal giving Dublin

a role in Northern Ireland

for the first time

in more than 60 years.

 

 

https://cain.ulster.ac.uk/events/aia/

https://cain.ulster.ac.uk/events/aia/aiadoc.htm  

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/15/
newsid_2539000/2539849.stm 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/events/northern_ireland/history/68824.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/1985/nov/16/
northernireland.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IRA Volunteer Charles English is killed by an explosion        Derry        August 6, 1985

 

 

 

August 1985

McGuinness acts as one of the pallbearers

at the Derry funeral of IRA man Charles English

 

Photograph: PA

 

A life in pictures – Martin McGuinness

From republican activist in the 1970s

to Northern Ireland deputy first minister,

a look at McGuinness’s political journey

G

Tue 21 Mar 2017        15.38 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/gallery/2017/jan/19/
martin-mcguinness-a-political-career-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IRA Volunteer

Charles English

is killed by an explosion

while trying to attack

an RUC patrol

in Abbey Street [ Derry ]

on August 6, 1985.

https://www.derryjournal.com/news/
my-son-was-a-good-man-1-6884478

 

 

https://www.derryjournal.com/news/
my-son-was-a-good-man-1-6884478

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Magee / the 'Brighton bomber'    1984-1986

 

https://www.theguardian.com/fromthearchive/
story/0,12269,1235581,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brighton bombing during Conservative Party conference        12 October 1984

 

 

 

Margaret Thatcher,

husband Denis

and friend and aide Cynthia Crawford

leave Brighton’s Grand Hotel

after the IRA bomb attack,

12 October 1984

 

The photography of John Downing

The photojournalist,

who visited Chernobyl with Kim Willsher,

captured award-winning images

during his time

as one of 64 Daily Express staff photographers

in the halcyon days of Fleet Street

G

Sat 15 Jun 2019    17.30 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/media/gallery/2019/jun/15/
the-photography-of-john-downing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cabinet survives IRA hotel blast

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/media/gallery/2019/jun/15/
the-photography-of-john-downing

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/jan/03/
ira-brighton-bomb-talks-anglo-irish-agreement 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2009/oct/16/bartons-britain-brighton

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/blog/2009/oct/13/brighton-bombing-magee

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/gallery/2009/oct/13/brighton-bomb-margaret-thatcher

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/1984/oct/13/past.davidhearst1

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/12/
newsid_2531000/2531583.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 March 1984

 

Sinn Fein leader

is shot in street attack

 

 

Gunmen shot

and wounded

the Sinn Fein president,

Gerry Adams,

in an attack

in central Belfast.

 

He was hit

in the neck,

shoulder and arm

as several gunmen

riddled his car

with about 20 bullets.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/14/newsid_2543000/2543503.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/14/newsid
_2543000/2543503.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17 December 1983

 

London

 

A car bomb explodes

outside Harrods, killing five

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/fromthearchive/
story/0,12269,1376054,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republican hunger strikes in the Maze prison

October 1980 - October 1981

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27 August 1979

 

IRA bomb

kills Lord Mountbatten (1900-1979)

 

 

The Queen's cousin,

Lord Louis Mountbatten,

is killed by a bomb blast

on his boat in Ireland

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/27/
newsid_2511000/2511545.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/27/
newsid_2511000/2511545.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mountbatten_lord_louis.shtml

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/14/world/europe/
patricia-knatchbull-countess-mountbatten-dead.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/may/19/
prince-charles-and-gerry-adams-share-historic-handshake

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/from-the-archive-blog/2015/may/19/
mountbatten-lord-prince-charles-ira-1979

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30 March 1979

 

The hardline republican

terror group INLA

kills the Conservative MP

Airey Neave (1916-1979)

in a car bomb

in the House of Commons

car park

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/30/
newsid_2783000/2783877.stm

https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/104085

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2009/mar/31/2 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/30/
newsid_2783000/2783877.stm 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/oct/11/
northern-ireland-republican-group-disband 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 10 1977

 

The Queen visits Northern Ireland

as part of her jubilee year tour

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/1977/aug/11/
northernireland.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Children play among debris from hijacked burning vehicles

after riots in west Belfast during the Troubles, August 1976.

 

Photograph: Alain Le Garsmeur/Getty Images

 

Does Terrorism Work? by Richard English – review

G

Sunday 24 July 2016        09.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jul/24/
does-terrorism-work-history-review-richard-english

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The British army in the streets of Derry, Northern Ireland,

after the Apprentice Boys’ march during the Troubles.

 

Photograph: Alain Le Garsmeur/Getty Images

Does Terrorism Work? by Richard English – review

G

Sunday 24 July 2016        09.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jul/24/
does-terrorism-work-history-review-richard-english

 

Related

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/420061.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 January 1976

 

Kingsmills massacre        South Armagh

 

 

10 Protestant workmen

were shot dead

 

(...)

 

the killers freed

the only Catholic man

on the workers minibus

before gunning down

his colleagues.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/aug/05/
man-arrested-1976-kingsmill-murders-county-armagh-northern-ireland

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/aug/05/
man-arrested-1976-kingsmill-murders-county-armagh-northern-ireland

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/sep/17/
ira-kingsmills-massacre-full-inquest-1976-south-armagh

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/
report-tells-dark-tale-of-1976-kingsmills-massacre-2300846.html
- 22 June 2011

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/5/
newsid_2500000/2500393.stm
- 5 January 1976

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1976

 

SAS hard men

join attack on Ulster anarchy

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1970-1979/
Story/0,,106915,00.html  - 8 January 1976

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marylebone, London        Balcombe Street Siege        13 December 1975

 

 

 

A member of the IRA surrenders to police

at a flat at 22b Balcombe Street in Marylebone, London,

at the end of the Balcombe Street Siege, 13 December 1975

 

The photography of John Downing

The photojournalist,

who visited Chernobyl with Kim Willsher,

captured award-winning images

during his time as one of 64 Daily Express staff photographers

in the halcyon days of Fleet Street

G

Sat 15 Jun 2019    17.30 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/media/gallery/2019/jun/15/
the-photography-of-john-downing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A death list

and the names

of potential bombing targets

that included

the British Museum,

the National Gallery,

the Tate Gallery

and part of Buckingham Palace

were found in a London flat

occupied by the IRA's

Balcombe Street gang,

according to a confidential

Downing Street file

released by

the National Archives

(...).

 

The prime minister,

Harold Wilson,

asked for a copy

of the death list

found

in an IRA

bomb factory

at Milton Grove,

Stoke Newington,

in December 1975

after the surrender

of the Balcombe Street gang

following a six-day siege.

 

The four-man IRA

active service unit,

made up of

Hugh Doherty,

Joe O'Connell,

Eddie Butler

and Henry Duggan,

carried out

a 14-month

bombing campaign

across London

that involved

40 explosions

and left

35 people dead,

including

the Guinness Book

of Records co-founder

and rightwing

political activist

Ross McWhirter.

 

(...)

 

Gerry Adams,

Sinn Féin's president,

described the four men

as "our Nelson Mandelas"

when they were presented

to the 1998 Sinn Féin Ard Fheis

(annual conference)

after their release from prison.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/oct/28/
death-list-ira-balcombe-street

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/media/gallery/2019/jun/15/
the-photography-of-john-downing

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/oct/28/
death-list-ira-balcombe-street

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27 November 1975

 

TV presenter Ross McWhirter shot dead

 

 

Guinness

Book of Records

co-founder and editor

Ross McWhirter

is shot dead outside

his North London home

by the provisional IRA,

after he had offered

a £50,000 reward

for information

on terrorists

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/27/newsid_2528000/2528787.stm

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2004/apr/21/guardianobituaries.obituaries

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/oct/28/
death-list-ira-balcombe-street

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2004/apr/21/
guardianobituaries.obituaries

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/27/
newsid_2528000/2528787.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Birmingham pub bombings    / The Birmingham six        21 November 1974

 

 

 

A police officer stands outside one of the Birmingham pubs

that were bombed in 1974.

 

Photograph: Alamy

 

Birmingham pub bombings coroner has 'significant' new information

G

Thursday 12 May 2016        15.05 BST

Last modified on Thursday 12 May 2016        18.36 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/may/12/
birmingham-pub-bombings-ira-coroner-sent-significant-information

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bombs devastate

two central

Birmingham pubs,

killing 19 people

and injuring over 180

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/21/
newsid_2549000/2549953.stm

 

 

https://cain.ulster.ac.uk/images/cartoons/douglas98c.htm

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/feb/17/
birmingham-ira-pub-bombs-families-threaten--boycott

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/jun/01/
birmingham-pub-bombings-coroner-orders-new-inquests

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/may/12/
birmingham-pub-bombings-ira-coroner-sent-significant-information

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/feb/10/
birmingham-pub-bombings-informer-ira-unit-court-told

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2002/jun/09/
northernireland.northernireland 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/1974/nov/25/
northernireland.fromthearchive

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/21/
newsid_2549000/2549953.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 October 1974

 

Guildford pub bombing / The Guildford four

 

 

Four people are killed

and more than 50 injured

 

It was one

of the most notorious

miscarriages of justice

in British legal history.

 

Three Belfast men

and an English woman

spent 15 years in prison

after police

fabricated confessions

for the IRA bombing

of the Horse and Groom pub

in Guildford in 1974.

 

But even

after their convictions

were quashed in 1989,

Gerry Conlon, Paul Hill,

Paddy Armstrong

and Carole Richardson,

had spoken

of the clinging stigma

and the black hole

of post-traumatic stress.

 

Some felt there was

a whispering campaign

in the corridors of power

that they had been freed

on a technicality

and a "cloud of suspicion"

remained.

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/feb/10/northernireland.northernireland

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/23/world/europe/
gerry-conlon-imprisoned-in-ira-attack-and-freed-after-15-years-dies-at-60.html

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/jun/22/gerry-conlon-dies-freed-guildford-four

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/jun/21/gerry-conlon-guildford-four-dies-belfast-ira

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/gallery/2014/jun/21/gerry-conlon-belfast-dies-guildford-four-ira-gallery

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/jun/21/gerry-conlon-dies-ira-belfast-guildford-four

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/jul/02/legal-aid-cuts-widespread-miscarriages-justice

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2013/may/20/guildford-four-detectives-cleared

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/feb/10/northernireland.northernireland

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2005/feb/09/northernireland.devolution

http://www.guardian.co.uk/fromthearchive/story/0,12269,1330869,00.html

http://www.film.u-net.com/Movies/Reviews/In_Name_Father.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2005/feb/10/northernireland.northernireland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2005/feb/09/northernireland.devolution

https://www.theguardian.com/fromthearchive/
story/0,12269,1330869,00.html 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/5/newsid_2492000/2492543.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 September 1973

 

King's Cross and Euston

stations bombings

 

 

Two bombs

at mainline stations

injured 13 people

and brought chaos

to central London.

 

The first explosion

injured five people

at King's Cross.

 

Fifty minutes later

a second blast

rocked a snack bar

at Euston station,

injuring a further

eight people

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/10/newsid_2504000/2504619.stm

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1973/sep/11/
fromthearchive

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/10/
newsid_2504000/2504619.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 1973

 

(a Catholic minibus driver),

Eugene “Paddy” Heenan, 47,

was killed

(by loyalist paramilitaries)

when a grenade

was thrown

into the vehicle

carrying him and 14 others

to a building site

in east Belfast

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/apr/27/northern-ireland-general-sued-death-catholic-troubles-heenan-kitson

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/apr/27/
northern-ireland-general-sued-death-catholic-troubles-heenan-kitson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marian Price

 

Price,

now known

as McGlinchey,

along with her late

sister Dolours,

were imprisoned

in the 1970s

for their part

in the explosions

outside the Old Bailey

which marked the start

of the Provisional IRA's

bombing campaign

in Britain.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/may/30/old-bailey-bomber-price-freed-jail

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/may/30/
old-bailey-bomber-price-freed-jail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roy Mason (1924-2015)

Northern Ireland secretary in the 1970s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dolours Price        1951-2013

 

Price was involved

in a car bombing

at the Old Bailey

(on March 8) 1973,

which injured

more than 200 people

and may have led

to one person's death

of heart failure.

 

The ex-IRA prisoner,

who went on

hunger strike

with her sister Marion

in the 1970s

and was subjected

to forcefeeding

in English prisons,

had struggled

with alcohol problems

later in life.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/jan/24/old-bailey-bomber-dolours-price

 

 

 

Dolours Price

was born in Belfast

on June 21, 1951,

into a family steeped

in Irish republican politics.

 

Her father, Albert,

was an I.R.A.

founding member.

 

“My father never saw

his firstborn child

because she was

born and died

while he was interned,”

she wrote.

 

An aunt,

Bridie Price,

lost both hands

and her eyesight

when a bomb

she was assembling

accidentally blew up.

 

Her sister Marian,

who was among

the 10 I.R.A. members

involved

in the 1973 London bombings,

was released from prison

in the early ’80s

but rearrested

several years ago

on charges of plotting an attack

on the government.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/26/world/europe/dolours-price-defiant-ira-bomber-dies-at-61.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/26/world/europe/
dolours-price-defiant-ira-bomber-dies-at-61.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/jan/28/stephen-rea-dolours-price-funeral

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/jan/24/old-bailey-bomber-dolours-price

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-21181174

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2267634/
Convicted-IRA-Old-Bailey-bomber-Dolours-Price-dead-home-Ireland.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/9824209/Old-Bailey-bomber-Dolours-Price-dies.html

http://www.independent.ie/national-news/
dolours-price-former-ira-terrorist-and-exwife-of-actor-stephen-rea-dies-of-suspected-overdose-3363911.html

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-446557/From-Old-Bailey-bomber-Northern-Ireland-minister.html

 

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/crime/
old-bailey-bomber-held-over-murder-of-soldiers-1822274.html
- 17 November 2009

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/14/
newsid_4724000/4724181.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Stephen Rea

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/jan/28/
stephen-rea-dolours-price-funeral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 November 1973

 

IRA gang

convicted of London bombings

 

 

Six men and two women

have been convicted

of exploding two IRA car bombs

in London in March this year.

 

All eight

were active members

of the Provisional IRA.

 

A ninth defendant,

18-year-old

Roisin McNearney,

was acquitted.

 

One person died

and almost 200

were injured

in the two bombs.

 

One blew up

outside the Old Bailey

criminal court,

while the other went off

outside Scotland Yard.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/14/newsid_4724000/4724181.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/14/
newsid_4724000/4724181.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 March 1973

 

Northern Ireland votes to remain part

of the United Kingdom

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/1973/mar/10/
northernireland.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rioters throwing stones at British troops

in Londonderry in 1972.

 

Credit Gilles Peress/Magnum Photos

 

50 Years Later,

Troubles Still Cast ‘Huge Shadow’ Over Northern Ireland

By Alan Cowell        NYT        Oct. 4, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
world/europe/northern-ireland-troubles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1972

A woman wounded

in an IRA bomb explosion in the city centre

is given first aid

 

Photojournalist Abbas - a career in pictures

 

The Iranian-born photographer Abbas,

who covered wars and revolutions across the world,

has died aged 74.

 

Abbas joined Magnum in 1981

and covered conflicts and unrest

in Bangladesh, Vietnam, the Middle East, Iran, Chile and Cuba

as well as documenting South Africa under apartheid.

 

‘He was a godfather for an entire generation of young photographers,’

Magnum’s president, Thomas Dworzak, said

 

Warning: contains images some readers may find disturbing

 

A Abbas / Magnum Photos

G

Thu 26 Apr 2018        13.26 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/apr/26/
photojournalist-abbas-a-career-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean McConville, née Murray        1934-1972

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/may/03/
jean-mcconville-timeline-murder-gerry-adams

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/may/01/jean-mcconville-daughter-names-ira-killing

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/may/01/jean-mcconville-gerry-adams-sinn-fein

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/apr/30/gerry-adams-held-jean-mconville-killing

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/02/northern-ireland-jean-mcconville-editorial

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/may/01/gerry-adams-jean-mcconville-dolours-price

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/may/01/
brendan-hughes-ira-gerry-adams-sinn-fein-jean-mcconville

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 July 1972

 

Operation Motorman

 

 

Operation Motorman

was a large operation

carried out by

the British Army

(HQ Northern Ireland)

in Northern Ireland

during the Troubles.

 

The operation took place

in the early hours

of 31 July 1972

with the aim of retaking

the "no-go areas"

(areas controlled

by residents,

usually

Irish republican paramilitaries)

that had been established

in Belfast

and other urban centres.

 

In Derry Operation Carcan

(or Car Can),

initially proposed

as a separate operation,

was executed

as part of Motorman.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Motorman

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Motorman

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/apr/15/
former-soldier-to-be-prosecuted-for-1972-killing-of-boy-in-derry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 July 1972

 

Daniel Hegarty murder

 

 

A former British soldier

is to be prosecuted

for the murder of a teenage boy

who was shot dead

in Northern Ireland in 1972.

 

The veteran,

identified as “Soldier B”,

will face the charge

of murdering

15-year-old Daniel Hegarty

in the Creggan area of Derry,

prosecutors have announced.

 

He will also be charged

with wounding with intent

in the case

of the teenager’s cousin,

Christopher Hegarty,

then aged 17,

who was shot and injured

in the incident.

 

The shootings occurred

on 31 July 1972,

during Operation Motorman,

when thousands of troops

were deployed

into Derry and Belfast

to break into

so-called no-go areas

– republican districts

that the security forces

could not previously enter.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/apr/15/
former-soldier-to-be-prosecuted-for-1972-killing-of-boy-in-derry

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/apr/15/
former-soldier-to-be-prosecuted-for-1972-killing-of-boy-in-derry

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/mar/08/
daniel-hegarty-shooting-soldier-prosecution-derry-death
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct rule from London        March 1972

 

Direct rule

was initiated in response

to increased violence

in the province

and the apparent unwillingness

of the ruling Unionist politicians

to accommodate changes

at that time.

 

It brought

half a century

of unionist control

to an end

and effectively conceded

that Northern Ireland

had become

ungovernable from Belfast

because of the inability

of the two communities

to work together

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/northern_ireland/understanding/events/direct_rule.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/northern_ireland/understanding/events/direct_rule.stm

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/25/from-the-archives

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/1972/mar/25/past.ianaitken

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2008/apr/11/northernireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bloody Sunday        30 January 1972

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Catholic youth taunting British soldiers

in the Bogside, Londonderry, Northern Ireland. 1971.

 

Don McCullin/Contact Press Images

 

Don McCullin at War        NYT        By Michael Kamber        Nov. 6, 2015

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/11/06/don-mccullin-at-war/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Street fighting in Londonderry in 1971.

 

Credit Bruno Barbey/Magnum Photos

 

50 Years Later,

Troubles Still Cast ‘Huge Shadow’ Over Northern Ireland

By Alan Cowell        NYT        Oct. 4, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
world/europe/northern-ireland-troubles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 December 1971

 

McGurk's massacre

 

 

Fifteen people are killed

when the Ulster Volunteer Force

explode a bomb at McGurk's bar

(at the Catholic-owned bar)

in the city on 4 December 1971.

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/12/
arrested-mcgurks-pub-bomb-belfast-1971

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 1971

 

The “hooded men”

 

 

maltreatment of 14 men

interned without trial

at the start of the Troubles

in Northern Ireland.

 

(..)

 

The “hooded men”

were mainly

republican suspects

seized in predawn raids

across North Ireland

in August 1971.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/sep/11/
echr-judges-reject-final-appeal-in-troubles-hooded-men-case-british-army-detainees-torture

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/sep/11/
echr-judges-reject-final-appeal-in-troubles-hooded-men-case-british-army-detainees-torture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9-11 August 1971

 

Ballymurphy massacre / shootings

 

 

10 people are killed

in West Belfast

by the army

 

All 10 were killed

in one small

neighbourhood

of west Belfast

over little more

than 36 hours

in August 1971

during

the disturbances

that were triggered

by the introduction

of internment

without trial.

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/jun/26/
-sp-ballymurphy-shootings-36-hours-west-belfast-northern-ireland-10-dead

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/nov/11/
decades-of-deceit-ballymurphy-killings-inquest-opens-in-belfast

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/jun/26/
-sp-ballymurphy-shootings-36-hours-west-belfast-northern-ireland-10-dead

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/ng-interactive/2014/jun/26/
ballymurphy-shootings-who-was-killed-and-where-interactive-guide

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2010/jun/20/
call-for-ballymurphy-massacre-inquiry

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/8483497.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British soldiers charging Catholic youths

in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, in 1971.

 

Don McCullin/Contact Press Images

 

50 Years Later,

Troubles Still Cast ‘Huge Shadow’ Over Northern Ireland

By Alan Cowell        NYT        Oct. 4, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
world/europe/northern-ireland-troubles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irish youths confronting British soldiers

in Londonderry in 1971.

 

Credit Gilles Peress/Magnum Photos

 

50 Years Later,

Troubles Still Cast ‘Huge Shadow’ Over Northern Ireland

By Alan Cowell        NYT        Oct. 4, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
world/europe/northern-ireland-troubles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Internment        1971-75

 

Nearly 2,000 people

are arrested and held

without trial

on suspicion of involvement

in terrorism.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/mar/08/
northern-ireland-timeline

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/mar/08/
northern-ireland-timeline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26 June 1970

 

Violence flares as Devlin is arrested

 

 

Riots broke out

in Londonderry

after it was revealed

Bernadette Devlin

had been arrested.

 

 The Mid-Ulster MP

was to address

a meeting in Bogside

before handing

herself in to police

after she lost an appeal

against her December

conviction.

 

Miss Devlin, 23,

was sentenced

to six-months in jail

for her part

in the Bogside riots

in 1969.

 

She appealed

against the decision

but the Northern Ireland

Court of Appeal

rejected her application

earlier today.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/26/newsid_2519000/2519711.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/26/
newsid_2519000/2519711.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Battle of the Bogside, Derry        August 1969

 

 

 

Derry youths throw petrol bombs at the RUC

during the Battle of the Bogside in August 1969.

 

Photograph: Peter Ferraz/Getty Images

 

Northern Ireland’s lost moment:

how the peaceful protests of ’68 escalated

into years of bloody conflict

 

Fifty years ago civil rights activists

took to the streets of Derry, Belfast and Armagh.

Their bid to effect peaceful change

is arguably one of the great ‘what if?’ moments

in Irish history,

now remembered in a new exhibtion

G

Sun 22 Apr 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/apr/22/
lost-moment-exhibition-northern-ireland-civil-rights-1968-troubles-what-if

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A loyalist parade

passing through

the nationalist

Bogside area of Derry

on 12 August

sparks two days of rioting.

 

As sporadic violence

spreads across the province,

troops are called in.

 

At first they are welcomed

by the Catholic community,

but sectarian violence

continues.

 

The Provisional IRA

becomes more active,

and the army

increasingly concentrates

on fighting it.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/08/northern-ireland-timeline

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2018/apr/22/
lost-moment-exhibition-northern-ireland-civil-rights-1968-troubles-what-if

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/panorama/
hi/front_page/newsid_7968000/7968707.stm

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/mar/08/
northern-ireland-timeline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 August 1969

 

The burning of Bombay street

 

 

On 15 August 1969

in an increasingly tense Belfast,

Bombay Street

was burned to the ground

by a Loyalist mob.

 

A typical west Belfast

working class street,

Bombay Street was situated

in the shadow of the well known

Clonard Monastery.

 

It also neighboured

Cupar Street,

an unmarked dividing line

between

the Nationalist

Clonard Area

and the Loyalist

Shankill Area.

 

On the night

of 14 August 1969

sectarian tensions exploded

in west Belfast.

 

Republicans

exchanged shots

with the RUC

and Loyalist gunmen

amid riots along

the interface areas.

 

When the RUC

pressed into

the Nationalist district

it was followed

by a Loyalist mob.

 

By the end

of the following day,

the mob had burned

Bombay Street

to the ground.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2011/02_february/28/bombay_street.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2011/02_february/28/
bombay_street.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 1969

 

Provisionals emerge

 

 

Northern Ireland

slid into violence

in the late 1960s

as the unionist-dominated state

resisted demands from Catholics

for civil rights and equality.

 

Apart from some

sporadic campaigns,

the IRA

had long been dormant

and as the violence

worsened,

some of its traditional supporters

accused it of failing

to defend

the Catholic community:

Graffiti reading

"IRA - I Ran Away"

appeared in many areas.

 

Such was the near anarchy,

the Irish government

even suggested

that it would be forced

to intervene.

 

Amid the violence and rows

over how to react,

what remained of the IRA

was already heading

for a split over the place

of constitutional politics

in its movement.

 

The more Marxist "Official" IRA

wanted at least a token recognition

of parliamentary politics

and the Dublin government.

 

Hardliners not only

demanded action on the streets

but regarded political abstention

as an article of faith.

 

They said that recognition

of the Dail, Dublin's parliament,

would entrench partition.

 

They split

to form the "Provisional" IRA.

 

It was the Provisional IRA,

later to be just the IRA,

which became

the main republican

paramilitary organisation

resisting British rule

in Northern Ireland.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/northern_ireland/2001/provisional_ira/1969.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/northern_ireland/2001/provisional_ira/1969.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968

 

The civil rights movement

 

 

Catholics

complain of unfair treatment

at the hands of a largely

Protestant political

establishment,

saying among other things

that electoral boundaries

are gerrymandered

to ensure

Protestant majorities.

 

On 5 October,

a civil rights march

is stopped by the RUC.

 

Rioting follows

and the province's government

agrees to undertake reforms.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/08/northern-ireland-timeline

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/08/northern-ireland-timeline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Partition        1922

 

Six counties

in the north of the island

opt to stay

in the United Kingdom

when the rest of Ireland

becomes independent

and later a republic.

 

Many of the inhabitants

are descended

from Protestant settlers

brought in by James I

in the 17th century,

although there is still

a large Catholic minority,

just as there continues

to be a significant

Protestant minority

in the Republic.

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/mar/08/
northern-ireland-timeline 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/mar/08/
northern-ireland-timeline 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ira/conflict/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1921

 

hanging of IRA volunteers

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/nov/02/
vivid-faces-the-revolutionary-generation-in-ireland-review

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/nov/02/
vivid-faces-the-revolutionary-generation-in-ireland-review#img-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1919

 

Lloyd George,

the prime minister,

outlines

the government's

proposals

for home rule

in Ireland

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/mar/08/
northern-ireland-timeline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Easter Rising /  Ireland’s rebellion        1916

 

 

 

British soldiers stand guard

in an area of Dublin destroyed

in the 1916 Easter Rising.

 

Photograph: Popperfoto/Getty Images

 

My family’s link to the 1916 Easter Rising

G

Sunday 27 March 2016        09.00 BST

Last modified on Sunday 27 March 2016        10.47 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/27/
easter-rising-1916-ireland-republicanism-family-link-ed-vulliamy 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

week-long rebellion in Dublin

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/video/2016/mar/26/
easter-rising-ireland-rebellion-video-explainer

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/video/2016/mar/28/
made-in-belfast-the-legacy-of-the-troubles-100-years-after-the-easter-rising-video

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2016/mar/27/
irelands-100th-anniversary-of-the-easter-rising-in-pictures

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/27/
easter-rising-centenary-to-be-marked-in-dublin-gpo-amid-heavy-security

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/27/
easter-rising-1916-ireland-republicanism-family-link-ed-vulliamy

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/mar/26/
easter-rising-100-years-on-a-terrible-beauty-is-born

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/mar/25/
the-guardian-view-on-the-easter-rising-centenary-irelands-history-lesson-for-britain

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/video/2016/mar/26/
easter-rising-ireland-rebellion-video-explainer

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/25/
opinion/inventing-the-irish-easter-rising.html

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/mar/25/
100-years-after-easter-rising-irish-women-still-fighting-gender-equality

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/17/
opinion/the-sisterhood-of-the-easter-rising.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/03/16/
opinion/eight-women-of-irelands-1916-easter-rising.html

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/feb/01/
easter-rising-century-ireland-1916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19th century

 

Fenian Movement

 

 

The Fenian Movement

consisted

of revolutionary groups

determined to overthrow

British rule of Ireland

and establish

an independent Irish state.

 

The movement was started

in Ireland in 1850

when James Stephens

and Thomas Clarke Luby

created the Irish

Republican Brotherhood;

 

the nickname,

"Fenians,"

came from the ancient

Irish warriors

called the Fianna.

 

John O'Mahoney,

Michael Doheny,

and Stephens

started

the Fenian Movement

in the United States

in a ceremony

in front of Tammany Hall

in New York City

in October of 1858.

 

Their objective

in starting an organization

in the United States

was to rally

Irish-Americans politically

behind a revolution in Ireland

against Britain.

 

In Ireland,

the movement

was quickly

stamped out

by the British,

who launched

a vigorous crackdown.

 

The Fenians

had better luck

in the United States,

however,

for the American government

made no efforts

to suppress the group.

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/fenians.html

 

 

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/fenians.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 20th century > Northern Ireland

 

20th century > Northern Ireland

 

Margaret Thatcher    1925-2013

 

UK > Definition, maps and flags

 

Northern Ireland > Maps

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

terrorism / politics  > Northern Ireland

 

terrorism / politics > Northern Ireland > Catholics

 

terrorism / politics > Northern Ireland > Protestants

 

miscarriage of justice > UK / USA

 

 

 

 

 

Reuters > Factbox: Fraught Anglo-Irish conflict goes back centuries

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/17/us-ireland-
queen-britain-relations-idUSTRE74G2UI20110517

 

 

 

 

 

Reuters > Timeline: Long road to Northern Irish settlement

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/17/us-ireland-
queen-north-idUSTRE74G2UJ20110517

 

 

 

 

 

Reuters > Timeline: Worst bomb attacks on mainland Britain        1974-2001

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/16/us-britain-
security-bombings-idUSTRE74F30T20110516

 

 

 

 

 

BBC > Timeline: Northern Ireland's road to peace        1987-2007

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/4072261.stm

 

 

 

 

 

BBC > Ireland timeline        1914-2011

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1038669.stm

 

 

 

 

 

The Guardian > Northern Ireland timeline        1919-2009

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2009/mar/08/northern-ireland-timeline