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History > USA, UK > 20th century > WW2 > Italian campaign

 

 

 

War And Conflict-Wwii

 

While sympathetic Sicilians look on,

Pvt. Roy Humphrey is given blood plasma

by medic Pfc. Harvey White

after being wounded

during the campaign

to oust occupying German forces.

 

Location: Sicily, Italy

Date taken: August 09, 1943

 

Photographer: Wever

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=870146bec67c3c68

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

German Gen. Anton Dostler is tied to a stak

before his execution by a firing squad

in the Aversa stockade.

 

The General was convicted and sentenced to death

by an American military tribunal. Aversa, Italy.

Blomgren, December 1, 1945.

111-SC-225295.

Pictures of World War II > Prisoners

US National Archives

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-171.jpg

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italian partisans kill Mussolini        28 April 1945

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/28/newsid_3564000/3564529.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liberation of Rome        June 1944

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/22/world/europe/wartime-claim-to-fame-divides-2-italian-towns.html

 

http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/11/an-american-garden-in-a-foreign-land/

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/10/liberation-rome-1944-second-world-war

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/5/newsid_3547000/3547329.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This African-American combat patrol

advanced three miles north of Lucca

(furthermost point occupied by American troops)

to contact an enemy machine gun nest.

 

Here a bazooka-man cuts loose at the target some 300 yards distant

Date: 09/07/1944

 

Source: US Archiv ARCWEB ARC Identifier: 531216

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Luccaitaly1944.png
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Campaign_(World_War_II)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pvt. Paul Oglesby, 30th Infantry,

standing in reverence before an altar

in a damaged Catholic Church.

 

Note: pews at left appear undamaged,

while bomb-shattered roof is strewn about the sanctuary.

Acerno, Italy.

Benson, September 23, 1943.

 

111-SC-188691.

Pictures of World War II > North Africa, Sicily, Italy

US National Archives

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-96.jpg
http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/28/newsid_3564000/3564529.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_cassino_01.shtml

https://www.theguardian.com/education/2001/jun/25/
artsandhumanities.highereducation 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mussolini_benito.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The fall of Italy

towards the end of the second world war

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/08/italian-fascism-collapse-ww2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Erich Priebke    1913-2013

 

former SS captain

who was sentenced

to life in prison

for helping to organize

the execution

of 335 men and boys

at the Ardeatine Caves

in Italy in 1944

 

(...)

 

Mr. Priebke

fled to South America

soon after World War II

and had been living

under his real name,

owning a butcher shop

and traveling to Europe

— and even Italy —

with a German passport.

 

He was extradited to Italy

in November 1995

and ordered to stand trial

before an Italian military tribunal

the next year.

 

The proceedings

— described at the time

as possibly the last Nazi

war-crimes trial in Europe —

centered on the massacre

at the Ardeatine Caves,

just south of Rome,

on March 24, 1944.

 

The men and boys

were rounded up and killed

in reprisal for an attack

in which Italian partisans

killed 33 members

of a Nazi security force.

 

Herbert Kappler,

the Gestapo chief in Rome,

ordered the deaths of 10 Italians

for every dead policeman.

 

Seventy-five

of the 335 victims were Jewish.

 

By many accounts,

the captives were led

into the caves

with their hands

tied behind their backs,

forced to kneel

— many over the bodies

of those already killed —

and shot in the neck.

 

(...)

 

His commander

at the time of the massacre,

Mr. Kappler,

was sentenced

to life in prison

in 1948

by a Rome court.

 

He was smuggled out

of a military hospital in 1997

and died in freedom in Germany

the next year.

 

Karl Hass, an SS major,

was convicted with Mr. Priebke

in July 1997

and given a life sentence in 1998.

 

He died while under house arrest

in 2004.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/12/world/europe/erich-priebke-nazi-who-carried-out-italian-massacre-dies-at-100.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/16/erich-priebke-funeral-cancelled-nazi-italy

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/15/nazi-erich-priebke-hearse-kicked-protesters-italy

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/11/nazi-erich-priebke-dies-100

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/12/world/europe/
erich-priebke-nazi-who-carried-out-italian-massacre-dies-at-100.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24 March 1944

 

Rome        Ardentine caves massacre

 

Ardentine caves,

aka Grotto Via Ardeatina

 

The Nazis massacred

approx. 355 Italian civilians

in reprisal for a partisan bombing

that killed 32 SS troops

 

 

 

 

Humain remains in the Ardentine caves,

aka Grotto Via Ardeatina,

where Nazis massacred

approx. 355 Italian civilians

during WWII in reprisal

for a partisan bombing that killed 32 SS troops.

 

Location: Rome, Italy

Date taken: June 1944

 

Photographer: Carl Mydans

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/6b2a1d46fdf73c3f.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Two widows placing flowers

in the Ardentine caves, aka Grotto Via Ardeatina,

where the Nazis massacred approx. 355 Italian civilians

in reprisal for a partisan bombing that killed 32 SS troops.

 

Location: Rome, Italy

Date taken: June 1944

 

Photographer: Carl Mydans

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=767a6eb14adaa812

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6765127.stm

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007940

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jul/28/german-war-criminal-100-rome

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marocchinate

(pronounced [marokkiˈnate],

Italian for "Moroccans’ deeds")

is a term applied

to the mass rape and killings

committed during World War II

after the Battle of Monte Cassino

in Italy.

 

These were committed mainly

by the Moroccan Goumiers,

colonial troops

of the French Expeditionary Corps (FEC),

commanded by General Alphonse Juin,

and mostly targeted

civilian women and girls

(as well as a few men and boys)

in the rural area

between Naples and Rome,

traditionally known in Italian

as Ciociaria.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marocchinate

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marocchinate

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two_Women

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January, February, March and May 1944

 

Italian Campaign

 

Battle of Monte Cassino

 

The battle took four months,

and by one estimate

it left a quarter of a million

dead or wounded.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3487075.stm

 

 

 

 

Blasted ruins of the town,

with the destroyed monastery atop Monte Cassino in the background,

give mute testimony to the heavy bombardment & bitter struggle

of the Allies vs. the Germans for control of the town.

 

Location: Cassino, Italy

Date taken: May 19, 1944

 

Photographer: George Silk

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3487075.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_cassino_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/categories/c55229/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marocchinate

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/08/opinion/cohen-from-death-into-life.html

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2008/oct/02/secondworldwar.military

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2006/jun/21/guardianobituaries.secondworldwar

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/02/arts/02iht-3kimm.7713570.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2000/apr/04/johnezard

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1944/may/19/mainsection.leadersandreply

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bolzano, Nazi concentration / transit  camp in northern Italy

 

In October

and November 1943,

German authorities

rounded up Jews

in Rome, Milan,

Genoa, Florence, Trieste,

and other major cities

in northern Italy.

 

They established

police transit camps

at Fossoli di Carpi,

approximately

12 miles north of Modena,

at Bolzano in northeastern Italy,

and at Borgo San Dalmazzo,

near the French border,

to concentrate the Jews

prior to deportation.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005455

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/09/world/europe/09seifert.html

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005455

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 September 1943

 

Allied troops invade mainland Italy

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/3/newsid_3585000/3585719.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1943

 

Western Allies invade Sicily

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/10/newsid_3587000/3587283.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animated Map: The Italian Campaign        1943-1945

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_italy_campaign.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italian campaign        1943-1945

 

The campaign

started in July 1943,

when the troops

invading Italian territory

became the first

to liberate Nazi Europe,

and did not end until 1945.

 

However,

much of the most

critical fighting

took place

in May and June 1944,

leading up

to the liberation of Rome,

on 5 June 1944

– the day

before the Normandy Landings.

 

(...)

 

Allied casualties in Italy

were more than 312,000

– considerably higher

than those in Normandy.

 

British casualties are thought

to have been more than 90,000,

during a gruelling advance northwards

through what Winston Churchill

called the "underbelly of Europe".

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/britainatwar/5299500/D-Day-dodgers-prepare-for-attention.html

 

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/britainatwar/5299500/D-Day-dodgers-prepare-for-attention.html

 

http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/11/an-american-garden-in-a-foreign-land/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 1940

 

Italy Invades British Somaliland

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1126360.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 May 1939

 

Italy and Germany

sign the Pact of Steel

to help each other

in the event of war

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/bitesize/higher/history/roadwar/munich_rev2.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benito Mussolini    1883-1945

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 40S

TIME cover 06-09-1941

ill. of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.

Date taken: June 09, 1941

 

Photographer: Ernest Hamlin Baker

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=8ed589241189bd08

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/benito-mussolini

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/28/newsid_3564000/3564529.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mussolini_benito.shtml

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/oct/13/benito-mussolini-recruited-mi5-italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mussolini        'Ethiopia is Italian'        1936

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1930-1939/
Story/0,,127067,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italy's empire building

before the second world war

 

Mussolini's conquest of Abyssinia        1936

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/05/
italy-abyssinia-second-world-war 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1930-1939/Story/0,,127069,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 1936

 

Mussolini and Hitler

recognise the Government of General Franco

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1930-1939/Story/0,,127033,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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