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History > 20th century > WW1 (1914-1918)

 

Timeline in pictures (1880s-1920s) > UK, British empire

 

 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY,

 

BALKAN LEAGUE

(SERBIA, BULGARIA, GREECE AND MONTENEGRO),

 

BELGIUM, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, MOROCCO,
 

OTTOMAN EMPIRE, PALESTINE, RUSSIA, USA

 

 

 

More than 17 million

soldiers and civilians

died between 1914 and 1918

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

 

 

 

65m men fought

and about 8.5m were killed

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/248f6960-29d3-11e3-bbb8-00144feab7de.html

 

 

 

 

The conflict claimed

20 million military and civilian lives,

with a further 21 million wounded.

 

For some countries

the burden

was greater than others.

 

While Britain,

France and Germany

lost between 2 and 3 percent

of their total populations,

Serbia suffered a staggering

15 percent depletion.

 

Such losses

had seemed unthinkable

when the war began.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/
books/review/the-war-that-ended-peace-by-margaret-macmillan.html

 

 

 

 

More than a million Indian soldiers

fought in the first world war.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/feb/21/
found-translation-indias-first-world-war 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/23/
british-army-failed-treat-indian-soldiers-shell-shock

 

 

 

 

nearly a million men

fell just at Verdun in 1916;

 

in four years,

the combatant nations

suffered a total of 40 million

dead, missing, and wounded;

 

more than 116,000 Americans

died in just 19 months;

 

billions of shells

and bullets were fired;

the map of the entire world

was forever redrawn

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/24/travel/100-years-of-gratitude.html

 

 

 

 

Propagandists promised

that this war would end all wars.

 

Instead it almost automatically

provoked those that followed.

 

In 1916

a British officer

condemned a prospective

attack at Fromelles

– which went ahead

despite his misgivings –

as “a bloody holocaust”.

 

What Coulthart describes

is a slaughter as systematic

as the Nazi genocide,

perpetrated by generals

such as Haig and Kitchener

who deployed their own country’s

miners, navvies and labourers

as cannon fodder

and dismissed casualties

as “acceptable losses”.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

 

 

 

Selon les différents décomptes,

le nombre de victimes de la guerre

varie de 8,5 à 10 millions de morts,

rien que parmi les militaires.

 

L’approximation

est encore plus complexe

pour les populations civiles.

https://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2018/11/10/
comment-evaluer-le-nombre-de-morts-de-la-premiere-guerre-mondiale
_5381812_4355770.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European military alliances in 1914;

 

Central Powers purplish-red,

Entente Powers pale green,

and neutral countries yellow

 

Description: Europe 1914

 

Source

www.dean.usma.edu

Author: Department of History, United States Military Academy

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Europe_1914.png

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Europe_1914.png

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First World War Interactive        Guardian        2014

 

 

 

 

First World War Interactive

 

ABOUT THE FIRST WORLD WAR INTERACTIVE SERIES:

A brief history of the First World War,

as told by ten historians from ten countries,

looking at the conflict through a global lens.

 

Using original news reports, interactive maps and rarely-seen footage,

including extraordinary scenes of troops crossing Mesopotamia on camels

and Italian soldiers fighting high up in the Alps,

the The Guardian's interactive project explores the war and its effects

from many different perspectives.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLa_1MA_DEorFM96_lA3kPpvi2zdR4ZKoN

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First world war:

how Europe and the Middle East

were reshaped

 

interactive        4 August 2014

 

 

As the world slid

towards war in 1914,

the four empires

of Austria-Hungary,

Germany,

Ottoman Turkey

and Tsarist Russia

had ruled over

vast amounts

of land and people

for centuries.

 

The first world war reshaped

Europe and the Middle East

and those changes reverberate

to this day.

 

Take our interactive map quiz

to explore

how the borders of 1914

changed shape

over the course of six years

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2014/aug/04/
first-world-war-how-europe-middle-east-map-changed

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2014/aug/04/
first-world-war-how-europe-middle-east-map-changed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 28, 1919

 

Versailles Treaty

 

https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/treaty-of-versailles 

http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/imt/menu.htm 

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1919versailles.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/14/
first-world-war-treaty-versailles

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1919/apr/10/
mainsection.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 November 1918        Armistice

 

 

 

Crowds celebrating the signing of the Armistice

at the end of World War I.

 

Photograph: Topical Press Agency/Getty Images

 

Armistice Day 100 years on:

share your letters, stories and photographs

G

Sun 12 Aug 2018        07.00 BST

Last modified on Sun 12 Aug 2018        08.06 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/12/
armistice-day-100-years-on-share-your-letters-stories-and-photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Effigies of the Kaiser, Wilhelm II, and his son, ‘Little Willie’,

are hanged in Brackley, Northamptonshire on Armistice Day.

 

Photograph: Bob Thomas/Popperfoto/Getty Images

 

Armistice Day: victory and beyond

On 11 November 1918,

jubilant crowds across Britain celebrated the end of the war.

But many new struggles were just beginning.

What was the legacy of the first world war?

G

Sun 11 Nov 2018        07.00 GMT

Last modified on Sun 11 Nov 2018        07.56 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/11/
armistice-day-victory-and-beyond-first-world-war-neal-ascherson-essay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/series/armistice-100

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/09/
world/europe/armistice-day-100th-anniversary-photos.html

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/mirror07_01.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/mirror07_02.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1918

 

Le dernier jour    2/6.

 

 

Dans les Ardennes,

le commandant

Charles de Berterèche de Menditte

a ordre de franchir la Meuse.

 

A la tête

de ses troupes,

il va mener

une ultime bataille

brutale et sanglante.

 

L’Armistice

est signé à 5 h 20,

ce 11 novembre 1918,

dans la clairière

de Rethondes.

 

Sur le front de la Meuse,

la guerre continue.

 

Les artilleurs français

n’ont pas fermé l’œil,

déclenchant

de minute en minute

des tirs de barrage

guidés par le son

ou la lueur

des batteries ennemies.

 

Les canons allemands

ont répliqué sans relâche,

pilonnant les positions françaises

entre Nouvion-sur-Meuse,

Dom-le-Mesnil

et Vrigne-Meuse.

 

C’est là,

dans les Ardennes,

à mi-chemin

de Charleville et Sedan,

que fait rage

la dernière bataille

de la Grande Guerre,

la dernière empoignade

acharnée, insensée, absurde,

au-delà même

de la conclusion de l’Armistice

et jusqu’aux dernières minutes

qui précèdent son entrée en vigueur,

à 11 heures du matin.

 

Jusqu’aux derniers morts.

 

Devant l’implacable poursuite

engagée par les Alliés depuis l’été,

les armées

du maréchal von Hindenburg

refluent sur tout le front,

depuis les Flandres

jusqu’en Lorraine.

 

Le 8 novembre,

elles ont retraversé la Meuse

pour se retrancher

sur sa rive nord.

 

Sur leurs talons,

les avant-gardes

de la 163e division d’infanterie

atteignent la rive sud,

celles du 142e régiment

arrivent à Flize

et celles du 415e régiment

à Dom-le-Mesnil.

https://www.lemonde.fr/series-d-ete-2018-long-format/article/2018/07/18/
11-novembre-1918-les-soldats-meconnus-de-vrigne-meuse
_5332999_5325928.html

 

 

https://www.lemonde.fr/series-d-ete-2018-long-format/article/2018/07/18/
11-novembre-1918-les-soldats-meconnus-de-vrigne-meuse
_5332999_5325928.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World War One Casualties

 

Dead, Wounded and Missing

in the First World War

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2854730

http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/casualties.htm

https://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2018/11/10/
comment-evaluer-le-nombre-de-morts-de-la-premiere-guerre-mondiale
_5381812_4355770.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First World War        1914-1918

 

http://www.firstworldwar.com/posters/index.htm

http://www.firstworldwar.com/

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/origins_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/launch_ani_wwone_movies.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/launch_vr_trench.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/launch_pan_trench_life.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/museum/item.asp?item_id=44

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/index.htm

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/07/
long-lost-photo-album-from-soldier-killed-in-first-world-war-given-to-his-family

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/23/
british-army-failed-treat-indian-soldiers-shell-shock

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/24/travel/100-years-of-gratitude.html

http://www.theguardian.com/media/2014/jul/27/
first-world-war-state-press-reporting

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/ng-interactive/2014/jul/25/
the-western-front-in-the-first-world-war-and-now-interactive - 1 November 2008

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
the-killing-fields-of-the-first-world-war-979730.html 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/nov/08/firstworldwar.stephenmoss1 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/nov/11/secondworldwar.uk 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/nov/14/military.davidsmith 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1918/nov/12/fromthearchive 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1915/apr/23/fromthearchive 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1915/apr/28/fromthearchive  

http://www.theguardian.com/news/1915/dec/20/mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1918

 

Thousands of Germans packed in cages

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-german-defeat-prisoners

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 26-September 3, 1918

 

Second Battle of Arras

 

 

The 2nd Battle of Arras,

including the Battle of the Scarpe

(August 26-30, 1918)

and the Battle of Drocourt-Quéant

(September 2-3, 1918)

 

 

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/firstworldwar/
025005-1500-e.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Jews in the first world war

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/mar/14/
king-country-jewish-museum-first-world-war-adam-foulds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November-December 1917

 

Palestine

 

Battle of Jerusalem / "Jerusalem Operations"

 

 

December 11, 1917

 

Britain liberates Jerusalem,

ending 673 years of Turkish rule

http://www.bbc.co.uk/remembrance/timeline/timeline-1917.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

The Mayor of Jerusalem

Hussein Effendi el Husseini [al-Husseini],

meeting with Sergts. Sedwick and Hurcomb

of the 2/19th Battalion, London Regiment,

under the white flag of surrender,

Dec. 9th [1917] at 8 a.m., 1917.

 

LC-DIG-ppmsca-13291-00011

(digital file from original, page 5, no. 11)

Primary source + caption: Library of Congress

http://memory.loc.gov/phpdata/pageturner.php?
type=contactminor&cmIMG1=/pnp/ppmsca/13200/13291/00011t.gif&agg=ppmsca&item=13291&caption=11

 

Image: Wikipedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/55/Ottoman_surrender_of_Jerusalem_restored.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ottoman_surrender_of_Jerusalem_restored.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Jerusalem_%281917%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Jerusalem_%281917%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 November 1917

 

The Balfour Declaration

 

 

The Balfour Declaration of 1917

was the first

significant declaration

by a world power

in favour of

a Jewish "national home"

in what was known

as Palestine.

 

Historians disagree

as to what the then

British Foreign Secretary,

Arthur James Balfour,

intended by his declaration.

 

The letter has no mention

of the word "state",

and insists

that nothing should be done

"which may prejudice

the civil and religious rights

of existing non-Jewish communities

in Palestine".

 

The letter was addressed

to Lord Rothschild,

a leader

of the Jewish community

in Britain.

 

It became

an important arm

of the movement

to create a Jewish state

in Palestine.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1682961.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/
key_documents/1682961.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_ip_timeline/html/1917.stm

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2009/jun/28/balfour-and-weizmann-geoffrey-lewis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Middle East during World War One

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/middle_east_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1301-1922

 

Ottoman Empire

 

 

The Ottoman Empire

was the one of the largest

and longest lasting Empires

in history.

 

It was an empire

inspired and sustained

by Islam,

and Islamic institutions.

 

It replaced

the Byzantine Empire

as the major power

in the Eastern Mediterranean.

 

The Ottoman Empire

reached its height

under Suleiman the Magnificent

(reigned 1520-66),

when it expanded to cover

the Balkans and Hungary,

and reached the gates of Vienna.

 

The Empire

began to decline

after being defeated

at the Battle of Lepanto (1571)

and losing almost

its entire navy.

 

It declined further

during the next centuries,

and was effectively finished off

by the First World War

and the Balkan Wars.

 

(...)

 

At its peak it included:

Turkey


Egypt


Greece


Bulgaria


Romania


Macedonia


Hungary


Palestine


Jordan


Lebanon


Syria


Parts of Arabia


Much of the coastal strip of North Africa

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ottomanempire_1.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The largest fleet of airships

ever to attack the UK

set off on 19 October, 1917

to bomb the industrial Midlands.

 

It was called

the "Silent Raid"

as the 11 German

navy airships

flew too high

to be heard

from the ground.

 

They were

Super-Zeppelins,

able to fly at 20,000 feet

and so out of range

of anti-aircraft guns

or fighter aircraft.

 

However,

the crews were vulnerable

to the extreme cold,

lack of oxygen,

and on this occasion

to the strong winds

that wrecked the mission.

 

The Germans

had forecast good weather,

but no observations

were made over 10,000 feet.

 

Above that height the crews

faced gale force winds

from the north-west.

 

The 650ft hulls

were distorted

by the turbulence and,

with men struggling

to hold the rudders,

the Zeppelins

were forced off course.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2011/oct/16/weatherwatch-zeppelin-air-raid-first-world-war

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2011/oct/16/
weatherwatch-zeppelin-air-raid-first-world-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Australian soldiers in a field hospital

near Ypres, Belgium, during World War I,

when “shell shock” was first noted.

 

Credit Australian War Memorial

 

What if PTSD Is More Physical Than Psychological?

A new study supports what a small group of military researchers

has suspected for decades: that modern warfare destroys the brain.

By ROBERT F. WORTH        NYT        JUNE 10, 2016

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/12/
magazine/what-if-ptsd-is-more-physical-than-psychological.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belgium        Ypres

 

Of the 300,000

British and Commonwealth soldiers

killed in the Ypres Salient

during the five battles

that spanned 1914 to 1918,

100,000 bodies

were never recovered.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/11/
ypres-menin-gate-remembrance-armistice-first-world-war

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/11/
ypres-menin-gate-remembrance-armistice-first-world-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31 July - November 1917

 

Belgium        Third Battle of Ypres / Battle of Passchendaele

 

 

 

British casualties litter the churned up battlefield

outside the town of Passchendaele

during the 3rd Battle of Ypres.

 

Location: Passchendaele, Belgium

Date taken: October 1917

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/ec4ae642c2786d1b.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tour de la Halle aux draps, Ypres,  [vers 1918]

 

Photographe inconnu

 

Albums du corps expéditionnaire canadien

Photographie noir et blanc

Code de référence : C 224-0-0-9-1

Archives publiques de l'Ontario, I0004760

http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/french/exhibits/mould/big/big_48a_cloth_hall.htm

http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/french/exhibits/mould/battles.htm#cloth_hall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Passchendaele

has become a synonym

for military failure

as well as the myopia

of the British top brass.

 

Nick Lloyd’s book

reassesses the conduct

and impact of this hellish battle,

which lasted from 31 July

until 10 November 1917.

 

By then

more than half a million men

had been killed or injured,

many vanishing without trace

in the thick mud.

 

The British forces

had advanced just five miles,

ground that was lost agai

the following year.

 

It was, says Lloyd,

“the ultimate expressio

of meaningless,

industrialised slaughter”.

 

On just one day in August,

more shells were fired than

in the entire Franco-Prussian

war of 1870-71.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/dec/07/
passchendaele-new-history-review

 

 

 

The town was reduced to ruins

during the four years of the war

as it held a strategic position

on the route

of the German advance

into France,

the Schlieffen Plan.

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/ng-interactive/2014/apr/02/ypres-
ruins-first-world-war-ww1-then-and-now

 

 

 

Three horrific battles

were fought for little gain here,

of which the third and final

was launched 100 years ago

on Monday.

 

“I died in hell

– they called it

Passchendaele”,

the soldier and poet

Siegfried Sassoon

wrote of the carnage

that raged

between 31 July

and 10 November 1917.

 

There were more

than 320,000 allied deaths.

 

German losses

are estimated

to have been between

260,000 and 400,000.

 

The allied victors

had made just

five miles (8km) of ground

when all was said and done,

and still today the remains

of around 30 soldiers

are found every year,

to be identified initially

by the boots

they were wearing

when they died,

said Peter Francis

of the Commonwealth

War Graves Commission.

 

“A more sacred place for the British

does not exist in the world,”

concluded Winston Churchill

in 1919.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/29/
passchendaele-100-years-on-a-final-great-act-of-remembrance

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/battle_passchendaele.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/dec/07/
passchendaele-new-history-review

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/29/
passchendaele-100-years-on-a-final-great-act-of-remembrance

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/ng-interactive/2014/apr/02/
ypres-ruins-first-world-war-ww1-then-and-now

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jul/26/
world-war-one-veteran-harry-patch-dies-aged-111

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/first-world-war-passchendaele 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/last-post-ypres-menin-remembrance-day 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/203397.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6386991.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        First Battle of Arras        9 April - 16 June 1917

 

 

 

La prise de la crête de Vimy.

Des soldats  allemands évacuent leur tranchées

devant l’avance canadienne, 1917.

 

Photographe inconnu

 

Photographie noir et blanc

Albums du corps expéditionnaire canadien

Code de référence : C 224-0-0-9-31

Archives publiques de l'Ontario, I0004790

http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/french/exhibits/mould/big/big_51a_can_advance.htm

http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/french/exhibits/mould/battles.htm#cloth_hall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-battle-of-arras

 

http://www.longlongtrail.co.uk/

 

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?
res=9506E2DF133BEE3ABC4953DFB066838C609EDE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7-14 June 1917

 

Belgium        The Battle of Messines

 

 

The Battle of Messines

was an offensive conducted

by the British Second Army,

under the command

of General Herbert Plumer,

on the Western Front

near the village of Messines

in Belgian West Flanders (...) .

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Messines_%281917%29

 

 

 

 

Launched on 7 June 1917,

the Messine offensive

was designed to force

the German enemy

to withdraw

from the main battlefront

of Vimy – Arras.”

 

The Battle exemplified

tactical success

through careful planning

and overwhelming firepower.

 

The primary objective

was the strategically important

Wyschaete-Messines Ridge,

the high ground south of Ypres.

 

The Germans used this ridge

as a salient into the British lines,

building their defence

along its 10 mile length.

 

Winning this ground

was essential for the Allies

to launch a larger campaign

planned for east of Ypres.

 

General Sir Herbert Plumer’s

Second Army

was chosen for the task,

with three Corps allotted

to secure the objective.

 

Australian involvement

came under Lieutenant General

Sir Alexander Godley’s II Anzac Corps

(25th British, 3rd Australian,

and the New Zealand Division)

which was to capture

the village of Messines

and advance to the flat ground

beyond.

 

The 4th Australian Division

was reinforcement for II Anzac

for the attack and was to complete

the second phase of consolidation.

http://www.army.gov.au/Our-history/History-in-Focus/The-Battle-of-Messines-1917

 

 

 

 

The Battle of Messines in June 1917

was an important attack

that sought to seize

the strategically important heights

of the Messines/Wytschaete ridge

in southern Belgium.

 

Pre-empted

by the detonation

of 19 enormous mines

containing one million

pounds of ammonal,

the assault was launched

by three Corps

under General Herbert Plumer’s

Second Army.

http://www.army.gov.au/Our-history/History-in-Focus/The-Battle-of-Messines-1917/The-Battle-of-Messines-1917-Part-Two

 

 

https://www.army.gov.au/our-history/history-in-focus/
the-battle-of-messines-1917

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In January 1917

British codebreakers

known as Room 40,

named after their original

cramped space at the Admiralty,

intercepted and deciphered

a German secret message

which changed the course

of the first world war,

helping to bring the US

into the conflict.

 

The Zimmerman telegram,

sent from the German foreign minister

to their ambassador in Mexico,

urged the central American county

to “make war together,

make peace together”.

 

In return for becoming a German ally,

it promised the US states of Texas,

Arizona and New Mexico

as a prize after the war.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/29/
bletchley-park-codebreakers-first-world-war-exhibition

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/29/
bletchley-park-codebreakers-first-world-war-exhibition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1916

 

France        Battle of Fromelles

 

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/postcolonial-blog/2016/jul/19/
australians-didnt-sacrifice-themselves-at-fromelles-the-british-sacrificed-them

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/jun/03/
firstworldwar.france 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        Battle of Verdun        1916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        Battle of the Somme        1916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Women and the first world war

 

Home Front        Women war workers

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/nov/11/
women-first-world-war-taste-of-freedom

 

http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/sep/21/
kate-adie-fighting-home-front

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2013/sep/21/
photography-first-world-war-women

 

United Kingdom > late 19th century / early 20th century > Suffragettes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field Marshal Douglas Haig        1861-1928

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/haig_douglas_general.shtml

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2007/12/29/bomea129.xml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/211471.stm

http://www.iht.com/articles/2003/02/04/edold_ed3__6.php

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html
?res=9C01EEDB1339E13ABC4A51DFB4678383609EDE

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html
?res=9902E3DA1739E13ABC4153DFBE668383609EDE

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/lions_donkeys_01.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jan/22/
earl-haig-dies-first-world-war-1928

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener        1850-1916

 

 

 

TITLE: Lord Kitchener says: Enlist to-day / photo Bassano ;

printed by David Allen & Sons Ld., Harrow, Middlesex.

REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZC4-11015 (color film copy transparency)

SUMMARY: Poster showing portrait of Lord Kitchener, with a quote from him.

MEDIUM: 1 print (poster) : lithograph and halftone photomechanical print, color ; 50 x 75 cm.

CREATED/PUBLISHED: London : Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, [1915]

NOTES: "Men, materials & money are the immediate necessities. ...

Does the call of duty find no response in you until reinforced

- let us rather say superseded - by the call of compulsion?"

Lord Kitchener speaking at Guildhall, July 9th 1915.

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

DIGITAL ID: (color film copy transparency) cph 3g11015

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3g11015

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/f?ils:20:./temp/~pp_CmJ9:

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/pp/wwiposhtml/wwiposSubjects11.html

TIFF > JPEG + vertical cropping by Anglonautes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/voluntary-recruiting

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/kitchener_lord.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/kitchener_lord_horatio.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/may/29/
lost-tommies-ross-coulthart-review-first-world-war-photographs-soldiers-louis-antoinette-thuilliers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1916

 

Sykes-Picot Agreement

 

The Sykes-Picot agreement

is a secret understanding

concluded in May 1916,

during World War I,

between

Great Britain and France,

with the assent of Russia,

for the dismemberment

of the Ottoman Empire.

 

The agreement

led to the division

of Turkish-held Syria, Iraq,

Lebanon, and Palestine

into various French

and British-administered areas.

 

The agreement took its name

from its negotiators,

Sir Mark Sykes of Britain

and Georges Picot of France.

 

Some historians

have pointed out

that the agreement conflicted

with pledges already

given by the British

to the Hashimite leader

Husayn ibn Ali,

Sharif of Mecca,

who was about

to lead an Arab revolt

in the Hejaz

against the Ottoman rulers

on the understanding

that the Arabs

would eventually receive

a much more important share

of the territory won.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/2001/
israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1681362.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/2001/
israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1681362.stm

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-25299553

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/
v3_israel_palestinians/maps/html/british_control.stm

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/
opinion/how-arabs-can-defeat-sectarianism.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UK / British Empire > 20th century > WW1 > Gallipoli    1915-1916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Over six weeks in 1915,

in contravention of international law,

the Germans unleashed poison gas,

unrestricted submarine warfare

and the aerial bombardment of London.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/
books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 22, 1915

 

Belgium        Second Battle of Ypres

 

 

On April 22, 1915,

the Germans launched their first

and only offensive of the year.

 

Known as the Second Battle of Ypres,

the offensive began with the usual

artillery bombardment

of the enemy’s line.

 

When the shelling died down,

the Allied defenders waited

for the first wave

of German attack troops

but instead were thrown into panic

when chlorine gas wafted

across no-man’s land

and down into their trenches.

 

The Germans

targeted four miles of the front

with the wind-blown poison gas

and decimated two divisions

of French and Algerian

colonial troops.

 

The Allied line was breached,

but the Germans,

perhaps as shocked as the Allies

by the devastating effects

of the poison gas,

failed to take full advantage,

and the Allies held

most of their positions.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/germans-introduce-poison-gas

 

 

 

 

Germany gains ground

using forbidden gas weapons

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/first-world-war-ypres-gas-germany

 

 

hhttp://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/germans-introduce-poison-gas

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/
books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-ypres-gas-germany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10-12/13 March 1915

 

France        Battle of Neuve-Chapelle

 

 

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/premiereguerre/025005-1100-f.html 

 

http://www.longlongtrail.co.uk/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 7, 1915

 

British liner Lusitania

is sunk by a German submarine

 

 

One of the great mysteries

of the first world war

– whether or not

the passenger ship Lusitania

was carrying munitions

and therefore a legitimate target

when it was sunk

by a German submarine

in May 1915 –

has been solved

in the affirmative

by newly released

government papers.

 

They contain

Foreign Office concerns

that a 1982 salvage operation

might "literally blow up on us"

and that "there is a large amount

of ammunition in the wreck,

some of which is highly dangerous".

 

Yet the truth

was kept hidden in 1915

because the British government

wanted to use the sinking

of a non-military ship,

and the loss of 1,198 lives,

as an example

of German ruthlessness.

 

It was also a useful means

of swaying American opinion

in favour of entering the war.

 

It eventually had

the desired effect

– the US declared war

on Germany in April 1917 –

but the lie continued

as successive governments,

worried about their ongoing

relations with America,

denied there were munitions

on board.

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/01/lusitania-secrets-of-war-revealed-sinking

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/hfront3_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A4803284

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/rotogravures/rotolusit.html 

http://www.pbs.org/lostliners/lusitania.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/may/01/
lusitania-secrets-of-war-revealed-sinking

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1910-1919/Story/0,,99008,00.html  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1915

 

Zeppelin raid

on the north- east coast

district of England

 

https://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/15/
1915-zeppelin-attack-a-huge-fiasco/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19 January 1915

 

The first zeppelin raid

 

 

Before the 20th century,

British civilians had been

largely untouched by war.

 

However,

with the stalemate

on the Western Front,

the Germans deployed zeppelins

carrying up to two tons of bombs.

 

The first raid

was on 19 January 1915.

 

The effects of war

were brought home

to the British people

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/picture/2013/jan/19/photography-zeppelin-raid

 

 

 

 

on May 31,

a zeppelin randomly

dropped 28 explosive

and 91 incendiary bombs

on London,

leaving seven dead

and 35 injured.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/
books/review/a-higher-form-of-killing-by-diana-preston.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/picture/2013/jan/19/
photography-zeppelin-raid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First world war ministers

were warned of ‘eternal stalemate’

in January 1915

 

Cabinet papers

show Lloyd George

despairing of ‘throwing away’

Kitchener’s citizen army

as cabinet colleagues searched

for a ‘blow to end the war

once and for all’

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/30/first-world-war-ministers-eternal-stalemate-cabinet-papers

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/30/
first-world-war-ministers-eternal-stalemate-cabinet-papers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October-November 1914

 

Belgium

 

The First Battle of Ypres / the Battle of Flanders

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Ypres

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26-30 August 1914

 

Battle of Tannenberg

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/battle_tannenberg.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Western front

 

From autumn 1914

to the spring of 1918,

475 miles of parallel trenches

were the scene

of countless battles

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/western-front-battles-timeline

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/12/
forgotten-muslim-heroes-fought-for-britain-first-world-war

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war/the-western-front

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/09/
first-world-war-western-front

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/09/
western-front-battles-timeline

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/23/
firstworldwar.military

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animated Map

 

The Western Front        1914-1918

 

 

Britain and its Empire

lost almost a million men

during World War One;

most of them died

on the Western Front.

 

Stretching 440 miles

from the Swiss border

to the North Sea,

the line of trenches, dug-outs

and barbed-wire fences

moved very little between 1914-1918,

despite attempts on both sides

to break through.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29 October 1914

 

Turkey

(then known

as the Ottoman Empire)

enters the war

in alliance

with Germany

and Austria-Hungary

 

 

The Ottoman Empire

(Turkey)

enters the war

on the side

of the Germans

as three warships

shell

the Russian port

of Odessa.

 

Three days later,

Russia declares war

on Turkey.

 

Russian and Turkish troops

then prepare for battle

along the common border

of the Russian Caucasus

and the Ottoman Empire.

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1914.html

 

 

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1914.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 September 1914

 

The three British

'Live Bait' ships

are sunk

by torpedoes

fired by the German

U-boat U-9

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_of_22_September_1914

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        First Battle of the Marne        6-10/12 September 1914

 

 

 

Positions des armées alliées et allemandes

au début de la bataille, le 5 septembre au soir.

Carte tirée des mémoires du maréchal Joffre,

publiées à titre posthume en 1932.

 

Météo France        added 14 September 2014

http://www.meteofrance.fr/
la-meteo-au-temps-de-la-grande-guerre/quel-temps-faisait-il-lors-de/lors-de-la-1ere-bataille-de-la-marne - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/battle_marne.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jun/27/
forgotten-british-role-battle-marne-france

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conscientious objectors / 'conchies'

 

 

 

Objectors at Dyce Camp in Aberdeen,

where they faced 10 years of hard labour.

 

Photograph: Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Britain

 

Conscientious objectors

of first world war – their untold tales

Project recognises names of 400 men

held in Richmond Castle in North Yorkshire

G

Fri 19 Jul 2019        06.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/19/
conscientious-objectors-of-first-world-war-their-untold-tales

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Over eight million men

served in the British army

during the first world war,

and as the centenary

approaches,

their descendants

will be remembering them

and the battles they fought.

 

A much smaller

number of men

– about 16,000 –

registered

not as soldiers

but as conscientious

objectors.

 

Some accepted

non-combatant roles

in, for example,

the ambulance

service;

 

others took on

alternative service

in other parts

of the world

and some

were absolutists,

who refused

to play any part

in the war machine,

and were often

imprisoned

as a result.

http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/apr/25/
conscientious-objectors-men-fought-different-battle

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/19/
conscientious-objectors-of-first-world-war-their-untold-tales

 

http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2014/apr/25/
conscientious-objectors-men-fought-different-battle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 August 1914

 

Lord Kitchener

(1850-1916)

calls for 100,000 men

to join British Army

 

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
voluntary-recruiting
 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/pals_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sensuous life in the trenches

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
sensuous-life-in-the-trenches

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The daily life of soldiers

 

Combat and the soldier's experience

in World War One

 

How did soldiers cope with war?

 

Wounding in World War One

 

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
the-daily-life-of-soldiers
 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
combat-and-soldiers-experiences

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
how-did-soldiers-cope-with-war
 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
wounding-in-world-war-one

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prisoners of War

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
prisoners-of-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Military discipline and punishment

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/
articles/military-discipline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Training to be a soldier

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
training-to-be-a-soldier

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supply and logistics

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
supply-and-logistics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aerial warfare during World War One

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
aerial-warfare-during-world-war-one

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The War at sea

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
the-war-at-sea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weapons of World War One

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
weapons-of-world-war-one

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animals and war

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
animals-and-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Race, racism and military strategy

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
race-racism-and-military-strategy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Atrocity propaganda

 

Atrocity propaganda

focused

on the most violent acts

committed by the German

and Austro-Hungarian armies,

emphasising their barbarity

and providing justification

for the conflict.

http://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/atrocity-propaganda

 

 

https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/
atrocity-propaganda

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How the newspapers covered

the outbreak of the first world war

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/04/
firstworldwar-national-newspapers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 August 1914

 

Great Britain declares war on Germany

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/mirror01_01.shtml

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/rotogravures/rototime1.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/30/
britain-first-world-war-biggest-error-niall-ferguson

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/05/
england-declares-war-germany-1914

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28 July 1914

 

Austro-Hungarian artillery

and gunboats on the Danube

begin shelling Serbia

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/29/opinion/adam-hochschild-why-world-war-i-was-such-a-blood-bath.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/29/
opinion/adam-hochschild-why-world-war-i-was-such-a-blood-bath.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First world war:

how the Manchester Guardian

fought to keep Britain out of conflict

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/02/sp-first-world-war-manchester-guardian-uk-neutrality

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/02/
sp-first-world-war-manchester-guardian-uk-neutrality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Causes of the First World War / Debate on the war’s origins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There was intense rivalry

between nations

over the strength

of their armies and navies

leading up to the war.

 

The German Kaiser

wanted his forces to match

the armies of France and Russia

and his navy to rival Britain.

 

The growing potential

threat from Germany,

as well as Germany's alliance

with Austria-Hungary and Italy,

brought Britain, France and Russia

into alliance.

 

The rivalries between the countries

were also stoked by competition

over the size and extent

of their empires.

 

In particular,

many European powers

were competing for land and wealth

in Africa.

 

Finally,

the potential for conflict

was growing between

smaller European countries,

such as those of the Balkans,

which sought self rule,

and the larger nations

that wished to continue

governing them.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/four-main-causes-of-the-first-world-war/5646.html

 

 

(...)

 

the military,

diplomatic and political crises

that framed the road to war

from 1870 to 1914.

 

Europe’s state system

suffered from the problem

that Prussia,

having defeated France in 1870,

united Germany

and annexed Alsace-Lorraine,

had guaranteed

the lasting enmity of Paris.

 

Otto von Bismarck

avoided trouble for 20 years

by aligning Germany

with the conservative monarchies

of Russia and Austria-Hungary,

but his successors

were more careless

in their diplomacy.

 

In particular, they allowed

Germany’s Reinsurance treaty

with Russia to lapse in 1890,

a step that opened the door

to the Franco-Russian

alliance of 1894,

heightening German fears

of encirclement.

 

Then the kaiser

and Alfred von Tirpitz,

his grand admiral,

started a naval arms race

with Britain in 1898,

failing to see that

this was the worst possible way

to persuade London

to cede Germany

the “place in the sun”

for which its leaders clamoured.

 

(...)

 

Events in the decade before 1914

pushed Europe closer to war.

 

After Britain and France

settled their colonial disputes

in the Entente Cordiale,

Germany tried to exploit

the first Moroccan crisis of 1905-06

to drive a wedge between them.

 

Rivalry between Vienna

and St Petersburg intensified

thanks to diplomatic duplicity

and incompetence on both sides

over Austria-Hungary’s annexation

of Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1908.

 

Arguably,

the second Moroccan crisis of 1911

and two Balkan wars in 1912-13

inured politicians, generals

and the European public

to the idea that war

was becoming inevitable.

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/248f6960-29d3-11e3-bbb8-00144feab7de.html

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/four-main-causes-of-the-first-world-war/5646.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/underlyingcausesrev1.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/tensionrev1.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/yugoslavia_01.shtml

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/03/06/
285893848/how-bad-directions-and-a-sandwich-started-world-war-i

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/14/
opinion/macmillan-the-great-wars-ominous-echoes.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/
books/review/the-war-that-ended-peace-by-margaret-macmillan.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/18/
books/max-hastings-traces-a-wars-origins-in-catastrophe-1914.html

https://www.ft.com/content/248f6960-29d3-11e3-bbb8-00144feab7de

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 28, 1914

 

Sarajevo,  Bosnia Herzegovina

 

A Bosnian Serb, Gavrilo Princip,

assassinates Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria,

heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne

 

 

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/248f6960-29d3-11e3-bbb8-00144feab7de.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/underlyingcausesrev1.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A11873900

http://london.iwm.org.uk/server/show/conEvent.2495

http://www.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/95/index.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/06/
gavrilo-princip-hero-villain-first-world-war-balkan-history

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/apr/15/
first-world-war-gavrilo-princip-terrorist-freedom-fighter-revisionism

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/
first-world-war-franz-ferdinand-sarajevo

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/25/firstworldwar.exhibition

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1914/jun/29/fromthearchive

http://www.theguardian.com/century/year/0,,128312,00.html - 1914

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balkan Wars        1912-1913

 

two successive military conflicts

that deprived the Ottoman Empire

of almost all its remaining territory

in Europe.

 

The First Balkan War

was fought

between the members

of the Balkan League

—Serbia, Bulgaria,

Greece, and Montenegro—

and the Ottoman Empire.

 

The Balkan League

was formed

under Russian auspices

in the spring of 1912

to take Macedonia

away from Turkey,

which was already involved

in a war with Italy.

 

The league

was able to field

a combined force

of 750,000 men.

 

Montenegro

opened hostilities

by declaring war on Turkey

on Oct. 8, 1912,

and the other members

of the league

followed suit 10 days later.

 

The Balkan allies

were soon victorious.

 

In Thrace,

the Bulgarians defeated

the main Ottoman forces,

advancing to the outskirts

of Constantinople

(now Istanbul)

and laying siege

to Adrianople

(Edirne).

 

In Macedonia,

the Serbian army achieved

a great victory at Kumanovo

that enabled it to capture Bitola

and to join forces

with the Montenegrins

and enter Skopje.

 

The Greeks, meanwhile,

occupied Salonika

(Thessaloníki)

and advanced on Ioánnina.

 

In Albania,

the Montenegrins

besieged Shkodër,

and the Serbs

entered Durrës.

http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/50300/Balkan-Wars

 

 

https://global.britannica.com/topic/Balkan-Wars 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/tensionrev1.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2011/jan/11/
archive-a-study-of-the-balkan-war-1913

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

David Lloyd George        1890-1945

 

British Prime Minister        1916-1922

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/george_david_lloyd.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Herbert Henry Asquith    1852-1928

 

British Prime Minister    1908-1916

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/asquith_herbert.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winston Churchill        1874-1965

 

 

 

The Great War in Portraits – in pictures

 

Astonishing medical drawings of mutilated soldiers, scenes from the Somme,

and paintings that reveal the filth and gore forced into the minds of all involved ...

for the first world war’s centenary, the National Portrait Gallery has put on an exhibition

that truly shows the haunting horror of war

 

Churchill by Sir William Orpen, 1916.

Photograph: National Portrait Gallery London

 

G        Tuesday 25 February 2014        17.07 GMT

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/feb/25/the-great-war-in-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/churchill_winston.shtml

https://www.iwm.org.uk/history/a-short-history-of-the-dardanelles-campaign 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1907

 

France, Russia and Britain        Triple Entente

 

 

The Triple Entente

was created in reaction

to the forming

of the Triple Alliance,

and included Britain,

France and Russia.

 

An alliance was formed

between Russia and France

in 1894.

 

By 1904

Britain began talks with Russia

and decided that it should come

out of its 'splendid isolation',

joining the Entente Cordiale

('Friendly Agreement').

 

By 1907,

Foreign Minister

Sir Edward Grey

negotiated Britain

into the Triple Entente,

and united three old enemies.

 

In contrast

to the Triple Alliance,

the terms of the Entente

did not require each country

to go to war

on behalf of the others,

but stated that they had

a 'moral obligation'

to support each other.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/causes2_01.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/causes2_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WW1    Timeline

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/rotogravures/rototime1.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/remembrance/timeline/timeline-1917.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/summary_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1882

 

Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy

formed the Triple Alliance

 

 

This alarmed

France, Britain and Russia.

 

By 1907,

they had all joined

the Triple Entente.

 

Europe was divided

into two armed camps,

to help each other

if there was a war.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/
gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/underlyingcausesrev1.shtml

 

 

 

Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy

formed the Triple Alliance.

 

In 1882,

they signed a document

that promised they would give

each other military support

in case of a war.

 

The Alliance agreement stated

it was 'essentially

defensive and conservative'

with the aim of stopping anyone

who 'might threaten' the three nations.

 

The alliance formed between

Germany and Austria-Hungary

had strong ethnic ties.

 

Germany and Austria-Hungary

shared borders

and (in many regions)

the German language,

as well as a desire

to add to their territories.

 

Austria-Hungary

specifically wanted the Balkans.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/causes1_01.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/causes1_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/underlyingcausesrev1.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/underlyingcausesrev2.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WW1        Glossary

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/glossary/index.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

National Archives        First world war

 

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BBC        The Great War

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/197437.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/overview_britain_ww1_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shot at dawn        Executed for Example

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/jun/29/
chloe-dewe-mathews-shot-at-dawn-moving-photographic-memorial-first-world-war

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2006/sep/05/military.richardnortontaylor

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/aug/16/military.immigrationpolicy 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2006/aug/16/military.samjones 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/08/16/npardon16.xml

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?view=
BLOGDETAIL&grid=P30&blog=yourview&xml=/news/2006/08/16/ublview16.xml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4796579.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/4798025.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/shot_at_dawn_01.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/lincolnshire/4561447.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1399983.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwone/shot_at_dawn_02.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Siegfried Sassoon (1886-1967)        Poems

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/greatpoets/sassoon/0,,2260116,00.html  

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/209544.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/sassoon_siegfried.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/audiointerviews/profilepages/sassoons1.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/52564.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 August 2014

 

First world war's

forgotten Chinese Labour Corps

to get recognition at last

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/14/first-world-war-forgotten-chinese-labour-corps-memorial

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/14/
first-world-war-forgotten-chinese-labour-corps-memorial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nearly 4,000 first world war diaries

made available online - March 2014

 

First-hand accounts

of trench warfare,

gas attacks and horseback battles

digitised by National Archive

and Imperial War Museum

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/13/
first-world-war-diaries-online-national-archive

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/13/
first-world-war-diaries-online-national-archive
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The octopuses of war:

WW1 propaganda maps in pictures - 3 June 2014

 

From John Bull

charging across the Channel

to take charge of Europe

to scrapping dogs of all nations,

these remarkable caricatures and cartoons

show how cartography can be turned

into a rhetoric of war

http://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2014/jun/03/
war-ww1-propaganda-maps-in-pictures

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2014/jun/03/
war-ww1-propaganda-maps-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poems and messages

from injured WW1 soldiers

emerge after 92 years - September 2010

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/britain-at-war/7983086/
Poems-and-messages-from-injured-WW1-soldiers-emerge-after-92-years.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A gallery of World War I posters

featured in a show at the Bruce Museum

in Greenwich, Connecticut        USA

November 1, 2008–February 1, 2009

 

http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2008/11/09/nyregion/1109poster_index.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/09/nyregion/connecticut/09artsct.html

https://brucemuseum.org/files/WWIPosters_PRwebPDF.pdf 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Great War in Portraits

 

 

 

The Great War in Portraits – in pictures

 

Astonishing medical drawings

of mutilated soldiers, scenes from the Somme,

and paintings that reveal the filth and gore

forced into the minds of all involved ...

 

for the first world war’s centenary,

the National Portrait Gallery has put on an exhibition

that truly shows the haunting horror of war

 

Soldier with facial wounds by Henry Tonks, 1916-18.

Photograph: The Royal College of Surgeons of England

 

G        Tuesday 25 February 2014        17.07 GMT

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/feb/25/the-great-war-in-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/feb/25/
the-great-war-in-portraits-review-national-portrait-gallery

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/feb/25/
the-great-war-in-portraits-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

World War I: Unseen Images from the front        May 2014

 

 

 

German soldiers (rear) offering to surrender to French troops,

seen from a listening post in a trench at Massiges, northeastern France.

 

Boston Globe > Big Picture

World War I: Unseen Images from the front        May 28, 2014

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/05/world_war_i_unseen_images_from_the_front.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A viscount

in the Armoured Cavalry Branch

of the French Army left behind

a collection of hundreds of glass plates

taken during World War I

that have never before been published.

 

The images,

by an unknown photographer,

show the daily life

of soldiers in the trenches,

destruction of towns

and military leaders.

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/05/world_war_i_unseen_images_from_the_front.html

 

 

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2014/05/
world_war_i_unseen_images_from_the_front.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How the first world war

changed north-west England – in pictures - 3 April 2014

 

An exhibition to mark 100 years

since the start of the first world war

opens at the IWM North on Saturday.

 

It reveals the important contribution

made by the north-west during the war

and includes loans of treasures

such as original manuscripts

from the Bodleian library in Oxford

of first drafts of poems by Wilfred Owen

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2014/apr/03/first-world-war-north-west-england-in-pictures

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2014/apr/03/
first-world-war-north-west-england-in-pictures
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New! More unseen photographs from the First World War

 

A treasure trove of pictures

showing the unknown soldiers of the Somme

caused a sensation when it was published here last May.

 

But that was only the beginning of the story...

 

By John Lichfield        The Independent        Saturday, 29 May 2010

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
new-more-unseen-photographs-from-the-first-world-war-1984325.html

 

Source: Image from Folder 2 / File Tommy 0912 34

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/new-more-unseen-photographs-from-the-first-world-war-1984325.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 17th - early 21st century

 

United Kingdom / British Empire / England

 

 

20th century > Northern Ireland

 

 

British mandate in Palestine > Timeline > 1920-1948

 

 

WW1 (1914-1918) > USA

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

genocide, war,

weapons, espionage, torture

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

The Guardian > Special report > First world war

https://www.theguardian.com/world/firstworldwar

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/aug/23/neglected-figures-of-past-deserve-memorial-too

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/01/first-world-war-centenary-michael-morpurgo

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-key-figures-gallery?picture=339451388

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2008/oct/07/firstworldwar?picture=338366191

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/armistice-day-the-great-war-and-the-words-we-mustnt-forget-1818092.html

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/armistice-90-years-on-all-those-pals-of-mine-should-be-here-1012492.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/nov/09/armistice-day-first-world-war

http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2008/nov/08/family-military-first-world-war

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-mobilisation
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-anti-war-sentiments

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/nov/05/poetry-andrewmotion

http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/features/
band-of-brothers-a-tale-of-war-loss-and-remembrance-on-the-killing-fields-of-france-994636.html

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/the-killing-fields-of-the-first-world-war-979730.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/aug/24/firstworldwar.military

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-anti-war-sentiments

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-03-27-cover-ww1-vet_N.htm

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/08/first-world-war-anti-war-sentiments

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/197437.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/

http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/

 

 

 

The Guardian

A global guide to the first world war - interactive documentary        23 July 2014

 

Ten historians from 10 countries

give a brief history of the first world war through a global lens.

 

Using original news reports, interactive maps and rarely-seen footage,

including extraordinary scenes of troops crossing Mesopotamia on camels

and Italian soldiers fighting high up in the Alps,

the half-hour film explores the war

and its effects from many different perspectives.

 

You can watch the documentary

in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Arabic or Hindi

thanks to our partnership with the British Academy.

 

Warning: contains images some viewers may find disturbing

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2014/jul/23/
a-global-guide-to-the-first-world-war-interactive-documentary

 

 

Le Canada et la Première Guerre mondiale

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/premiereguerre/025005-5000-f.html

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/whats-new/013-285-f.html

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/premiereguerre/index-f.html

 

 

Le Monde > Centenaire 14-18

http://www.lemonde.fr/centenaire-14-18/ 

 

 

Série documentaire en huit épisodes > 1914 : des armes et des mots        2014

 

Une bouleversante saga documentaire

en huit épisodes

qui restitue le cataclysme de la Grande Guerre

à travers quatorze destins singuliers,

racontés par des lettres et des journaux intimes.

 

Ces points de vue subjectifs de "héros du quotidien"

sont complétés par des archives rares,

clichés d’époque ou actualités filmées.

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/044397-001/1914-des-armes-et-des-mots-1-8

http://www.arte.tv/sites/fr/pages/premiere-guerre-mondiale/

 

 

Le dessous des cartes

1914 : LES ÉTINCELLES DE LA GUERRE

Cette émission a été diffusée la première fois en janvier 2014

http://ddc.arte.tv/emission/1914-les-etincelles-de-la-guerre

 

 

From The Trenches To The Web: British WWI Diaries Digitized

NPR        January 23, 2014        3:40 AM

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/01/23/264532419/
from-the-trenches-to-the-web-british-wwi-diaries-digitized

http://nationalarchives.gov.uk/first-world-war/

 

 

New! More unseen photographs from the First World War

 

A treasure trove of pictures

showing the unknown soldiers of the Somme

caused a sensation when it was published here last May.

But that was only the beginning of the story...

By John Lichfield        The Independent        Saturday, 29 May 2010

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
new-more-unseen-photographs-from-the-first-world-war-1984325.html

 

 

Exclusive: The unseen photographs

that throw new light on the First World War

 

A treasure trove of First World War photographs

was discovered recently in France.

Published here for the first time,

they show British soldiers on their way to the Somme.

But who took them?

And who were these Tommies marching off to die?

By John Lichfield        The Independent        Friday, 22 May 2009

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
exclusive-the-unseen-photographs-that-throw-new-light-on-the-first-world-war-1688443.html

 

 

 

 

The Guardian > First world war:

share your letters, photographs and stories

https://witness.theguardian.com/assignment/52751e38e4b01fc33230d4aa

https://witness.theguardian.com/assignment/52751e38e4b01fc33230d4aa?INTCMP=mic_231930

 

 

 

 

The New York Times > The Great War

A 100-year legacy of World War I

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/06/27/world/legacy-of-world-war-i.html