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History > 20th century > WW1 (1914-1918) > UK / British empire > Turkey

 

Battle of Gallipoli > February 1915 - January 1916

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 1915 - January 1916

 

Turkey's western coast

Gallipoli / Dardanelles

 

 

By 1915 the Western Front

was clearly deadlocked.

 

Allied strategy

was under scrutiny,

with strong arguments

mounted for an offensive

through the Balkans

or even a landing

on Germany's Baltic coast,

instead of more costly attacks

in France and Belgium.

 

These ideas

were initially sidelined,

but in early 1915

the Russians found themselves

threatened by the Turks

in the Caucasus

and appealed for some relief.

 

The British decided

to mount a naval expedition

to bombard and take

the Gallipoli Peninsula

on the western shore

of the Dardanelles,

with Constantinople

as its objective.

 

By capturing Constantinople,

the British hoped to link up

with the Russians,

knock Turkey out of the war

and possibly persuade

the Balkan states

to join the Allies.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/battle_gallipoli.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

When war broke out in 1914,

Australia had been

a federal commonwealth

for only 14 years

and was keen to make its mark

on the international stage.

 

For most Australians,

the war was seen

as a joint cause to uphold

and defend civilisation

in which they would fight

not as Queenslanders

or Victorians,

but as Australians.

 

In 1915,

Australian

and New Zealand soldiers

- the ANZACs -

formed part of the Allied

expedition to capture

the Gallipoli peninsula

which was supposed

to knock Turkey

out of the war.

 

Rather than the intended

knockout blow,

the campaign became

one of the war’s great,

if heroic, defeats.

 

Turkish forces put up

unexpectedly stiff resistance

and a costly slog followed,

ending in the evacuation

of Allied troops

eight months later.

 

Both sides

had suffered

heavy casualties,

with British forces

losing 30,000 killed,

French 10,000,

Indian 1,500 (.)

 

Over 11,000 ANZACs

also died -

c.8,000 Australians

and c.3,000 New Zealanders.

http://archive.iwm.org.uk/upload/pdf/Additional_Resources_Activity_2_Shaping_National_Identities.pdf

 

 

 

 

In nine months

of bloody slaughter,

about 58,000 allied soldiers

– including 29,000

British and Irish soldiers

and 11,000

Australians

and New Zealanders –

lost their lives

during the ill-starred operation

to take the Gallipoli peninsula;

 

a further 87,000

Ottoman Turkish troops

died fiercely

defending their homeland,

and at least 300,000 more

on both sides

were seriously wounded.

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2015/apr/24/
remembering-gallipoli-honouring-bravery-amid-bloody-slaughter

 

 

 

 


The Allies and Germany

had reached a stalemate

on the Western Front

just months into World War One

 

Britain and France thought

they could help Russia

on the Eastern Front

by defeating Germany's

Turkish allies

- the Ottoman Empire

 

After a failed naval attack,

the Allies tried to capture

Constantinople (now Istanbul)

via the Gallipoli Peninsula

by land assault

 

British, French

and their dominions' troops

- including soldiers

from Australia, New Zealand,

India and Newfoundland -

took part

 

They faced

months of shelling,

sniper fire and dysentery,

before abandoning

the campaign

 

55,000 Allied troops

died for no material gain,

although the Turkish Army

was tied down for eight months

 

86,000 Turkish troops died.

Commander Mustafa Kemal survived

and went on to found modern Turkey

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-32432725

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/battle_gallipoli.shtml 

http://archive.iwm.org.uk/upload/pdf/
Additional_Resources_Activity_2_Shaping_National_Identities.pdf 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/203383.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_8234000/8234106.stm

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2015/apr/24/
gallipoli-what-happened-military-disaster-legacy

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02pt6q5

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2015/04/24/
401963898/remembering-gallipoli-a-wwi-battle-that-shaped-todays-middle-east

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-32432725 - 23 April 2015

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02plvtr - 20 April 2015

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2015/apr/24/
remembering-gallipoli-honouring-bravery-amid-bloody-slaughter

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2015/apr/24/
my-grandfather-survived-gallipoli-im-at-anzac-cove-for-him-and-those-who-didnt-make-it

http://www.theguardian.com/news/ng-interactive/2015/apr/23/
gravestones-of-gallipoli-tributes-to-lost-anzac-heroes-interactive

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-32281865

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2015/apr/22/
anzac-day-and-gallipoli-100-years-on-share-your-stories

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2012/oct/31/
winston-churchill-national-portrait-gallery

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/12/
gallipoli-diary-dardanelles-campaign 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4479843.stm

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/1915/dec/20/
mainsection.fromthearchive

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/1915/apr/28/
fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29 October 1914

 

Turkey

(then known as the Ottoman Empire)

enters the war

in alliance with Germany

and Austria-Hungary

 

 

The Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

enters the war

on the side of the Germans

as three warships shell

the Russian port of Odessa.

 

Three days later,

Russia declares war

on Turkey.

 

Russian and Turkish troops

then prepare for battle

along the common border

of the Russian Caucasus

and the Ottoman Empire.

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1914.html

 

 

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1914.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Short History Of The Dardanelles Campaign

 

Imperial War Museums

By Nigel Steel, Principal Historian

 

 

A narrow 60-mile-long

strip of water

that divides Europe from Asia,

the Dardanelles

has been of great strategic

significance for centuries.

 

Carefully secured

by international treaty,

it was the closing of the Dardanelles

that eventually brought

the Ottoman Empire

into the war as a German ally

at the end of October 1914.

 

By late 1914,

movement

on the Western Front

had ground to a halt.

 

Some Allied leaders

suggested

opening new fronts

to break the deadlock,

shorten the war

and avoid heavier loss of life.

 

Soon after

the start of the new year,

Great Britain and France

attempted to force

the Dardanelles

and attack Constantinople

(now Istanbul),

the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

 

Many in Britain,

notably

the First Lord of the Admiralty,

Winston Churchill,

believed that knocking

the Ottomans out of the war

would undermine Germany.

 

They theorised

that as a result of this attack,

Britain and France would be able

to help their weakest partner, Russia;

that the Suez Canal and Britain’s

Middle Eastern oil interests

would be secured;

and that undecided Balkan states,

including Bulgaria and Greece,

would join the Allied side.

 

It was an exciting

and alluring proposition.

 

But it was based

on the mistaken belief

that the Ottomans were weak

and could easily be overcome.

 

On 19 February 1915,

British and French ships

began a naval assault

on the Dardanelles.

 

The fighting culminated

in a heavy setback

for the Allies on 18 March

due to large losses

from Turkish mines.

 

Military landings

on the Gallipoli peninsula

followed on 25 April.

 

Contained

by the Ottoman defenders,

a new assault

began on 6 August.

 

Each fresh attempt

was defeated,

and by mid-January 1916,

all Allied troops

had been evacuated

and the attack

on the Dardanelles

abandoned.

 

For the Ottomans,

it was a major achievement.

 

The Allies succeeded

only in attrition,

killing thousands

of Ottoman soldiers.

 

Even this exacted a high price;

total casualties for the campaign

were more than half a million.

 

The Dardanelles campaign

remains one of the First World War’s

most controversial episodes.

http://www.iwm.org.uk/history/a-short-history-of-the-dardanelles-campaign

added 27 April 2015

 

 

http://www.iwm.org.uk/history/a-short-history-of-the-dardanelles-campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 17th - early 21st century

 

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Related

 

The Guardian

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallipoli

http://www.theguardian.com/news/anzac-day

 

 

 

 

The Guardian > Special report > First world war

https://www.theguardian.com/world/firstworldwar

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/aug/23/
neglected-figures-of-past-deserve-memorial-too

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/01/
first-world-war-centenary-michael-morpurgo

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2008/nov/08/
first-world-war-key-figures-gallery?picture=339451388

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2008/oct/07/
firstworldwar?picture=338366191

 

 

 

 

The Guardian

A global guide to the first world war - interactive documentary        23 July 2014

 

Ten historians from 10 countries

give a brief history of the first world war

through a global lens.

 

Using original news reports,

interactive maps and rarely-seen footage,

including extraordinary scenes of troops

crossing Mesopotamia on camels

and Italian soldiers fighting high up in the Alps,

the half-hour film explores the war

and its effects from many different perspectives.

 

You can watch the documentary

in English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Arabic or Hindi

thanks to our partnership with the British Academy.

 

Warning: contains images some viewers may find disturbing

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2014/jul/23/
a-global-guide-to-the-first-world-war-interactive-documentary

 

 

 

 

Le Canada et la Première Guerre mondiale

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/premiereguerre/025005-5000-f.html

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/whats-new/013-285-f.html

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/premiereguerre/index-f.html

 

 

 

 

Le Monde > Centenaire 14-18

http://www.lemonde.fr/centenaire-14-18/

 

 

 

 

Série documentaire en huit épisodes > 1914 : des armes et des mots        2014

 

Une bouleversante saga documentaire en huit épisodes

qui restitue le cataclysme de la Grande Guerre

à travers quatorze destins singuliers,

racontés par des lettres et des journaux intimes.

Ces points de vue subjectifs de "héros du quotidien"

sont complétés par des archives rares,

clichés d’époque ou actualités filmées.

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/044397-001/1914-des-armes-et-des-mots-1-8

http://www.arte.tv/sites/fr/pages/premiere-guerre-mondiale/

 

 

 

 

Le dessous des cartes

1914 : LES ÉTINCELLES DE LA GUERRE

Cette émission a été diffusée la première fois en janvier 2014

http://ddc.arte.tv/emission/1914-les-etincelles-de-la-guerre

 

 

 

 

From The Trenches To The Web: British WWI Diaries Digitized

NPR        January 23, 2014        3:40 AM

http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2014/01/23/
264532419/from-the-trenches-to-the-web-british-wwi-diaries-digitized

http://nationalarchives.gov.uk/first-world-war/

 

 

New! More unseen photographs from the First World War

 

A treasure trove of pictures

showing the unknown soldiers of the Somme

caused a sensation when it was published here last May.

But that was only the beginning of the story...

By John Lichfield        The Independent        Saturday, 29 May 2010

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
new-more-unseen-photographs-from-the-first-world-war-1984325.html

 

 

 

 

Exclusive: The unseen photographs

that throw new light on the First World War
 

A treasure trove of First World War photographs

was discovered recently in France.

Published here for the first time,

they show British soldiers on their way to the Somme.

But who took them?

And who were these Tommies marching off to die?

By John Lichfield        The Independent        Friday, 22 May 2009

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
exclusive-the-unseen-photographs-that-throw-new-light-on-the-first-world-war-1688443.html

 

 

 

 

The Guardian > First world war:

share your letters, photographs and stories

https://witness.theguardian.com/assignment/52751e38e4b01fc33230d4aa

https://witness.theguardian.com/assignment/
52751e38e4b01fc33230d4aa?INTCMP=mic_231930

 

 

 

 

The New York Times > The Great War

A 100-year legacy of World War I

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/06/27/
world/legacy-of-world-war-i.html