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History > Before 17th century > England > Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

Anne Boleyn

by Unknown artist

oil on panel, late 16th century (circa 1533-1536)
 

21 3/8 in. x 16 3/8 in. (543 mm x 416 mm)

Purchased, 1882

Primary Collection

NPG 668

Sitter: Anne Boleyn (1507-1536),

Second Queen of Henry VIII.

Sitter associated with 18 portraits.

Artist: Unknown artist.

Artist associated with 6531 portraits.

This Portrait

There are few contemporary portraits of Anne Boleyn

and this painting derives from an earlier version.

She was described as having a long neck, wide mouth

and with 'eyes which were black and beautiful'.

oil on panel of Anne Boleyn,

held at the National Portrait Gallery, London: NPG 668

Text from Primary source

http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait.php?search=ap&npgno=668&eDate=&lDate=

Image from

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Anne_boleyn.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anne_boleyn.jpg

Primary source for image

http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait.php?search=ap&npgno=668&eDate=&lDate=

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Boleyn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Marprelate tracts        1588-1589

 

http://www.anglicanlibrary.org/marprelate/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth I

 

Sir Francis Drake        The Spanish Armada        1588

 

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/museum/item.asp?item_id=16

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth I

 

Articles Touching Preachers

and Other Orders for the Church        1583

 

http://history.hanover.edu/texts/ENGref/er84.html

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth I

 

The Subscription (Thirty-Nine Articles) Act

 

1571 / 13 Elizabeth, Cap. 12

 

http://history.hanover.edu/texts/ENGref/er83.html

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth I        1533-1603        r. 1558-1603

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/monarchs_leaders/elizabeth_i_01.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/nov/27/
long-lost-overpainted-portrait-reveals-young-queen-elizabeth-i

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/jul/29/
armada-portrait-elizabeth-i-bought-britain-heritage-lottery-fund-royal-museums-greenwich

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/24/
arts/design/campaign-underway-to-save-a-queen-elizabeth-portrait.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/oct/09/
sir-walter-raleigh-crescent-moon-elizabeth-i

http://www.npg.org.uk/whatson/elizabethi/exhibition.php

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2013/feb/13/
elizabeth-first-portrait-face-age-unhappiness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17 Protestant are burnt

at the stake in Lewes, East Sussex

during the Marian persecutions

of 1555–57

 

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/gallery/2012/nov/06/
bonfire-night-lewes-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mary, Queen of Scots        r. 1542-67

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/renaissance/features_renaissance_mary.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Mary I of England        1516-1558

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mary_i_queen.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lady Jane Grey    (1537-1554)        1553

 

Nominal Queen of England

for just nine days in 1553

in an unsuccessful bid

to prevent the accession

of the Catholic Mary Tudor.

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/grey_lady_jane.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Edward VI        (1537-1553)

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/edward_vi_king.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1539

 

Dissolution of the monasteries,

Glastonbury, Somerset

 

 

Revolution from the top,

as King Henry VIII got rid

of 900 monasteries

in five years,

in the process dispersing

15,000 monks and nuns.

 

The money

from selling their land

was intended to increase

the revenue of the crown,

but in fact went towards

funding Henry’s

foreign wars.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tudor monarchs        Henry VIII        r. 1509-1547        1491-1547

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/henry_viii_king.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/oct/21/
history-tudor-henry-viii-fragile-underside-tracy-borman

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2010/feb/23/
anne-boleyn-guilty-adultery-biography-claims

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anne Boleyn        c.1504 - c.1536

 

Queen of England

from 1533 to 1536

as the second wife

of King Henry VIII

(1491-1547),

mother of Elizabeth I

(1533-1603)

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/boleyn_anne.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/feb/16/
anne-boleyn-portrait-found-using-facial-recognition-software

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/may/11/hilary-mantel-on-anne-boleyn

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/feb/23/anne-boleyn-guilty-adultery-biography-claims

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/oct/23/featuresreviews.guardianreview3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1497

 

First Act of Parliament kept at Westminster

 

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/
pathways/citizenship/citizen_subject/docs/first_act.htm
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry VII        r. 1485-1509        1457-1509

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/henry_vii_king.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English Reformation  / Puritanism

 

Puritan and Reformed Writings

 

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/religion/puritan.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The House of Lancaster and the House of York

 

War of the Roses        1455-1487/1499

 

 

 

Map of the battles of the Wars of the Roses

added 22.5.2005

http://www.warsoftheroses.com/map.cfm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wars_of_the_Roses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Richard III    (1452-1485)        r.1483-1485

 

The last Plantagenet / The last Yorkist king of England

 

 

 

King Richard III by Unknown artist

Scanned from the book

The National Portrait Gallery History

of the Kings and Queens of England

by David Williamson, ISBN 1855142287

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/King_Richard_III.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:King_Richard_III.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_III_of_England

King Richard III by Unknown artist

Date: late 16th century

Medium: oil on panel

Measurements: 22 1/2 in. x 17 5/8 in. (570 mm x 448 mm) uneven

NPG 4980(12)

http://keidahl.terranhost.com/Spring/EUH3501England/ImagesRichardIII.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/richard_iii_king.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/insideout/eastmidlands/series3/richardthethird_battleofbosworth.shtml 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/richard-iii 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/27/world/europe/king-richard-iii-burial-leicester.html

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/mar/26/britain-king-richard-iii-tyrant

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/mar/22/richard-iii-reburial-procession-bosworth-leicester

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/video/2014/dec/02/skeleton-car-park-richard-iii-dna-analysis-video

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/sep/16/richard-iii-died-battle-losing-helmet-new-research

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/mar/27/richard-iii-remains-leicester-doubt-car-park-academics

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2013/sep/04/richard-iii-roundworm-infection-scientists

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/feb/05/richard-scoliosis-me-twisted-spines

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2013/feb/04/richard-iii-dna-bones-king

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/feb/05/king-richard-iii-found

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2013/feb/05/king-richard-iii-face-recreated

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/interactive/2013/feb/05/richard-iii-face-reconstruction-interactive

http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2013/feb/04/richard-iii-video-clips

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/dec/18/king-richard-inn-recreated-archaeologists

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2010/feb/19/battle-of-bosworth-site-confirmed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Wars of the Roses

 

Battle of Bosworth, Leicestershire        1485

 

 

This was the last

major engagement

of the Wars of the Roses

between the houses

of Lancaster and York,

which had caused

havoc and carnage

across the country

during the late 15th century.

 

Although much glamorised

in the ensuing centuries

as a clash between

the forces of good and evil,

the victory of Henry VII’s

Tudor forces

over those of Richard III

were a defining moment

in English

and Anglo-Welsh history;

this was the start

of the Tudor dynasty

and a death blow

to the Plantagenets.

 

The drama of Bosworth

has continued

into the 21st century

with the discovery

of Richard’s remains

beneath

a Leicester car park.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Lydgate:

Chaucer contemporary's coded graffiti

recalls lost literary talent

 

Striking discovery

in a Suffolk church

reawakens interest

in the once-revered prolific writer

and 14th-century monk

 

(...)

 

Historians

studying graffiti

in ancient churches

have found

what they believe

might be writing

by one of medieval

English literature's

most extraordinary

"lost" talents

– including his signature.

 

Benedictine monk

John Lydgate,

a contemporary

of Chaucer

who wrote

for three kings

and the late 14th

and early 15th-century

social elite,

was one

of the most prolific

English writers.

 

(...)

 

More than

150,000 lines of verse

are attributed to Lydgate,

a vast output ranging

from satires to histories,

epigrams,

romances and plays,

many of them written

in the late

Middle English style

pioneered by Chaucer.

 

Lydgate

idolised Chaucer,

calling his fellow poet

the "lodestar",

and he befriended

Chaucer's son,

Thomas,

and granddaughter,

Alice.

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/mar/29/john-lydgate-graffiti-chaucer-monk-literary-talent

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/mar/29/
john-lydgate-graffiti-chaucer-monk-literary-talent

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/mar/29/
medieval-graffiti-pictures-lydgate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Death (...)

ravaged Britain and Europe

in the mid-14th century

 

The Black Death

arrived in Britain

from central Asia

in the autumn of 1348

and by late spring

the following year

it had killed six

out of every 10 people

in London.

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/29/
black-death-not-spread-rat-fleas-london-plague

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/may/23/
eye-watering-scale-of-black-deaths-impact-on-england-revealed

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/29/
black-death-not-spread-rat-fleas-london-plague

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moyen Âge  /  Middle Ages

 

La guerre dite de cent ans / The Hundred Years' War        1337-1451/3

 

 

chronologie / rois / batailles / enluminures / chroniques

 

 

Bataille de Crécy        1346

 

Bataille de Poitiers        1356

 

Bataille d'Azincourt    1415

 

 

Traité de Troyes    1420

 

 

Edouard III / Charles V (1338-1380)

 

 

Richard II / Armagnacs et Bourguignons

 

 

Henri V / Charles VI / Henri VI / Charles VII / Jeanne d'Arc

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/

 

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/froissart1.asp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1381

 

Peasants’ Revolt, London

 

 

Besieged

by a “mob”

from all over

the south-east

of England

who held

multiple grievances,

the Tower of London

turned

from commanding fort

to desperate refuge

for the boy king

Richard II.

 

When he then went

to negotiate

with Wat Tyler’s

advancing rebels

at Mile End, east London,

others of their number

managed to get into

the Tower,

killing many,

including

the lord high treasurer

Sir Robert Hales.

 

Some, including

the Archbishop

of Canterbury,

Simon of Sudbury,

sought sanctuary

in the romanesque

Chapel of St John the Evangelist

in the White Tower,

but in vain.

 

Like Hales,

he was beheaded.

 

The keep at the heart

of the fortification

is a formidable emblem

of power and authority

but the rebels,

enraged

by their serfdom

and the imposition

of taxes

for foreign wars,

were able to force

their way in

and made off

with all the weapons

they could find.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Richard II        r. 1377-1399

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward III        1312-1377        r. 1327-1377

 

http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon32.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 23, 1305

 

Scottish hero Sir William Wallace

is hanged

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/aug/23/
markoliver

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Edward I        r. 1272-1307

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_I_of_England

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King John (r. 1199-1216) > Magna Carta - 1215

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romanesque France

at the time of the first Capetians (987-1152)

 

1152

 

Louis VII répudie

Aliénor d'Aquitaine,

qui épouse

le roi d'Angleterre

Henri Plantagenêt

 

 

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantagen%C3%AAts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norman French words        English language

 

The Norman Conquest and Middle English        1100-1500

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Conquest

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1066

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/lj/conquestlj/legacy_04.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King John        1167-1216        r. 1199-1216

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/john_i_king.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norman England

 

King Richard I the Lionheart        1157-1199        r.1189-1199

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/nor_king_richard_lionheart.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/monarchs_leaders/john_01.shtml 

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/1192peace.asp 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England and France

 

 

Normans

 

 

Battle of Hastings        Death of King Harold       1066

 

 

La tapisserie de Bayeux

 

 

Duke William of Normandy

crowned King of England        r. 1066-1087

 

 

 

 

Section of the late 11th-century Bayeux Tapestry

showing a (perhaps fanciful) representation of Harold,

fatally wounded by a French arrow.

 

akg-images /Erich Lessing

http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/M/monarchy/battles/hastings.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/gallery/2012/oct/15/
battle-of-hastings-reenactment-east-sussex-in-pictures

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/ang_hastings.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/normans/1066_06.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/

http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon22.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Normans        Henry I 'Beauclerc'    r. 1100-1135

 

 

William II

was followed

on the throne

by his younger brother,

Henry.

 

He was crowned

three days after

his brother's death,

against the possibility

that his eldest brother

Robert

might claim

the English throne.

 

After the decisive battle

of Tinchebrai in 1106

in France,

Henry completed

his conquest of Normandy

from Robert, who then

(unusually even for that time)

spent

the last 28 years of his life

as his brother's prisoner.

 

An energetic, decisive

and occasionally cruel ruler,

Henry centralised

the administration

of England and Normandy

in the royal court,

using 'viceroys'

in Normandy

and a group of advisers

in England

to act on his behalf

when he was absent

across the Channel.

 

Henry successfully sought

to increase royal revenues,

as shown by the official

records of his exchequer

(the Pipe Roll of 1130,

the first exchequer account

to survive).

 

He established

peaceful relations

with Scotland,

through his marriage

to Mathilda of Scotland.

https://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheNormans/HenryIBeauclerc.aspx -broken link

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/05/23/
408996585/historian-may-have-discovered-henry-is-final-resting-place

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guillaume le Conquérant

 

William I the Conqueror / William the Bastard        1027-1087

 

 

Planning battle Row over plan to build homes over unsung battle of 1066

G        p. 4        23 May 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Born around 1028,

William

was the illegitimate son

of Duke Robert I

of Normandy,

and Herleve

(also known as Arlette),

daughter of a tanner

in Falaise.

 

Known as

'William the Bastard'

to his contemporaries,

his illegitimacy

shaped his career

when he was young.

 

On his father's death in 1035,

William was recognised

by his family as the heir

- an exception

to the general rule

that illegitimacy

barred succession.

 

His great uncle looked

after the Duchy

during William's minority,

and his overlord,

King Henry I of France,

knighted him

at the age of 15.

 

From 1047 onwards,

William successfully

dealt with rebellion

inside Normandy

involving his kinsmen

and threats

from neighbouring nobles,

including attempted invasions

by his former ally

King Henry I of France in 1054

(the French forces were defeated

at the Battle of Mortemer)

and 1057.

 

William's military

successes and reputation

helped him to negotiate

his marriage to Mathilda,

daughter of Count Baldwin V

of Flanders.

 

At the time

of his invasion of England,

William was

a very experienced

and ruthless

military commander,

ruler and administrator

who had unified Normandy

and inspired fear and respect

outside his duchy.

 

William's claim

to the English throne

was based

on his assertion that,

in 1051,

Edward the Confessor

had promised him the throne

(he was a distant cousin)

and that Harold II

- having sworn in 1064

to uphold William's right

to succeed to that throne

- was therefore a usurper.

 

Furthermore,

William had the support

of Emperor Henry IV

and papal approval.

 

William took seven months

to prepare his invasion force,

using some 600 transport ships

to carry around 7,000 men

(including 2,000-3,000 cavalry)

across the Channel.

 

On 28 September 1066,

with a favourable wind,

William landed unopposed

at Pevensey

and, within a few days,

raised fortifications

at Hastings.

https://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensofEngland/TheNormans/WilliamItheConqueror.aspx

 

 

 

 

En juillet 1035,

Guillaume « le Bâtard »,

fils illégitime

du duc de Normandie,

succède à son père,

décédé lors d'un pèlerinage

à Jérusalem.

 

Après une décennie

de troubles,

le jeune duc parvient

à asseoir son autorité

et fait de la cour

de Normandie

l'une des plus puissantes

et les plus fastueuses

d'Europe.

 

Guillaume

accueille

de nombreux rois en exil,

parmi lesquels

Édouard « le Confesseur »,

prétendant sans descendance

au trône d'Angleterre.

 

Lorsque ce dernier

revient au pouvoir,

il fait de Guillaume

son héritier,

avant de le désavouer

sur son lit de mort

au profit

de son beau-frère Harold,

qui avait pourtant juré fidélité

à Guillaume.

 

Pour récupérer

le royaume

qui lui était promis,

le duc arme une flotte

de plusieurs milliers de navires

et débarque

avec quinze mille hommes

sur le sol anglais.

[ chiffres à vérifier ]

 

Le 14 octobre 1066,

les deux armées

se font face à Hastings.

 

La bataille qui s'ensuivra

fera basculer à jamais

le sort du royaume d'Angleterre.

 

 

 

 

Face sombre

 

Mêlant récits

d'hagiographes de l'époque,

scènes

de reconstitution

spectaculaires

- tournées pour certaines

sur les lieux des événements

qu'elles relatent -

et témoignages de spécialistes

de l'histoire médiévale

de part et d'autre de la Manche,

ce documentaire retrace le règne

de celui qui déclencha

l’une des plus célèbres batailles

de l'histoire d'Angleterre.

 

On y dévoile la face sombre

de ce guerrier intrépide,

fin stratège et politicien,

grand bâtisseur

qui ordonna l'édification

des abbayes aux Hommes

et aux Dames de Caen

- chefs-d'œuvre de l'art roman -

ou de la Tour de Londres,

et mari fidèle follement épris

de son épouse Mathilde…

 

Il fut aussi

un seigneur de guerre impitoyable

qui se livra dès la prise de Londres

à de nombreux massacres et pillages

pour consolider le joug normand

sur l'Angleterre.

 

Des exactions

qu'il prendra soin d'effacer

de la tapisserie de Bayeux,

véritable outil de propagande

à sa gloire,

qui relate en détail

sa conquête de l’Angleterre.

 

Fondateur

d'une nouvelle dynastie,

Guillaume s'éteint à 60 ans

après avoir fait de l'Angleterre

l'un des royaumes

les plus puissants d'Europe,

alors qu'il ne parlait pas

un mot d'anglais,

et sème ainsi les germes

de la future Guerre de Cent ans,

qui éclatera

plus de deux siècles après.

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/046601-000/guillaume-le-conquerant - broken link

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2018/mar/02/
domesday-book-lent-to-british-library-for-anglo-saxon-exhibition 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Harold II        c.1020-66        r. Jan-Oct 1066

 

The last Anglo-Saxon

king of England,

Harold held the crown

for nine months in 1066

 

 

 

http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/M/monarchy/biogs/harold_godwinson.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/harold_ii_king.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The penultimate Anglo-Saxon king

 

King Edward III of England ("The Confessor")

c. 1003-1066        r. 1042-1066

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/edward_confessor.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cross and bed

found in Anglo-Saxon grave

shed new light on 'dark ages'

 

Archaeologists

in Cambridge thrilled

to discover grave with body

of young woman on a bed

with an ornate gold cross

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/mar/16/cross-bed-anglo-saxon-grave

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/mar/16/
cross-bed-anglo-saxon-grave 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bretons, Angles et Saxons

 

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoire_de_la_Manche

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royaume_de_Strathclyde

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoire_de_l'Angleterre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Largest ever hoard

of Anglo-Saxon gold

found in Staffordshire

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/staffordshire-hoard 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2014/mar/12/
staffordshire-hoard-anglo-saxon-gold-treasure-conservation

http://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/mar/06/nicholas-brooks

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/video/2010/feb/10/staffordshire-hoard-potteries-museum

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/nov/26/staffordshire-anglo-saxon-hoard-millions

http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2009/nov/03/staffordshire-treasure-hoard-british-museum

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/sep/27/anglo-saxon-treasure-hoard-staffordshire

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/interactive/2009/sep/24/staffordshire-anglo-saxon-hoard

http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2009/nov/03/iron-age-gold-treasure-found-scotland

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/sep/24/anglo-saxon-treasure-hoard-gold-staffordshire-metal-detector

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viking Age

from the late 8th century

to the early 11th century.

 

The extraordinary

Viking expansion

from the Scandinavian

homelands

during this era

created

a cultural network

with contacts

from the Caspian Sea

to the North Atlantic,

and from the Arctic Circle

to the Mediterranean.

 

(...)

 

Above all,

it was

the maritime character

of Viking society

and their extraordinary

shipbuilding skills

that were key

to their achievements.


(...)

 

around AD 1025,

the high point

of the Viking Age

when England,

Denmark,

Norway

and possibly

parts of Sweden

were united

under the rule

of Cnut the Great.

https://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/news_and_press/press_releases/2013/vikings_life_and_legend.aspx

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/mar/03/
viking-world-british-museum-neil-macgregor-exhibition

http://www.theguardian.com/culture/2014/feb/27/
british-museum-vikings-show-nordic-noir-longboat

https://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/news_and_press/
press_releases/2013/vikings_life_and_legend.aspx

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/jul/04/teeth-viking-warriors-dorset-grave

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/jun/11/skulls-dorset-road-burial-pit

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/mar/16/in-praise-of-vikings

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/feb/17/arts.artsandhumanities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

410

 

Early medieval Britain and Ireland

 

Invaders > abandonment by Honorius

 

 

End of Roman rule

 

Saxon invasion / Anglo-Saxons

(Germanic tribes

that inhabited England

from the 5th century

and dominated until 1066)

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/rom_honorius.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/may/09/
britains-equivalent-to-tutankhamun-found-in-southend-on-sea

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2002/mar/14/education.museums1 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2002/mar/14/2 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2002/mar/14/education.museums

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman Empire > Roman occupation of Britain

 

Emperor  Antoninus Pius > Antoninus' wall        b. 140

 

 

Once

the Roman Empire’s

most northern frontier

in Britain,

it was built

during the years

following 142 AD

on the orders

of the Emperor

Antoninus Pius

(reigned 138-161)

and survived

as the north-west frontier

of the Roman empire

for a generation

before being abandoned

in the 160s

in favour of a return

to Hadrian’s Wall.

 

It stretched for nearly

60 km (40 Roman miles)

across the narrow

waist of Scotland

from Bo’ness

on the River Forth

to Old Kilpatrick

on the River Clyde

and consisted

of a turf rampart

perhaps 3-4 m high

fronted

by a great ditch.

http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/antoninewall - broken link

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/jun/22/
roman-coins-devon-map-empire-ipplepen

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jul/27/
archaeologist-roman-bone-fragments-york

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/charlottehigginsblog/2011/sep/21/museums-roman-britain

http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2011/sep/19/antonine-wall-gaps-roman-occupation

 

http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2010/07/08/test/life-us-britain-coins.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2007/jan/23/art.news 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/2789239.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/darkages/trails_darkages_romans.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Huge hoard of Roman coins

found on Somerset farm

 

A total of 52,500

bronze and silver coins

dating from the 3rd century AD

found by hobby metal detectorist

Dave Crisp

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/jul/08/hoard-roman-coins-somerset

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/jul/08/
hoard-roman-coins-somerset 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman Empire        Roman Britain

 

Emperor Hadrian (76-138)

 

Hadrian's wall        c. 122

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2016/jun/26/
walking-hadrians-wall-secret-uk-history-graham-robb-cols-and-passes

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2010/sep/13/roman-helmet-metal-detector-cumbria

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/charlottehigginsblog/2009/oct/13/hadrians-wall

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2008/jul/19/history

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2008/jul/23/art

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/jul/19/history 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/2931730.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/hadrian_gallery.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/3150960.stm

http://www.open2.net/historyandthearts/history/alongwall.html

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/4572741.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/3185871.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/darkages/trails_darkages_romans.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman Britain

 

Romano-British art > Sculpture > Eagle        first century AD

 

 

The London eagle

was carved

in the first

century AD,

at a time

when the Roman city

was exploding

in population

and wealth.

 

It is believed

to have stood

on an imposing

mausoleum,

on the roadside edge

of the eastern cemetery

just outside the city walls.

 

The road was once lined

with the monuments

of the wealthiest citizens,

like the Via Appia

outside Rome.

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/oct/29/
roman-eagle-found-archaeologists-london-sculpture-art

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Boudicca

 

Queen of the Iceni people

of Eastern England        d. 62

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/boudicca.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/west_midlands/5016126.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/norfolk/3642233.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/norfolk/your/a-z_norfolk/a-z_iceni.shtml

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/
opinion/sunday/when-the-barbarous-brits-first-quit-europe.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman Britain

 

Roman invasion AD 43 - 60

 

Julius Caesar's

attempted invasion 55 - 54 BC

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/iron_invasion.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/rom_invasion.shtml

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/jan/19/roman-temple-mithras

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/jan/10/unique-roman-helmet-pieced-together

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/23/archaeologists-discover-roman-port-wales

http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2011/aug/17/lost-yorkshire-amphitheatre-aldborough

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2010/jul/16/egyptian-god-relic-identified-silchester

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

early part of the Iron Age (700 BC - AD 43)

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/may/10/jamessturcke

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bronze age        2000 BC

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/09/
dartmoor-burial-site-bronze-age-history

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stone Age        c8,000-2,300BC

 

The Stone Age

is itself divided into

the Old Stone Age

(Palaeolithic),

Middle Stone Age

(Mesolithic)

and New Stone Age

(Neolithic).

http://www.northpennines.org.uk/Pages/StoneAge.aspx - broken link

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2015/02/27/
388822209/stone-age-britons-were-eating-wheat-2-000-years-before-they-farmed-it

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neolithic Britain

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/sep/10/
stonehenge-teeming-chapels-shrines-archaeology-research

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/may/13/
scientists-stone-age-boom-festivals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ice age

 

Nottinghamshire paleolithic artist

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/jul/14/
artsandhumanities.arts1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient Britain

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2005/jan/23/
research.science

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

clues of Britain’s first humans

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/08/
science/08flint.html