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History > 17th-19th century > England, UK, British empire > Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

Afrikaners with bolt-action rifles

during the second Boer War.

 

Photograph: Hulton Archive/Getty Images

 

A picture of Johannesburg on the eve of the Boer war

G

Monday 26 October 2015        10.24 GMT

Last modified on Monday 26 October 2015        10.38 GMT

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/26/boer-war-south-africa-johannesburg-1899

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Boer War begins        October 11 1899

 

 

 

A Boer picket on Spion Kop,

Ladysmith during the Boer War.

 

Photograph: Van Hoepen/Getty Images

 

A picture of Johannesburg on the eve of the Boer war

G

Monday 26 October 2015        10.24 GMT

Last modified on Monday 26 October 2015        10.38 GMT

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/26/boer-war-south-africa-johannesburg-1899

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The second Boer war

was fought

from October 1899

to May 1902

between British

and Afrikaner settlers

in the Transvaal

and Free Orange State.

 

The peace treaty

led to the founding

of a united South Africa

in 1910.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/26/boer-war-south-africa-johannesburg-1899

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/vic_boer_war.shtml

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/07/
749043160/scorched-earth

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/26/
boer-war-south-africa-johannesburg-1899

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1899/oct/13/
fromthearchive

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1899/nov/17/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1898

 

Sudan

 

Battle of Omdurman

 

 

In 1898,

(...) a whole panoply

of British officers

(including

Winston Churchill)

who would later

fight in Europe

were on hand

for a battle

at Omdurman,

in Sudan.

 

The 50,000 Sudanese

they faced

were armed

only with spears,

swords

and antiquated rifles.

 

In a few hours,

the six Maxim

machine guns

of the far smaller

Anglo-Egyptian force

fired

half a million bullets,

leaving nearly

11,000 Sudanese dead

and some

16,000 wounded,

many fatally.

 

The battle determined

the outcome of a war

in less than a day.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/29/
opinion/adam-hochschild-why-world-war-i-was-such-a-blood-bath.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/29/
opinion/adam-hochschild-why-world-war-i-was-such-a-blood-bath.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

late 19th century / early 20th century > Suffragettes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British battles

 

The Egypt War of 1882

 

 

The importance

of Egypt to Britain

rose dramatically

after the opening

of the Suez Canal

in 1869.

 

At a stroke

there was a new route

from Europe to the Far East

that halved the journey time

between Britain and India.

 

At this point Egypt

was developing rapidly

along western lines,

but the following decade

saw increasing tension

between Britain and Egypt,

resulting in the British attack

on Egypt in 1882.

 

This gallery looks in detail

at the war of 1882

and its conclusive engagement,

the Battle of Tel-el-Kebir.

 

 

The causes of war

 

From 1805

Egypt had been nominally part

of the Ottoman (Turkish) empire,

but it was effectively ruled

by a dynasty established

by the strong

and modernising ruler

Muhammad Ali.

 

By 1869,

it had benefited

from years of investment

(much of it British and French)

in irrigation, railways,

cotton plantations

and schools.

 

By 1876,

however,

its ruler

the Khedive Ismail Pasha

had run up debts

of almost £100 million.

 

In spite

of the Khedive's sale

of his 45% holding

in the Suez Canal

to Britain for £4 million

in 1875,

Egypt was heading

for financial ruin.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/egypt/

 

 

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/egypt/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benjamin Disraeli        1804-1881                PM    1874 to 1880, 1868 to 1868

 

 

 

Myth-making … Benjamin Disraeli.

 

Photograph: Jabez Hughes/Getty Images

 

Disraeli by David Cesarani review

– the Jewish prime minister and antisemitism

G

Saturday 11 June 2016        11.00 BST

Last modified on Saturday 11 June 2016        13.37 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jun/11/disraeli-the-novel-politician-by-david-cesarani-review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benjamin Disraeli

 

Politician,

novelist and bon viveur,

Benjamin Disraeli

was a man

with many interests,

but it was

as a Conservative politician

that Disraeli

achieved lasting fame.

 

PM for almost 7 years,

he initiated

a wide range of legislation

to improve

educational opportunities

and the life of working people.

 

Benjamin ‘Dizzy’ Disraeli

was the son of Isaac,

a Jewish Italian writer,

and had an Anglican upbringing

after the age of 12.

 

With Jews excluded

from Parliament until 1858,

this enabled Disraeli

to follow a career

that would otherwise

have been denied him.

https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/benjamin-disraeli-the-earl-of-beaconsfield

 

 

https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/
benjamin-disraeli-the-earl-of-beaconsfield

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jun/11/
disraeli-the-novel-politician-by-david-cesarani-review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1878-1881

 

Afghanistan

 

Second Anglo-Afghan War

 

Battle of Maiwand        July 27, 1880

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/wiltshire/hi/
people_and_places/history/newsid_8659000/8659351.stm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Maiwand

 

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/fisk/
robert-fisk-27-july-1880-a-date-mr-blair-should-look-up-437801.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1878-1881

 

Afghanistan

 

Second Anglo-Afghan War

 

Britain invade Afghanistan        1878

 

 

 

 

Sir Louis Cavagnari,

British envoy to Afghanistan,

photographed on his way to Kabul in July 1879.

 

Two months later he was killed

during an Afghan uprising in Kabul.

 

This led to the war of 1879.

 

Credit Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis, via Getty Images

 

The Empire Stopper

The foreign powers that have tried to control Afghanistan

since the 19th century have all suffered for the effort.

Now the U.S. is digging back in.

NYT

AUG. 29, 2017

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/29/
world/asia/afghanistan-graveyard-empires-historical-pictures.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8151294.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4926628.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/wiltshire/hi/
people_and_places/history/newsid_8659000/8659351.stm

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/29/
world/asia/afghanistan-graveyard-empires-historical-pictures.html

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/fisk/
robert-fisk-27-july-1880-a-date-mr-blair-should-look-up-437801.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1877

 

The Transvaal Republic

is annexed to the British Empire

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/1877/may/10/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1875

 

Public Health Act

 

 

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Vict/38-39/55/contents

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/apr/27/
why-privatisation-is-the-key-to-the-election

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1867

 

Representation of the People Act

 

 

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Vict/30-31/102/contents

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/apr/15/
ten-of-the-best-political-documents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Asians making Britain        Timeline        1858-1950

 

The impact

of South Asians on British life

from the Raj to the early years

of Indian independence

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2011/sep/10/
south-asians-making-britain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1857-1858

 

India        The Indian Mutiny

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/empire/indian_rebellion_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1846-1850s

 

The Irish famine / The Great Hunger

 

 

 

 http://vassun.vassar.edu/~sttaylor/FAMINE/ILN/Mortality/SkibFuneral.gif

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/trollope/famine2.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/10/28/
world/europe/tuam-ireland-babies-children.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The British Empire / British dominions

 


http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/empire/britain_empire_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/ 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learning/library/british_empire.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/1834/aug/02/
race.world 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Imperialistic Anthem

 

Rule Britannia

and Land of Hope and Glory,

and more

 

 

http://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/rulebritannia.asp 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Victoria (r. 1837-1901)        The Victorian age

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/vic_boer_war.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/o_victorians.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/1901/jan/23/
monarchy.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crimea, 1854

 

British battles        The Crimean War

 

 

In Britain,

the Crimean War

is principally remembered

for three reasons:

the Charge of the Light Brigade,

maladministration

in the British army,

and Florence Nightingale.

 

However, this war,

fought by an alliance

of Britain, France,

Turkey and Sardinia

against Russia,

is far more complex.

 

Many wars

have been fought

on the grounds

of the strategic importance

of a region;

 

many wars

have been fought

over religious differences.

 

The Crimean War

was the result

of both factors.

 

 

The causes of war

 

During the years

leading up to the Crimean War,

France, Russia and Britain

were all competing for influence

in the Middle East,

particularly with Turkey.

 

Religious differences

were certainly a catalyst

in the Crimean War.

 

Control of access

to religious sites

in the Holy Land

had been a cause of tension

between Catholic France

and Orthodox Russia

for a number of years and in 1853,

the conflict came to a head

with rioting in Bethlehem,

which was then part

of the Ottoman empire

ruled by Turkey.

 

A number

of Orthodox monks

were killed

during fighting

with French monks.

 

Tsar Nicholas I

blamed the Turks

for these deaths.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/crimea/

 

 

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/crimea/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1840,1846

 

The Corn Laws

 

http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=1874022

http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=1874007

http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=1874012

http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=1874017

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1840/jan/20/mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irish emigrants

 

 

The story of Irish immigration to America

during the 19th century

 

 

Ireland’s 1845 Potato Blight

 

 

Anti-immigrant

and anti-Catholic sentiments

 

 

Racial tensions

 

 

The Irish Famine: 1845-9

 

"Potato crop fails in Ireland

sparking the Potato Famine

that kills one million

and prompts almost 500,000

to immigrate to America

in the next five years."

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/immig/irish8.html

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/irish2.html

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/famine.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1839-1842

 

Afghanistan

 

First Anglo-Afghan war

 

 

The Massacre

of Elphinstone's Army

was a victory

of Afghan forces,

led by Akbar Khan,

the son

of Dost Mohammad Khan,

over a combined

British and Indian force

led by Major General

William Elphinstone,

in January 1842.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massacre_of_Elphinstone%27s_Army

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8151294.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/making_history/making_history_20081028.shtml

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/09/
opinion/09dalrymple.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1839-1842

 

Afghanistan

 

First Anglo-Afghan war

 

The British invade Afghanistan        1839

 

 

The First Anglo-Afghan War

broke out

when Britain

invaded Afghanistan

because she feared

Russian encroachment

into Central Asia.

 

The British

were eventually routed

and the 16,000 strong army

forced to flee Kabul

in the winter of 1841.

 

Only one man

survived the retreat.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8151294.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8151294.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/making_history/making_history_20081028.shtml

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/09/
opinion/09dalrymple.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The "People's Charter,"

drafted in 1838 by William Lovett

 

Chartism or The Chartist Movement

 

The Chartist Movement        1838-1848

 

The Poor Man's Guardian

 

 

 


http://www.unionhistory.info/timeline/Tl_Display.php?Where=
Dc1Title+contains+'The+Poor+Mans+Guardian%2C+No.+5%2C+6+August+1831
'

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist3.html

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/chartism7.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/chartist_01.shtm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/jul/24/past.britishidentity 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2006/jul/27/mainsection.guardianletters2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1830

 

Tasmania

 

Liffey Falls massacre

 

 

In 1830,

in response to conflicts

between colonisers

and Indigenous people,

Governor George Arthur

called for every British man

to form a human chain

across Tasmania

to capture and kill

Aboriginal people.

 

More than 2,200

settlers, military,

police and convicts

joined in.

 

“The Black Line”

was the largest force

assembled against

Aboriginal people

anywhere in Australia.

 

Those captured

were forcibly removed

to Flinders Island

in Bass Strait,

where many later died.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/jun/22/
no-blood-stained-the-wattle-a-picture-essay

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2019/jun/22/
no-blood-stained-the-wattle-a-picture-essay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Peterloo Massacre        Manchester        August 16, 1819

 

 

 

A contemporary political cartoon of the Peterloo massacre.

 

Photograph: The Art Archive/Rex/Shutterstock

 

Public re-enactment to mark 200th anniversary of Peterloo massacre

G

Tue 23 Jul 2019        16.31 BST

Last modified on Wed 24 Jul 2019        08.11 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/jul/23/
public-re-enactment-to-mark-200th-anniversary-of-peterloo-massacre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

over-zealous

local magistrates

sent armed soldiers

to disperse a peaceful

public meeting

in support

of universal suffrage.

 

At least 11 people

were killed.

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/may/02/
miranda-carter-we-should-thank-a-devon-shoemaker-for-the-freedom-of-the-press

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/manchester/content/articles/2007/08/15/
160807_peterloo_memorial_feature.shtml

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/riots/peterloo.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/jul/23/
public-re-enactment-to-mark-200th-anniversary-of-peterloo-massacre

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2018/jan/04/
peterloo-massacre-bloody-clash-that-changed-britain

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/may/02/
miranda-carter-we-should-thank-a-devon-shoemaker-for-the-freedom-of-the-press

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2007/aug/15/
past.leadersandreply  

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/aug/13/
britishidentity.artnews 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2006/jul/24/
past.britishidentity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1811-1816

 

The Luddites

 

 

After the end

of the French Wars,

it became increasingly clear

that England was suffering

from great social, economic

and political upheavals.

 

These problems

collectively became known

as the 'Condition

of England Question'.

 

Many of these problems

would have occurred

eventually

but had been

speeded up

by the effects

of the French Wars

on the country.

 

Most of the major changes

were the direct result

of the French Wars.

 

Others came

from natural growth

and change.

 

The distress

and discontent

caused by

these enormous changes

were manifested

in a series of events

in the period 1811-19.

 

One of these

was the upsurge

in Luddism.

 

Luddites

were men

who took the name

of a (perhaps)

mythical individual,

Ned Ludd

who was reputed

to live

in Sherwood Forest.

 

The Luddites

were trying

to save

their livelihoods

by smashing

industrial machines

developed for use

in the textile industries

of the West Riding

of Yorkshire,

Nottinghamshire,

Leicestershire

and Derbyshire.

 

Some Luddites

were active

in Lancashire also.

 

They smashed

stocking-frames

and cropping frames

among others.

 

There does not seem

to have been

any political motivation

behind the Luddite riots;

equally, there was no

national organisation.

 

The men merely

were attacking

what they saw

as the reason

for the decline

in their livelihoods.

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/riots/luddites.html

 

 

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/riots/luddites.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 June 1815

 

Battle of Waterloo

 

Belgium,

then part of the United Kingdom

of the Netherlands.

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/battle_waterloo_01.shtml

 

http://www.pbs.org/empires/napoleon/n_war/ibs/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1788

 

Australia        Landing of the First Fleet in Sydney Cove

 

 

Around 1,400 people arrived,

half of them convicts,

transported from England

to establish a penal colony.

 

In the aftermath

of the American War

of Independence,

the British

needed a new place

to send criminals.

 

The colonizers

and their courts

considered Australia

“terra nullius”

or “land belonging to nobody,”

a legal fiction used to justify

the theft of Aboriginal land

over the next two centuries.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/25/
opinion/white-australians-celebrate-aboriginal-people-mourn.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/25/
opinion/white-australians-celebrate-aboriginal-people-mourn.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1773

 

Enclosure Act,

Helpston, Northamptonshire

 

 

This was the first major

parliamentary act

to authorise the enclosing

of tracts of hitherto

common land.

 

The practice

increased dramatically

throughout the country

in the late 18th

and early 19th centuries

as the population rose

and the existing

open field system

struggled to produce

sufficient food.

 

One of the areas

most affected

was central

southern England,

where it caused

widespread destitution

of the landless poor

and great depopulation

of the countryside.

 

By the end

of the 19th century

some 5,000 individual acts

had been implemented

and about 11,000

square miles

enclosed.

 

Born in Northamptonshire

20 years after the 1773 act,

the so-called peasant poet

John Clare

wrote the most passionate

and highly regarded laments

for the loss of open land.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1760-1840

 

Industrial Revolution, Dudley, West Midlands

 

 

The Black Country,

to the west

of Birmingham,

stood on the thick,

rich coal seams

which were

to power Britain

to the forefront

of manufacturing nations.

 

Close to the pleasant hills

of south Shropshire,

this region of some

20 expanding small towns,

each specialising

in a particular metal trade,

was the first sizeable

industrial landscape

in the world.

 

By the middle

of the 19th century,

it was producing

more than a fifth

of the country’s iron,

supplying

the cast-iron pillars

for the Great Exhibition

at Crystal Palace in 1851,

the US’s

first steam locomotive,

and the anchors

for such mighty vessels

as the Titanic

and Brunel’s

SS Great Britain.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1745

 

Jacobite Rebellion, Cumbria

 

 

Drive westwards

along the B6318,

from Greenhead

towards Carlisle,

and you are travelling

along a line of history.

 

Beneath the tarmac

on this scenic alternative

to the A69 west of Haltwhistle

are the stones of the old

military road constructed

to repel 18th century Jacobite

invaders from Scotland.

 

You can see

where the material came from

by the gaps in Hadrian’s Wall.

 

In 1745,

while most

of the British Army

was in Europe

engaged in the War

of the Austrian Succession,

Bonnie Prince Charlie

led the rebels

in an effort

to re-establish

a Stuart monarchy.

 

On their way south

– they got as far as Derby –

they briefly held

the city of Carlisle.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spencer Perceval        1762-1812

 

Spencer Perceval

is best remembered

as the only British

prime minister

to be assassinated.

 

A professional lawyer,

he made his mark

as by holding down

the senior posts

of Solicitor-General

and Attorney-General.

 

An admirer

of William Pitt the Younger,

he was politically

conservative

and an active Anglican,

opposing Catholic

emancipation.

 

In later life

he became

an expert

on Biblical prophecy

and wrote pamphlets

relating prophecies

that he had discovered.

 

When the Duke of Portland

put together a coalition

of Tories in 1807,

Perceval served

as Chancellor of the Exchequer

and Leader of the House of Commons.

 

With Portland

old and unwell,

Perceval

was effectively

the chief minister,

and even lived

at 10 Downing Street.

 

In 1809,

Perceval

formally succeeded

the Duke of Portland

as prime minister.

 

It was a difficult time

due to the upheavals

of the Industrial Revolution

and the Napoleonic Wars,

and the final descent

of George III

into madness.

 

His government

also suffered

from the absence

of most of the senior

statesmen

of the period.

 

He had to serve

as his own Chancellor

after obtaining

six refusals of office.

 

After two years

his government had survived

much longer than predicted

amidst a severe

economic depression.

 

Indeed,

it began to seem

that the situation

of his government

looked as if

it was set to improve.

 

But Perceval’s

administration

ended dramatically

on 11 May 1812,

when he was shot dead

in the lobby

of the House of Commons

on his way

to attend an inquiry

into the recent

Luddite riots.

 

The assassin

was John Bellingham,

a merchant

who had incurred

business debts

in Russia.

http://www.number10.gov.uk/past-prime-ministers/spencer-perceval/

 

 

https://www.gov.uk/government/history/past-prime-ministers/
spencer-perceval 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2012/may/06/
pass-notes-spencer-perceval

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1807

 

British empire

 

Legislation abolishing the slave trade

 

Abolition of the Slave Trade / Slave Trade Act

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17th and 18th centuries

 

Parliament and the British Slave Trade

 

Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries

Parliament significantly shaped

the progress and development

of the transatlantic slave system.

 

The Act of Parliament

to abolish the British slave trade,

passed on 25 March 1807,

was the culmination of one of the first

and most successful public campaigns

in history

https://www.parliament.uk/slavetrade

 

 

https://www.parliament.uk/slavetrade

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Horatio Nelson        1758-1805

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/nelson_horatio.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/nelson_1.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/french_threat_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/society_culture/protest_reform/british_french_rev_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1805

 

The Battle of Trafalgar

 

The battle took place

in the Atlantic Ocean

off the southwest coast of Spain,

just west of Cape Trafalgar,

near the town

of Los Caños de Meca.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Trafalgar

 

 

 

Horatio Nelson        Napoleon Bonaparte

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/geo_battle_trafalgar.shtml 

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/nelson/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1798

 

The Battle of the Nile

 

Horatio Nelson

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/apr/14/
military.helenasmith

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George III        r. 1760-1820

 

 

 

James Gillray (1757-1815)

was among the most popular,

prolific, revered, and reviled print satirists

of the golden age of English caricature,

the late eighteenth century.

 

He took special delight

in attacking the excesses of the royal family.

 

Here,

he caustically depicts

King George III, Queen Charlotte,

and the Prince of Wales (later George IV)

gorging themselves on the national treasury,

labelled "John Bull's Blood."

 

The title, "Monstrous Craws,"

refers to the rapidly expanding gullets

dangling from the royal necks,

probably inspired by the recent public display in London

of three "wild-born human beings,"

who apparently exhibited such features.

 

James Gillray,

MONSTROUS CRAWS,  at a New Coalition Feast,

etching with watercolor, 1787 - Library of Congress purchase, 1921

Prints and Photographs Division (10)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.economist.com/books/displaystory.cfm?story_id=5436773

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/01/28/
512147256/vindication-for-the-mad-king-new-archive-gives-george-iii-a-second-chance

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/dec/14/
attack-royal-carriage-protesters-1795

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1791

 

Thomas Paine's Rights of Man

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/apr/15/
ten-of-the-best-political-documents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adam Smith        1723-1790

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/smith_adam.shtml

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/apr/12/
businessglossary124

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Child Labour        1750-1850        online source material

 

Poor Law Amendment Act        1834

 

Poor Laws XIV - XX

 

 

Milk of Human Kindness

 

 

"... in 1843 the satirical magazine Punch

reported how in Bethnal Green

"An infant, only five weeks old,

had been separated from the mother,

being occasionally brought to her for the breast." "

http://users.ox.ac.uk/~peter/workhouse/poorlaws/poorlaws.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Industrial Revolution

 

 

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/modsbook14.asp   

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_steam_eng.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

England and the French Revolution

 

 

https://www.bartleby.com/60/104.html  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Captain James Cook        1728-1779

 

Cook

was an 18th century

explorer and navigator

whose achievements

in mapping

the Pacific,

New Zealand

and Australia

radically changed

western perceptions

of world geography.

 

As one

of the very few men

in the 18th century navy

to rise through the ranks,

Cook was particularly

sympathetic

to the needs

of ordinary sailors.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/cook_captain_james.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/cook_james.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/nov/06/
george-stubbs-cook-endeavour-works-saved-maritime-museum

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/mar/22/uk.australia 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/jul/13/artsandhumanities.arts1 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Britain and America's war for independence

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/empire/rebels_redcoats_02.shtml

http://memory.loc.gov/const/declar.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/bdsds/timelin2.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sir Isaac Newton        1642-1727

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/isaac-newton  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acts of Union:

The creation of the United Kingdom

 

Political unification

of Scotland and England

 

Act of Union        1707

 

The Treaty of the Union

creates

the United Kingdom

of Great Britain,

the parliamentary union

of England

- which for administrative

purposes

also encompasses

the Principality of Wales -

with Scotland.

 

It takes effect on May 1

but Scotland retains

its own legal

and educational systems.

http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/04/
scotland-independence-history-idUSL5N0KY26120140204

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/feb/08/britishidentity.constitution  

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/acts_of_union_01.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/6263977.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/6262813.stm 

 

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/04/
scotland-independence-history-idUSL5N0KY26120140204

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Queen Anne        r. 1702-1714        1665-1714

 

 

 

Queen Anne and William, Duke of Gloucester

by studio of Sir Godfrey Kneller.

Scanned from the book

The National Portrait Gallery

History of the Kings and Queens of England

by David Williamson,

ISBN 1855142287.

Source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Queen_Anne_and_William,_Duke_of_Gloucester_by_studio_of_Sir_Godfrey_Kneller.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne,_Queen_of_Great_Britain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Born in 1665,

the younger daughter

of James VII and II

by his first wife,

Anne Hyde,

Queen Anne

inherited the throne

in 1702.

 

(...)

 

During Queen Anne's reign,

Scotland and England

found it

increasingly difficult

to co-exist peacefully,

for their separate parliaments

had conflicting foreign

and economic policies.

 

Eventually,

the situation became

so unstable

that the Union

of the Crowns itself

seemed to be in danger.

 

In 1701,

England

settled the succession

of the Protestant

Sophia of Hanover,

granddaughter

of James VI and I,

but two years later

the Scots declared

that they were free

to choose someone else,

the implication being

that they might select

the exiled

Jacobite claimant,

James VII and II's son.

 

The situation

was untenable.

 

After months

of bitter debate,

the anti-Unionists

led by Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun

were finally defeated

and the Scottish Parliament

agreed that henceforth

the kingdoms

of Scotland

and England

would be united

as Great Britain,

with one parliament.

http://www.royal.gov.uk/historyofthemonarchy/scottish%20monarchs%28400ad-1603%29/thestewarts/anne.aspx
- broken lionk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William III (of Orange)        1650-1702

 

William

 was 'stadtholder'

of the Netherlands

and in 1688-1689

became king of England

in the 'Glorious Revolution',

ruling jointly with his wife,

Mary.

 

He deposed James II.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/william_iii.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/william_iii.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James II        1633 - 1701

 

James

was a Stuart king

of England,

Scotland and Ireland

who in 1688

was overthrown

in the 'Glorious Revolution'

by William III.

 

James was born

on 14 October 1633

to Charles I

and his French wife,

Henrietta Maria

and was named

after his grandfather,

James I and VI.

 

During the English Civil War

he was captured but fled

to exile on the continent.

 

He distinguished

himself a soldier,

returning to England

at the Restoration

of his brother, Charles II,

in 1660.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/james_ii.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/james_ii.shtml 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1701

 

The act of settlement

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A695441

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2000/dec/06/monarchy 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1700

 

The Act of Settlement

 

 

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/aep/Will3/12-13/2/contents   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mary II        1662 - 1694

 

The daughter

of James II, Mary

and her husband

William of Orange

became

co-rulers of England

after

the 'Glorious Revolution'.

 

Mary was born

on 30 April 1662,

the eldest daughter

of James, Duke of York

and his first wife

Anne Hyde.

 

James

converted

to Catholicism

at the end

of the 1660s,

but Mary

and her sister Anne

were raised

as Protestants.

 

In November 1677,

Mary married

her Dutch cousin

William, Prince of Orange

and went to the Netherlands

to live with him.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mary_ii_queen.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mary_ii_queen.shtml
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Battle of the Boyne        1690

 

The Treaty of Limerick        1691

 

 

 http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/ni/battle_boyne.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1688

 

The Glorious Revolution

 

William III (r. 1689-1702)

and Mary II (r. 1689-94)

 

Declaration of Rights / Bill of Rights        1689

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A700372

https://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/england.asp 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Stuarts and the Civil War

 

The restoration of the monarchy        1660-85

 

John Evelyn, Anthony Van Dyck

 

Charles II        r. 1660-85

 

 

 

King Charles II

Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641)        1635

Oil on canvas        Musée du Louvre, Paris, France

http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/d/dyck_van/1portrai/charles1.html

http://www.wga.hu/art/d/dyck_van/1portrai/charles1.jpg

http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/d/dyck_van/1portrai/charles1.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/stu_restoration.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/charles_ii_king.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_charles_ii.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Hobbes        1588-1679

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hobbes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oliver Cromwell        1599-1658

 

Civil wars         1642-1651

 

British Library        Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts

 

 

https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/dobson-portrait-of-an-officer-n04619 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/cromwell_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/englishcivilwar/index.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/englishcivilwar/west_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/stu_civil_war_p1.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/stu_world_upside_down.shtml 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/stu_civil_war_p2.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/monarchs_leaders/cromwell_01.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/nov/08/
cromwell-portraitist-samuel-cooper-exhibition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1666

 

The Great Fire of London

 

Sir Christopher Wren    1632-1723

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/games/fire/index.shtml  

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wren_christopher.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1665-66

 

The Plague Year

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/stu_plague_year.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/aug/12/
plague-grave-excavations-contradict-tales-naked-bodies-piled-pits

 

http://www.theguardian.com/society/ng-interactive/2015/aug/12/
london-great-plague-1665-bills-of-mortality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charles I        r. 1625-1649        1600-1649

 

Petition of Right        1628

 

 

The final speech of King Charles I,

given at his execution in January 1648/9.

 

Shelfmark: E.540.(17). © The British Library.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_charles_i.shtml

http://www.bl.uk/collections/early/thomason.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/englishcivilwar/index.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/monarchs_leaders/personality_charles_01.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/jan/28/
charles-i-king-and-collector-royal-academy-review

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2008/nov/14/monarchy-television

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1649

 

English Civil War

Pontefract Castle,

West Yorkshire

 

 

Once the most powerful

castle in the kingdom,

the place

where Shakespeare’s

doomed Richard II

laments his condition,

and the very last

stronghold to fall

to Oliver Cromwell’s

parliamentarian forces.

 

Even after Charles I

had been beheaded

in January 1649,

the royalists

hung on here,

declaring the king’s son

to be the rightful heir

as Charles II.

 

When the castle

finally fell,

Cromwell

persuaded the villagers

to help “slight” (destroy)

the troublesome redoubt.

 

This they never

fully achieved,

and when Victoria

reigned,

centuries later,

it became used

for growing

and storing liquorice.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Witness statements

from Irish rebellion and massacres of 1641

 

 

Fully searchable

digital edition

of the 1641 depositions

at Trinity College Dublin Library,

comprising transcripts and images

of all 4000 depositions,

examinations

and associated materials

in which Protestant men

and women of all classes

told of their experiences

following

the outbreak of the rebellion

by the Catholic Irish

in October, 1641

http://1641.eneclann.ie/

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/07/
irish-rebellion-archive-online

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 5, 1605

 

The Gunpowder Plot        Guy Fawkes

 

 

In 1605,

a group

of disaffected Catholics

plotted to assassinate

King James I

by blowing up

the House of Lords.

 

They hoped

to restore

Protestant England

to Catholicism

and end the persecution

of their faith.

 

The 'Gunpowder Plot'

was foiled

at the eleventh hour,

an event still

celebrated annually

on 5 November

and named for

the most famous

of the conspirators

- Guy Fawkes Night.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/histories/the_gunpowder_plot

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/histories/the_gunpowder_plot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1604-1611

 

King James Bible

 

 

In 1604,

(King James)

convened

the Hampton Court Conference

in order to set in train

a translation,

accomplished

by 47 scholars,

which would

properly reflect

the vision and structure

of the Church of England.

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King James VI of Scotland

and I of England

r.1603-1625        1566-1625

 

House of: Stuart

 

Ascended to the throne:

March 24, 1603 aged 36 years

 

Died:

March 27, 1625

at Theobalds Park, Hertfordshire

 

Reigned for: 22 years, and 3 days,

King of Scotland for 57 years

1567-1625

http://www.britroyals.com/kings.asp?id=james1

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/james_i_king.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_james_i_acc.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_jamesbible.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/stu_jamesbible.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/14/
800-years-english-history-20-day-trips#img-7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 17th - early 21st century

 

United Kingdom, British Empire, England

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century > English America, America, USA

Slavery, Racism, Civil war, Abraham Lincoln

 

 

Northern Ireland > 20th century > The Troubles