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History > 20th century > UK, British empire, Ottoman empire > British mandate in Palestine > Partition    1920-1948

 

 

 

Jewish immigrants,

arriving in Haifa aboard a refugee ship,

waving future flag of the state of Israel

shortly before its official conception.

 

Location: Haifa, Palestine

Date taken: 1948

 

Photographer: Dmitri Kessel

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/ef6d5afdabd34947.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arab refugees

crowding a British ship carrying them to Acre.

 

Location: Israel

Date taken: May 1948

 

Photographer: John Phillips

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/0a39e26a13d81506.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Palestinian refugees from a village near Haifa

making their way to Arab lines

near Tulkarm, June 1948.

 

Photograph:

Bettmann/Bettmann Archive

 

'Stubbornly fighting for life':

how Arthur Koestler reported the birth of Israel

G

Wed 9 May 2018    06.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/may/09/
stubbornly-fighting-for-life-how-arthur-koestler-reported-the-birth-of-israel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1948

 

End of the British mandate

 

al-Nakba (”the Catastrophe”)  /  النكبة

 

 

In the course

of Israel's creation

in 1948

and its occupation

of the West Bank

and Gaza in 1967,

more than half

the Arabs

of pre-1948 Palestine

are thought

to have been

displaced.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-11104284

 

 

 

Quand, en 1947,

l’Empire britannique

décide de se débarrasser

de la Palestine mandataire

(qu’il administre

depuis 1920)

et de confier le dossier

aux Nations unies,

650 000 juifs sont établis

en Palestine ;

 

les Palestiniens arabes

représentent

autour de 1,2 million

à 1,4 million de personnes.

 

En novembre,

l’Assemblée générale de l’ONU

vote la partition du territoire

en deux Etats indépendants :

 

l’un, juif,

s’étendant sur près

de 55 % du territoire ;

 

l’autre arabe,

sur près de 40 % des terres

– Jérusalem bénéficiant

d’un statut

de « ville internationale ».

 

Si les dirigeants sionistes

accueillent favorablement

la partition,

les élites palestiniennes

et les gouvernements arabes

la rejettent.

 

Après plusieurs

mois de combats

dont les deux camps

se rejettent

la responsabilité

et de déplacements

de populations,

la déclaration

d’indépendance

israélienne,

le 14 mai 1948,

provoque

l’intervention directe

des armées

des pays arabes voisins

pour tuer dans l’œuf

le nouvel Etat.

 

Elles sont repoussées

puis vaincus (sic).

 

De novembre 1947

à l’issue la guerre,

en juin 1949,

jusqu’à

750 000 Palestiniens

quittent,

fuyant ou expulsés,

les territoires

sous contrôle israélien,

leurs biens sont saisis

 

Seuls 150 000

restent établis

dans le nouvel Etat.

http://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2015/05/19/
la-nakba-palestinienne-enjeu-politique-et-bataille-memorielle_4636240_4355770.html

 

 

http://www.lemonde.fr/proche-orient/article/2018/05/15/
il-y-a-soixante-dix-ans-l-invention-de-la-nakba
_5298947_3218.html

 

https://blogs.mediapart.fr/ray-elsa/blog/251016/
memoires-de-la-nakba

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/oct/28/
british-evacuation-palestine-1948-photograph

 

http://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2015/05/19/
la-nakba-palestinienne-enjeu-politique-et-bataille-memorielle_4636240_4355770.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2014/may/02/
arab-villages-lost-israel-war-independence-interactive

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/02/
nakba-israel-palestine-zochrot-history

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-11104284

http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/newsid_1900000/newsid_1909200/1909217.stm

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/may/14/
palestinians-nakba-day-right-return

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/may/19/
nakba-day-palestinian-summer

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2011/may/15/palestinian-territories-israel

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jul/22/israel-
remove-nakba-from-textbooks

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/18/
opinion/18khoury.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

History of Israel        Timeline        Key events        1948-2008

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7385661.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/2008/israel_at_60/default.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7375994.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7380642.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1967

 

U.N Security Council Resolution 242

 

Nearly six months

after the Six-Day War

in 1967

-- a spectacular military

victory for Israel

in which

it doubled the size

of the territory

under its control,

occupying

the Sinai peninsula,

Gaza Strip,

West Bank,

and Golan Heights --

the U.N. Security Council

issued Resolution 242.

 

The resolution

stated that

in order for peace

to be achieved

in the region,

Israel would have

to withdraw

"from territories occupied

in the recent conflict."

 

Over the next 35 years,

peace negotiations

between Israelis

and Palestinians

would focus

on achieving a return

to the pre-1967 borders.

(Yale Law School

Avalon Project)

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 14, 1948

 

Israel Declares Independence

 

 

On May 14, 1948,

the independent state of Israel

is proclaimed

as British rule in Palestine

comes to an end.

(add source / URL)

 

 



Amid unremitting conflict

between Arabs and Jews

following the announcement

of the U.N. partition plan,

the State of Israel

declared its independence.

 

"The Nazi holocaust,

which engulfed

millions of Jews

in Europe,"

the proclamation read,

"proved anew

the urgency

of the re-establishment

of the Jewish state.

 

... It is, moreover,

the self-evident right

of the Jewish people

to be a nation,

as all other nations,

in its own sovereign State."

(Yale Law School

Avalon Project)

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/02/
massacre-marred-birth-israel-independence

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/24/
books/review/my-promised-land-by-ari-shavit.html

 

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/14/
may-14-1948-israel-declares-independence/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1948

 

Israel's war of independence

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2014/may/02/
arab-villages-lost-israel-war-independence-interactive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1948

 

End of the British mandate

 

 

(...) growing

knowledge

of the Holocaust

— the Nazi genocide

of roughly

six million Jews —

added

still more urgency

to the Jewish cause

for a national homeland.

 

In 1942,

leading Zionists

met in New York

to formulate plans

for a Jewish state.

 

And by 1944,

Jewish guerilla groups

had broken their truce

with British authorities

and resumed bombings

and other terror attacks,

culminating

in the assassination

in Cairo of Lord Moyne,

British Secretary of State

in the Middle East.

 

Meanwhile,

the ethno-nationalist

plans of Arabs

were developing apace.

 

In 1944-45

seven Arab states

and one Palestinian

representative

agreed

to the Alexandria Protocol

and formed

the Arab League,

forming

a unified opposition

both to further

development

of a Jewish homeland

in British Palestine

and to intervention

of foreign powers

in the area.

 

Rapid change

and open warfare

followed World War II.

 

The United States

put increasing pressure

on the British

to allow Jewish refugees

into Palestine,

but the British refused,

acceding to Arab demands.

 

Soon after,

in 1947,

Britain passed

the Mandate over Palestine

to the United Nations,

which proposed

a partition plan

allocating roughly

44 percent of the area

for an Arab state

and 56 percent

for a Jewish state,

with Jerusalem

under international

administration.

 

The U.N.

General Assembly

accepted the plan,

as did the Jews.

 

But the Arabs did not,

and the plan was never

implemented.

 

Tensions

over the potential

for a Jewish state

ran at their highest,

and in late 1947,

irregular Palestinian

fighting units

and underground

Jewish groups

carried out

increasingly direct,

militaristic attacks,

including

a Palestinian siege

of Jerusalem.

 

The conflict

came to a head

when, in May of 1948,

a Jewish state of Israel

was declared,

Britain withdrew

its forces,

and Arab armies

from five neighboring countries

invaded.

 

The 1948 War

(known to Israelis

as the War of Independence)

proceeded haltingly

until Israelis,

aided by clandestine

arms shipments,

repelled the Arab forces

and broke the blockade

of Jerusalem.

 

The fighting

created a wave

of Palestinian refugees,

numbering between

500,000 and 800,000,

and came to be known

as al-Nakba

(”the Catastrophe”)

to Palestinians.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/suicide-bombers/timeline-the-israeli-palestinian-conflict/1914-1949/2770/

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/suicide-bombers/
timeline-the-israeli-palestinian-conflict/1914-1949/2770/

 

 

 

 

Palestine

- comprising what are now

Israel,

the West Bank,

Gaza Strip

and Jordan -

was among several former

Ottoman Arab territories

placed

under the administration

of Great Britain

by the League of Nations.

 

The mandate lasted

from 1920 to 1948.

 

In 1923

Britain granted

limited autonomy

to Transjordan,

now known as Jordan.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_israel_palestinians/maps/html/british_control.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/
03/v3_israel_palestinians/maps/html/british_control.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Young people in Tel Aviv celebrate on 29 November 1947,

the day the UN voted to allow the creation of a Jewish state.

 

Photograph:

AFP/Getty Images

 

'Stubbornly fighting for life':

how Arthur Koestler reported the birth of Israel

G

Wed 9 May 2018    06.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/may/09/
stubbornly-fighting-for-life-how-arthur-koestler-reported-the-birth-of-israel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1947

 

Partition of Palestine

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7380642.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1681322.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/world/2001/israel_and_palestinians/key_maps/6.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/world/2001/
israel_and_palestinians/timeline/1947.stm

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/
Story/0,6051,105143,00.html  

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/
year/0,6050,128354,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 29, 1947

 

Partition of Palestine

 

Map

 

United Nations

General Assembly Resolution 181

Full text

 

 

The United Nations

General Assembly

decided in 1947

on the partition of Palestine

into Jewish and Arab states,

with Jerusalem to be

an internationalised city.

 

Jewish representatives

in Palestine

accepted the plan tactically

because it implied

international recognition

for their aims.

 

Some Jewish leaders,

such as

David Ben Gurion,

the first Israeli

prime minister,

opposed the plan

because their ambition

was a Jewish state

on the entire territory

of Mandate Palestine.

 

The Palestinians and Arabs

felt that it was a deep injustice

to ignore the rights of the majority

of the population of Palestine.

 

The Arab League

and Palestinian institutions

rejected the partition plan,

and formed volunteer armies

that infiltrated into Palestine

beginning in December of 1947.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/
key_documents/1681322.stm

 

 

 

 

Britain,

unable to resolve

the differences between

the Arabs and Jews

and with its mandate in tatters,

referred the Palestinian problem

to the United Nations

in February 1947.

 

The U.N.

Special Committee

on Palestine

issued its report

and recommendations

in August 1947,

and the General Assembly

endorsed the plan

in November 1947

by a vote of 33 to 13.

 

(The U.S.

and Soviet Union,

in rare agreement,

voted for the resolution;

Britain did not.)

 

The resolution called

for the partition of Palestine

and the establishment of separate

Jewish and Arab states,

with Jerusalem under

international control.

 

The Jewish leadership

ultimately accepted

Resolution 181;

 

Arabs rejected it.

 

It was never implemented.

(Yale Law School Avalon Project)

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/
middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1681322.stm

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/29/
nov-29-1947-united-nations-partitions-palestine-allowing-for-creation-of-israel/

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/November-29/

https://mondediplo.com/maps/middleeast1949 

http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/un/res181.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Palestine

 

British mandate

 

 

Bombing

of the King David Hotel

in Jerusalem,

the headquarters

of British rule

 

 

On July 22, 1946,

seven milk churns

containing concealed bombs

exploded in the basement

of the King David Hotel

in Jerusalem.

 

Six floors

of British government

and military offices collapsed,

and 92 people were killed,

most of them Arab, British

and Jewish civilians.

 

What was at the time

the most lethal

terrorist attack in history

was perpetrated

by the Irgun Zvai Leumi

(Hebrew

for National Military Organization)

headed by

Menachem Begin,

a future prime minister

of Israel.

 

The organization’s

main aim

was to force the British

out of Palestine,

which they had ruled

since 1917.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/01/books/review/anonymous-soldiers-by-bruce-hoffman.html

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/42/a2040742.shtml

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/01/
books/review/anonymous-soldiers-by-bruce-hoffman.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad Amin al-Husayni / Haj Amin al-Husseini        189?-1974

 

 

 

Adolf Hitler

talking to Haj Amin al-Husseini,

the grand mufti of Jerusalem.

 

The mufti helped instigate Arab pogroms

against Jews in the holy land in the 1920s

and collaborated with the Nazis.

 

Keystone/Getty Images

 

Netanyahu Draws Broad Criticism

After Saying a Palestinian Inspired Holocaust

NYT

OCT. 21, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/22/world/middleeast/
netanyahu-saying-palestinian-mufti-inspired-holocaust-draws-broad-criticism.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mufti

(chief Muslim Islamic

legal religious authority)

of Jerusalem

under the political authority

of the British Mandate

in Palestine

from 1921 to 1937.

 

His primary political causes

were:

 

1) establishment

of a pan-Arab federation or state;

 

2) opposition to further immigration

of Jews to Palestine

and Jewish national aspirations

in Palestine;

 

3) promotion of himself

as a pan-Arab

and Muslim religious leader.

 

In exile

between 1937 and 1945,

al-Husayni,

claiming to speak

for the Arab nation

and the Muslim world,

sought an alliance

with the Axis powers

(Nazi Germany

and Fascist Italy)

based on their publicly

recognizing

 

1) the independence

of the Arab states;

 

2) the right of those states

to form a union

reflecting a dominant Muslim

and specifically Arab culture;

 

3) the right of those states

to reverse steps taken

towards the creation

of a Jewish homeland

in Palestine;

 

and 4) al-Husayni himself

as the spiritual and political

representative of this pan-Arab,

Muslim entity.

 

In exchange,

al-Husayni collaborated

with the German and Italian governments

by broadcasting pro-Axis, anti-British,

and anti-Jewish propaganda via radio

to the Arab world;

 

inciting violence against Jews

and the British authorities

in the Middle East;

 

and recruiting young men

of Islamic faith for service

in German military, Waffen-SS,

and auxiliary units.

 

In turn,

the Germans

and the Italians

used al-Husayni

as a tool to inspire

support and collaboration

among Muslim residents

of regions under Axis control

and to incite anti-Allied violence

and rebellion among Muslims

residing beyond the reach

of German arms.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007665

 

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007665

 

 

 

 

 

Palestine        Documentaire

 

La croix gammée et le turban        Allemagne, 2009, 53mn

 

 

Défenseur

de la cause panarabe

dès les années 20,

Amin al-Hussein lutte

contre l'émigration des juifs

organisée par les Britanniques

dans son pays, la Palestine.

 

Affichant une sympathie évidente

pour les thèses nazies dès 1937,

il s'installe à Berlin,

fréquente

les dignitaires du IIIe Reich

et s'intéresse

à la solution finale.

 

Il est également

à l'origine de la création

d'un corps d'élite musulman

destiné à combattre les Alliés,

incorporé à la Waffen SS

et composé de 12 000 hommes

recrutés en Bosnie et en Croatie.

 

À partir

de biographies récentes,

ce documentaire

revient sur la collaboration

du grand mufti avec les nazis

mais aussi, plus largement,

sur son rôle

historique et politique,

expliquant pourquoi il reste

encore aujourd'hui un héros

et un grand leader nationaliste

dans la plupart des pays

du Proche-Orient.

http://videos.arte.tv/fr/videos/la-croix-gammee-et-le-turban--7105850.html

 

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007665

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/22/world/middleeast/
netanyahu-saying-palestinian-mufti-inspired-holocaust-draws-broad-criticism.html

 

https://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/carnet/2009-12-08-
Grand-mufti 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1920-1948

 

British control: Mandate Palestine

 

Palestine

- now Israel,

the West Bank,

Gaza Strip

and Jordan -

was among

several former

Ottoman Arab territories

placed under

the administration

of Great Britain

by the League of Nations.

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/
v3_israel_palestinians/maps/html/british_control.stm

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/feb/03/history.politics

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2001/jun/12/
guardianobituaries.internationaleducationnews 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1937/jul/08/israel 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1922

 

League of Nations

 

Mandate for Palestine

 

 

Following

the disintegration

of the Ottoman Empire

after World War I,

the territories formerly

under the Turkish

empire's control

were divided

between

France and Britain.

 

At the San Remo

Conference

in April 1920,

the principal

allied powers

awarded Britain

the mandate

for Palestine.

 

(Britain

also was awarded

the mandates

for Transjordan

and Iraq;

France

gained control

of Syria

and Lebanon.)

 

In 1922,

the League of Nations

confirmed the mandate,

which specifically

recognized

the historical connection

between

the Jewish people

and Palestine.

 

According to the mandate,

Britain "shall be responsible

for placing the country

[Palestine]

under such political,

administrative

and economic conditions

as will secure

the establishment

of the Jewish national home ...

and also for safeguarding

the civil and religious rights

of all the inhabitants of Palestine,

irrespective of race or religion."

 

Britain

was also charged

with facilitating

the immigration

of Jews to Palestine.

(Yale Law School

Avalon Project)

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1917

 

Arthur James Balfour

 

The Balfour Declaration

 

 

A major triumph

for the Zionist movement,

this note from

British Foreign Secretary

Arthur Balfour

to Lord Rothschild

relayed

the British government's

"declaration of sympathy"

for Jewish Zionist aspirations.

 

"His Majesty's Government

view with favour

the establishment in Palestine

of a national home

for the Jewish people,"

wrote Balfour.

 

The declaration

made clear, however,

that those who endeavored

to establish a Jewish state

should do nothing

to compromise

the civil and religious rights

of non-Jews in Palestine.

 

Some in the Arab world

considered

this public declaration

at odds with Great Britain's

previous war-time alliances

with Arab states,

a matter which preoccupied

diplomatic circles

for years afterward.

(Yale Law School Avalon Project)

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1632259.stm

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/nov/29/afghanistan.
internationaleducationnews

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/
israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1682961.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_ip_timeline/html/1917.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/nov/01/
arthur-balfour-declaration-100-years-of-suffering-britain-palestine-israel

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2017/oct/17/
centenary-britains-calamitous-promise-balfour-declaration-israel-palestine

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/on-the-middle-east/2015/dec/30/
middle-east-still-rocking-from-first-world-war-pacts-made-100-years-ago

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2009/jun/28/
balfour-and-weizmann-geoffrey-lewis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1917

 

Britain's occupation of Iraq

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1917/mar/11/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Sykes-Picot agreement

was a secret understanding

concluded in 1916

between

Great Britain and France,

with the assent of Russia,

for the dismemberment

of the Ottoman Empire.

 

The agreement

was not implemented,

but it established

the principles for the division

a few years later

of the Turkish-held region

into the French

and British-administered areas

of Syria, Iraq,

Lebanon and Palestine.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/
v3_israel_palestinians/maps/html/british_control.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/
v3_israel_palestinians/maps/html/british_control.stm

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/on-the-middle-east/2015/dec/30/
middle-east-still-rocking-from-first-world-war-pacts-made-100-years-ago

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ottoman Empire’s defeat and collapse

 

 

 

Armenian children

wait to receive food from relief workers, 1920.

 

Bettmann/Corbis

 

 Sunday Book Review

‘The Fall of the Ottomans,’ by Eugene Rogan

NYT

APRIL 16, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/19/books/review/19bkr-clark.t.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In November 1914,

the world’s

only great Muslim empire

was drawn

into a life-or-death struggle

against three historically

Christian powers

— Britain, France and Russia.

 

All parties

made frantic calculations

about the likely intertwining

of religion and strategy.

 

(...)

 

As Rogan explains in

“The Fall of the Ottomans:

The Great War

in the Middle East,”

the Christian nations

of the Triple Entente

had millions

of Muslim subjects,

who might in their view

be open to seduction

by the Ottoman sultan,

especially if he seemed

to be prevailing

in the war.

 

The Ottomans,

for their part,

were in alliance

with two other

European Christian powers,

Germany

and Austria-Hungary.

 

Paradoxically,

the Teutons

urged the sultan

to use his role as caliph

and proclaim

an Islamic holy war.

 

One factor was that,

as a newcomer

to the imperial game,

Germany had relatively

few Muslim subjects

and less to lose

if the card of jihad

were played.

 

The Ottomans,

meanwhile,

feared

the influence of foes,

especially Russia,

over their own

Christian subjects

— including

the Greeks

and Armenians,

who formed

a substantial

and economically

important minority

in both the empire’s capital

and the Anatolian heartland.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/19/books/review/19bkr-clark.t.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/ottoman-empire

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/19/
books/review/19bkr-clark.t.html

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/16/
1915-turkish-sultan-may-resign/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodor Herzl        1860-1904

 

Theodor Herzl,

a Hungarian-born Jew,

is considered the father

of political Zionism.

 

His 1896 pamphlet,

"The Jewish State,"

set forth the framework

for establishing

a Jewish nation.

 

"No one can deny

the gravity

of the situation

of the Jews,"

wrote Herzl.

 

"Wherever they live

in perceptible numbers,

they are more or less

persecuted."

 

In this essay,

Herzl indicated

that there were

two territories

being considered

for the location

of the Jewish state

-- Palestine

and Argentina.

 

"Shall we choose

Palestine or Argentine?"

asked Herzl.

 

"We shall take what is given us."

(Jewish Virtual Library)

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2013/apr/05/
antisemitic-attacks-hungary-israel

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/10/
movies/it-is-no-dream-documentary-on-theodor-herzl.html

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/may/03/
featuresreviews.guardianreview33

http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/r/rubinstein-herzl.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/03/
opinion/03iht-edwheat_ed3_.html

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/events/israel_at_50/history/78597.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_ip_timeline/html/1897.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/yourpaintings/paintings/theodore-herzl-191505

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/oslo/etc/historic.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Theodor Herzl's 1896 book

Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State)

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/middle_east/03/v3_ip_timeline/html/1897.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 19th - 20th century

 

England, United Kingdom, British Empire

 

 

UK / British Empire > 20th century > WW1 > Timeline    1914-1918

 

 

United Kingdom / British Empire > 20th century > WW1

Battle of Gallipoli    1915-1916

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

politics > world > foreign policy,

Arab Spring, Middle East, diplomacy, U.N.

 

 

Jews

 

 

Muslims

 

 

Muslims > The Hajj and Eid al-Adha

 

 

Islamophobia

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

Juifs et musulmans - Si loin, si proches (4/4)

La guerre des mémoires, 1945-2013

Série documentaire (France, 2013, 4x52mn)

Réalisation : Karim Miské

Auteurs : Karim Miské, Emmanuel Blanchard, Nathalie Mars

Direction éditoriale : Sylvie Jézéquel

Arte

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/042500-000/juifs-et-musulmans-si-loin-si-proches-4-4

http://www.arte.tv/sites/fr/juifs-musulmans/

 

 

 

 

Let's end the myths of Britain's imperial past        2011

 

David Cameron

would have us look back

to the days of the British empire with pride.

 

But there is little

in the brutal oppression and naked greed

with which it was built

that deserves our respect

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2011/oct/19/
end-myths-britains-imperial-past