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History > 20th century > UK > World War 2 > Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

War in Wax, Oxford Street, London (1945)

by Wolf Suschitzky

 

His status as a recent immigrant

shows in his fascination with London’s particularities

– he was adept at both studio portraiture and street shots

 

London, Paris, New York:

a tale of three mid-century cities – in pictures

G

Monday 23 May 2016        09.09 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2016/may/23/
unseen-london-paris-new-york-in-pictures 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

how family mementoes

keep the second world war alive

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2019/sep/01/
family-keepsakes-and-memories-second-world-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28 February 2014

 

Secret files reveal

successful MI5 plot

to identify

Nazi sympathisers

in Britain

 

'Probably hundreds'

of rightwing extremists

joined network

during World War II

unaware it was run

by British intelligence

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/28/secret-files-mi5-plot-nazi-britain-world-war-ii

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/28/
secret-files-mi5-plot-nazi-britain-world-war-ii
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lady Malcolm Douglas-Hamilton    1909-2013

 (born Natalie Latham)

 

 

Nearly two years before

the United States

entered World War II,

Mrs. Latham started

Bundles for Britain,

an organization

that initially consisted

of a few New York women

knitting socks and caps

for British sailors.

 

It would grow

to embrace

1.5 million volunteers

in 1,900 branches

in every state

in the union

and begin

shipping to Britain

not only hundreds

of thousands

of knitted items

but also ambulances,

X-ray machines

and children’s cots

— all labeled

“From your American friends.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/03/world/europe/
lady-malcolm-douglas-hamilton-dies-at-103-aided-britain-in-war.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/03/world/europe/
lady-malcolm-douglas-hamilton-dies-at-103-aided-britain-in-war.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the search for peace

after the second world war

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2019/sep/01/
second-world-war-united-nations-nato

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Second World War:

six years that changed Britain for ever

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/aug/23/
second-world-war-mccrum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Britain after the second world war

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/11/
second-world-war-britain-churchill

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/11/
churchill-europe-second-world-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ida Cook

- pseudonym Mary Burchell (1904-1986)

and Louise Cook

 

 

Ida and Louise Cook

were two unassuming

civil service secretaries

whose passion for opera

became their pretext

for travelling repeatedly

to Germany in the 1930s.

 

While they toured

the country’s

opera houses,

they also secured

a safe passage

for dozens of people

who would otherwise

have perished

in the Holocaust.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/05/
ida-louise-cook-sisters-helped-jewish-refugees-flee-nazis-spy-mystery-film

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/nov/05/
ida-louise-cook-sisters-helped-jewish-refugees-flee-nazis-spy-mystery-film

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/jan/27/
fiction.features

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WWII casualties

 

Civilian and Military Deaths

in the Second World War

 

National Death Tolls

for the Second World War

 

  

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2854730

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 August 1945

 

VJ day / Victory over Japan

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/davehillblog/2015/aug/15/
vj-day-in-south-east-suburban-london-1945

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Victory in Europe Day / VE Day        8 May 1945

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 8, 1945

 

Capitulation on Montgomery's front

 

 

German forces

in North-west Germany,

Holland, and Denmark

surrender

to the 21st Army Group

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1945/may/08/
secondworldwar.germany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paul Joseph Goebbels        October 29, 1897 - May 1, 1945

 

http://www.leninimports.com/daily_mail_may_3rd_1945.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/documentaries/storyville/goebbels-speaks.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/genocide/eichmann_03.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 13-15, 1945

 

Bombing of Dresden,

led by Royal Air Force

and followed by the United States

Army Air Force

 

Arthur 'Bomber' Harris    1892-1984

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4257253.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/14/newsid_3549000/3549905.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/harris_arthur_bomber.shtml

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/
home-news/exhibition-marks-blitz-and-dresden-bombings-2071949.html

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/10/allied-bombing-germany-dresden

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/dec/23/germany.secondworldwar

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/feb/13/secondworldwar.germany

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/oct/31/germany.secondworldwar 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2004/feb/07/featuresreviews.guardianreview2

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/apr/19/iraq.arts

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2004/mar/03/military.germany 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1945/feb/15/secondworldwar.fromthearchive 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/2719939.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

V2 / V1 rockets

 

 

 

American soldier examining a V2 rocket under construction

in an underground assembly plant.

 

Location: Nordhausen, Germany

 

Date taken: April 29, 1945

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Buildings showing extensive damage

from German V1 flying bomb attacks.

 

Location: London, United Kingdom

Date taken: July 1944

 

Photographer: Ralph Morse

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The first V2s

hit Paris, Antwerp

and Chiswick,

in west London,

in early September 1944.

 

Just under

3,000 civilians

were killed by V2s

in southern England

(and more

than 6,000 by V1s)

before the last V2

hit Orpington,

in London,

on 27 March 1945.

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/63/a4901663.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/40/a2713240.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2009/mar/10/
space-exploration-secondworldwar

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/may/19/secondworldwar

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1944/sep/08/mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1945

 

Hitler's secret weapons

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/1945/jun/29/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Holland

 

17-25/26 September 1944

 

Battle of Arnhem

Operation Market Garden

 

 

US Airborne Divisions

take objectives in Holland

to open a corridor

for the advancing British Army.

 

British

1st Airborne 10 Division

lands at Arnhem

but meets

strong resistance.

 

The Allies fail to gain

a bridgehead across

the lower River Rhine.

 

 

Airborne troops

retreat from Arnhem

- 26 September 1944

http://london.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/4/dday/pdfs/DDayAftermath.pdf

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/26/newsid_3523000/3523972.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_arnhem_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_arnhem.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rescue workers helping pull victim

from ruins of a building hit by a V2 rocket during WWII.

 

Location: London, United Kingdom

Date taken: July 1944

 

Life Images

 

Anglonautes' note:

check caption accuracy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1943

 

Bombing of Hamburg

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/08/
hamburg-bombing-raid-anglo-american

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2007/mar/17/featuresreviews.guardianreview4 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2007/mar/04/historybooks.features1

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/dec/23/germany.secondworldwar

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/oct/22/worlddispatch.germany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 June 1944

 

D-Day    Operation Overlord

 

Timeline, stories, interactive guide

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/dday_audio.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/dday_audio.shtml

http://www.theguardian.com/world/secondworldwar

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/
this-britain/the-final-battle-remembering-ddays-veterans-841378.html

https://www.theguardian.com/century/year/0,6050,128358,00.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/jun/06/secondworldwar.focus  

http://www.war-experience.org/

http://www.iwm.org.uk/

http://www.iwm.org.uk/dday/index.htm

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/churchill/wc-unity.html

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/dday/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1943

 

Operation Chastise / Dambusters raid

 

second world war mission

to destroy German dams

in the Ruhr Valley

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/video/2013/may/16/
dambusters-70th-anniversary-johnny-johnson-video

 

 

 

The raids were successful

in devastating the Möhne

and Edersee dams.

 

The effects

of the so-called

bouncing bombs

caused

catastrophic flooding

in the Ruhr valley,

destroying hydroelectric

power stations

and factories.

 

More than 1,600 people

on the ground

are thought

to have been killed.

 

Of the 133 crew members

who took part in the raids,

53 were killed.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/04/
last-surviving-dambusters-pilot-les-munro-dies-96

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/04/
a-mighty-man-tributes-to-last-surviving-dambusters-pilot-les-munro

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/04/
last-surviving-dambusters-pilot-les-munro-dies-96

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/09/
military-veterans-respond-funeral-appeal-war-hero

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/video/2013/may/16/
dambusters-70th-anniversary-johnny-johnson-video

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2003/may/16/
fromthearchive 

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/museum/item.asp?item_id=48 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/17/newsid_3623000/3623223.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/mid/3036193.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 1943

 

Norway

 

 

By 1942,

the British knew

that Germany

had chosen heavy water,

or deuterium oxide,

to moderate

atom-splitting

chain reactions

to produce

bomb-grade plutonium,

and that the Norsk Hydro

plant in Norway,

which had been extracting

heavy water

since 1934

for making fertilizer,

had been taken over

by Nazi invaders

as the world’s

best source of the isotope

for Berlin’s

atomic weapons program.

 

A 35-man

British commando team

had been lost

on a 1942 mission

to sabotage the plant.

 

Britain then enlisted

the Norwegian volunteers

under Mr. Ronneberg

for Operation Gunnerside,

endorsed by Prime Minister

Winston Churchill.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/22/
obituaries/joachim-ronneberg-dead.html

 

 

 

a team of SOE-trained

Norwegian commandos

succeeded in destroying

the production facility

with a second attempt,

Operation Gunnerside

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_heavy_water_sabotage

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_heavy_water_sabotage

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/22/
obituaries/joachim-ronneberg-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Bombing Strategy

in World War Two

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/area_bombing_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Second World War code machines

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/defence/7982870/
Second-World-War-code-machines-displayed-at-Bletchley-Park.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Arctic convoys

 

the Second World War mission

to supply the Russians

for their battle

on the Eastern Front

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2004/apr/11/
leaders.secondworldwar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1942

 

The Beveridge "Plan for Social Security"

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/apr/15/
ten-of-the-best-political-documents

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/1942/dec/02/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Egypt

 

Second Battle of El Alamein / العلمين‎        23 October-4 November 1942

 

Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery    1887-1976

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_el_alamein_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/montgomery_bernard.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1057394.shtml

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/08/poet-keith-douglas-el-alamein-ww2

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/08/erwin-rommel-papers-el-alamein-ww2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 February 1942

 

Singapore forced to surrender

 

 

British forces in Singapore

surrender unconditionally

to the Japanese

seven days after enemy troops

first stormed the island.

 

(...)

 

The British capitulation

comes one week

after Japanese forces

invaded Singapore

and only two weeks

since their onslaught

on the Malay Peninsula

forced the British troops'

withdrawal to the island.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/newsid_3529000/3529447.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/
newsid_3529000/3529447.stm

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2019/sep/01/
ascherson-into-the-storm-second-world-war-outbreak

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 September 1941

 

RAF night raid on Berlin

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/picture/2013/sep/02/
raf-night-raid-berlin-1941-photograph

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1941-1945

 

Burma Campaign

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/burma_campaign_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_burma_campaign.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 8, 1941

 

Japan declares war

on United States and Britain

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/
Story/0,6051,127505,00.html
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Britain declares war

on Finland, Hungary

and Romania

on 5 December 1941,

following Finland's

alliance with Germany

and the signing

of the Tri-partite Pact

 

[ on September 27, 1940,

Germany, Italy, and Japan

signed the Tripartite Pact,

which became known

as the Axis alliance ]

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/
factfiles/nonflash/a1138501.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allies        Middle East        Persia (now Iran)

 

Anglo-Soviet invasion / Operation Countenance

 

25 August-17 September 1941

 

 

Persia's

strategic importance

increased

as the war progressed.

 

In 1940

it produced

over eight million

tons of oil,

essential

for the Allied war effort.

 

Furthermore,

Germany's

invasion of Russia

in June 1941

made Persia

critically important

for sending

American Lend-Lease

supplies

to the Eastern Front.

 

While officially neutral,

Persia had friendly ties

with German

and was home

to many German nationals.

 

Reza Shah Pahlavi's

refusal to expel

the German nationals,

coupled

with their more

strategic concerns,

prompted

an Anglo-Soviet invasion

in August 1941.

 

The invasion

and occupation of Persia

was swift and undemanding.

 

The British units

invaded Persia

from their bases in Iraq,

to the south of Iran.

 

The Russians

invaded from the north.

 

Persian resistance

was rapidly overwhelmed

and neutralised

by Soviet and British

tanks and infantry.

 

Before long,

the Shah was exiled

to South Africa.

 

The British and Soviet troops

met in Tehran on 17 September

and effectively divided

the country between them

for the rest of the war.

 

A Tri-Partite

Treaty of Alliance

between Britain,

Russia and Persia,

signed in January 1942,

committed the Allies

to leaving Persia

at the end of the war.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1130121.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1130121.shtml

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Soviet_invasion_of_Iran

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24 August 1941

 

Pact with America:

Churchill's speech

after the Atlantic conference

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/08/
atlantic-conference-churchill-roosevelt-alliance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 1941

 

Secret meetings

seal US-Britain alliance

 

 

Top-secret meetings

between Prime Minister

Winston Churchill

and American President

Franklin D Roosevelt

 

(...)

 

Details of the meetings

only emerged

after the announcement

of a joint declaration

by Britain and America

on the basic principles

for a post-war world,

sealing the alliance between

the two countries

for the downfall of Hitler.

 

(...)

 

The document,

known as the Atlantic Charter,

consists of a list

of eight (?) undertakings.

 

1 - Britain and the United States

seek no territorial gains from the war

 

2 - any changes to a country's

territory should only happen

with the agreement of the people

living there

 

3 - it is the right of everyone

to choose the government

under which they will live

 

4 - self-government

should be restored

to those who have lost it

 

5 - there should be free trade

between all nations

 

6 - improvements in the economy

and in living standards

should be available to all

 

7 - there should be peace following

what the Charter calls

"the end of Nazi tyranny"

 

8 - peace should enable

freedom of movement

around the world

 

9 - a belief

that aggressive nations

must be disarmed

if the world is to live

at peace

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/14/newsid_3536000/3536533.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/14/
newsid_3536000/3536533.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 May 1941

 

Rudolf Hess (1894-1987),

Hitler's deputy,

escapes to Britain

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/17/newsid_2496000/2496643.stm

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/mar/16/historybooks.features

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/83/a4408283.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/1326958.stm

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/Story/0,,127470,00.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rationing during the second world war

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/gallery/2010/mar/04/
imperial-war-museum-rationing-food 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/08/
rationing-second-world-war1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 British ships torpedoed by U-boats

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Royal_Navy_losses_in_World_War_II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_maritime_disasters_in_World_War_II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ships_sunk_by_submarines_by_death_toll

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Ships_sunk_by_German_submarines_in_World_War_II

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_hospital_ships_sunk_in_World_War_II

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2017/nov/03/
worlds-biggest-grave-robbery-asias-disappearing-ww2-shipwrecks

 

https://www.bbc.com/news/
science-environment-41503664 - 5 October 2017

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/nov/16/
british-second-world-war-ships-illegal-scavenging-java-sea

 

https://www.bbc.com/news/
uk-wales-35252604 - 17 February 2016

 

https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2011/jan/02/
alan-bleasdale-uboat-sinking-laconia
- Sinking of the Laconia - South Atlantic - September 1942.

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1940/dec/19/
mainsection.fromthearchive

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/sep/15/
benares-sunk-war-81-children-dead

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
SS_City_of_Benares

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7924.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1940

 

Western Prince - ship torpedoed by a U-boat

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1940/dec/19/
mainsection.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17 September 1940

 

A German U-boat

sinks the City of Benares

 

Eighty-one child evacuees die

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/sep/15/
benares-sunk-war-81-children-dead

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/sep/15/
benares-sunk-war-81-children-dead

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Battle of Britain

 

Winston Churchill's speech        August 20, 1940

 

 

World War II poster

"Printed for H.M. Stationery Office by Lowe & Brydon Printers, Ltd".

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Never_was_so_much_owed_by_so_many_to_so_few.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Never_was_so_much_owed_by_so_many_to_so_few

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/18/world/europe/
henry-lafont-french-pilot-in-battle-of-britain-dies-at-91.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/world-war-2/battle-of-britain/7851021/
Battle-of-Britain-survivors-It-was-shoot-or-be-shot.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newsvideo/7882425/Battle-of-Britain-veterans-stories.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/world-war-2/battle-of-britain/7881879/
Battle-of-Britain-our-finest-hour.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_of_britain_01.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2000/battle_of_britain/default.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/15/newsid_3521000/3521611.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/categories/c55221/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4257084.stm

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/06/battle-of-britain

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/1940/aug/21/secondworldwar.germany

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/
Story/0,,128255,00.html
- 21 August 1940

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-6 July 1940

 

Coast of Algeria        Mers-el-Kébir

 

 

British warships

destroy the French fleet

at Mers-el-Kebir, Algeria,

to prevent Germany seizing it.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/index.shtml?day=03&month=07

 

 

 

Players:

Force H,

British Admiral Somerville and Cunningham

and French Admirals Darlan and Gensoul.

 

Outcome:

Over 1,000 lives lost,

the French fleet immobilised,

Britain's determination

to succeed in the Mediterranean

asserted.

 

Britain didn't waste

any time taking action

after the French Vichy government

signed a treaty with the Germans

on 25 June 1940.

 

The French

had a powerful fleet

which was a threat

to British naval supremacy

in the Mediterranean.

 

Only eight days

after the treaty was signed,

on 3 July,

the British seized

all French ships

in British ports.

 

Then, under the command

of Admiral Somerville,

Force H was dispatched

to deal with the French

in North Africa.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1144973.shtml - broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More than 2 million Indian men fought for Britain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/08/22/
433515258/in-wwii-millions-of-indians-fought-for-a-britain-they-abhored

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MI6 spent $200m bribing Spaniards

in second world war

 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/may/23/
mi6-spain-200m-bribes-ww2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evacuation Operation Pied Piper (September 1939),

The Battle of Britain / The Blitz (1940-1941)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1940

 

Formation

of the Special Operations Executive (SOE)

 

 

Wartime agency

known informally

as “Churchill’s secret army,”

which recruited more

than 14,000 agents

to conduct

espionage and sabotage

behind enemy lines

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/22/world/europe/22nearne.html

 

 

http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/c-d/cross.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/soe_01.shtml

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/22/obituaries/joachim-ronneberg-dead.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/22/world/europe/22nearne.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We shall fight on the beaches

 

Winston Churchill's speech

was delivered

to House of Commons

on June 4 1940

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2007/apr/20/
greatspeeches3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26 May - 4 June 1940

 

France        Dunkerque / Dunkirk

 

Operation Dynamo

 

Evacuation

of around 350,000 British,

French and Belgian troops

from Dunkirk

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/ff2_dunkirk.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/16/
dunkirk-darkest-day-29-may-1940-evacuation-came-close-to-disaster

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/picture/2013/jun/03/
photography-secondworldwar

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/17/world/europe/17freeborn.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/uknews/7771885/
Dunkirk-evacuation-Operation-Dynamo-in-pictures.html

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/uknews/7771919/
Dunkirk-evacuation-anniversary-second-world-war-veterans-reenact-Operation-Dynamo.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/may/27/operation-dynamo-dunkirk-little-ships

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2010/may/27/operation-dynamo-70th-anniversary

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2010/may/27/british-pathe-dunkirk-evacuation

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/06/jb-priestley-dunkirk-second-world-war

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/Story/0,,127406,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 June 1940

 

Franco-German Armistice

 

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005429

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_France

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Général Charles de Gaulle

 

Appel du 18 juin 1940

 

 

Speeches delivered

by Charles de Gaulle

and broadcast by the BBC

on June 18, 19 and 22 1940

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/series/great-speeches-charles-de-gaulle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May-June 1940

 

The Fall of France

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/fall_france_01.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/45/a2598645.shtml

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005429

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


1939

 

How the Bank of England

'helped Nazis sell

gold stolen from Czechs'

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/jul/31/
bank-of-england-and-nazis-stolen-gold

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UK, British Empire > 20th century > WW2

Kindertransport    1938-1940

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winston Churchill    1874-1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neville Chamberlain    1869-1940

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/neville-chamberlain

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/20/
chamberlain-hitler-appeasement-munich-agreement-archive-1938

 

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-24300094 - 30 September 2013

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/from-the-archive-blog/2011/may/25/
guardian-190-chamberlain-returns-from-munich

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/from-the-archive-blog/2011/may/25/
guardian-190-britain-at-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) resigns

 

Winston Churchill (1874-1965)

forms a government - May 10, 1940

 

 

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-24300094 - 30 September 2013

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1940/may/11/
mainsection.fromthearchive

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/10/newsid
_3497000/3497115.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Picture Post

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2016/jun/09/
never-had-it-so-good-bert-hardys-archive-of-mid-century-life-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1939-1945

 

The Blitz,

The Evacuation,

Dig for Victory campaign,

King George V,

Chamberlain,

Munich,

Churchill,

ligne Maginot,

UK wartime torture camp,

war posters,

Japan,

The Western Prince,

Home Guard

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/cen_ww_two.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/england/ear20_wwtwo.shtml

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/imagelibrary/ww2/ 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/britainatwar/5983711/
Second-World-War-posters.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/war_adverts_gallery.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/blitz_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/evacuees_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war/wwtwo/churchill_audio.shtml

http://www.iwmcollections.org.uk/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/flower_shows/hampton_court_2005/hcgrowyourown_index.shtml

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/nov/12/topstories3.secondworldwar 

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/nov/12/secondworldwar.world 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/1941/jan/22/past.secondworldwar 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/chamberlain_arthur_neville.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/britain/cen_munich.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2019/sep/01/
ascherson-into-the-storm-second-world-war-outbreak

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1945/sep/03/
japan.secondworldwar    

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/year/0,6050,128341,00.html   

https://www.theguardian.com/secondworldwar/
fromthearchive/0,15744,1398350,00.html   

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1940/dec/19/
mainsection.fromthearchive  

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1940/may/08/
mainsection.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viscount Halifax    1881-1959

 

 

 

Portrait of Viscount Lord Halifax,

British Secy. of State for Foreign Affairs.

 

Location: United Kingdom

Date taken: 1939

 

Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=7312b106579bfe71

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Foreign Secretary

speaks after two months of war

 

recorded

circa November 1939

 

 

Seen by many as one

of the architects

of appeasement

prior to the declaration

of hostilities,

Viscount Halifax here

speaks to the nation

on the purposes of the war

and the likelihood of victory

for the Allies.

 

During his lengthy,

considered speech,

he notes that the British

'right to grumble'

is a mark of freedom

compared with

the situation in Nazi Germany,

where complaining can lead

to a concentration camp.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7933.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7933.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UK, British empire > 20th century > WW2

Women at war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 3, 1939

 

Britain and France

declare war on Germany

 

Transcript

of Neville Chamberlain's

Declaration of war

 

 

http://www.iwm.org.uk/server/show/nav.24027

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7957.shtml?page=txt

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/special_report/1999/08/99/world_war_11/default.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/3/newsid_3493000/3493279.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2019/sep/01/
ascherson-into-the-storm-second-world-war-outbreak

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/from-the-archive-blog/2011/may/25/
guardian-190-britain-at-war 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/year/0,6050,128338,00.html - 1939

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1939/sep/04/fromthearchive  

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1939/sep/04/secondworldwar.fromthearchive 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1939/sep/04/secondworldwar.fromthearchive1 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7970.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7909.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7918.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7917.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7916.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7957.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 September 1939

 

The SS Athenia,

en route

from Glasgow

to Montreal,

became the first victim

of the Battle of the Atlantic

when she was torpedoed

and sunk by a U-boat

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7924.shtml


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conscientious objectors

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/07/
british-conscientious-objectors-second-world-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final steps to the second world war

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/05/
second-world-war-prelude

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 1, 1939

 

Germany invades Poland

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/1/newsid_3506000/3506335.stm

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?ModuleId=10005070

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005300

http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/chamberlain.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7913.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7914.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7940.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Approach of war

Munich Agreement / Appeasement    1938-1939

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday 28 August 1939

 

Countdown to World War Two

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/countdown_390828_mon_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alan Turing        1912-1954

 

Alan Turing

was born

on 23 June, 1912,

in London.

 

His father

was in the Indian

Civil Service

and Turing's parents

lived in India

until his father's

retirement

in 1926.

 

Turing and his brother

stayed with friends

and relatives in England.

 

Turing

studied mathematics

at Cambridge University,

and subsequently taught there,

working in the burgeoning world

of quantum mechanics.

 

It was at Cambridge

that he developed the proof

which states

that automatic computation

cannot solve

all mathematical problems.

 

This concept,

also known

as the Turing machine,

is considered the basis

for the modern theory

of computation.

 

In 1936,

Turing went

to Princeton University

in America,

returning to England

in 1938.

 

He began to work

secretly part-time

for the British

cryptanalytic department,

the Government Code

and Cypher School.

 

On the outbreak of war

he took up full-time work

at its headquarters,

Bletchley Park.

 

Here he played

a vital role

in deciphering

the messages

encrypted

by the German

Enigma machine,

which provided

vital intelligence

for the Allies.

 

He took the lead

in a team

that designed

a machine

known as a bombe

that successfully

decoded

German messages.

 

He became a well-known

and rather eccentric figure

at Bletchley.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/people/alan_turing

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/people/alan_turing

https://www.theguardian.com/science/alan-turing

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/dec/24/
enigma-codebreaker-alan-turing-royal-pardon

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2012/mar/27/
pass-notes-alan-turing

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2011/mar/01/
pilot-ace-computer-alan-turing

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/feb/25/
turing-papers-auction-bid-bletchley

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-manchester-16061279

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/grrlscientist/2011/dec/19/1

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/11/
pm-apology-to-alan-turing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jewish children, fleeing Nazism in Vienna, arrive in Lowestoft, Suffolk,

in 1938 – the same year that Edmund de Waal’s father, then aged 10,

arrived with his family as a refugee.

 

Photograph: Imagno/Getty

 

Edmund de Waal:

‘The Nazis banished my family from Vienna.

Now we are returning’

G

Sat 28 Sep 2019    13.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/sep/28/
edmund-de-waal-nazis-banished-my-family-from-vienna-interview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1938

 

refugees from Austria

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/sep/28/
edmund-de-waal-nazis-banished-my-family-from-vienna-interview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jewish refugees

on wartime life in England

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/09/
jewish-refugees-england-kindertransport-holocaust


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 12, 1938

 

Anschluss

 

Annexation of Austria

into Greater Germany

by the Nazi regime

 

 

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/austria

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/sceptred_isle/page/201.shtml?question=201

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 1937

 

The Duke and Duchess of Windsor

visit Nazi Germany

 

They meet Hitler,

dine with his deputy, Rudolf Hess,

and even visit a concentration camp

 

 


 

The Duke

[ formerly King Edward VIII of the British Empire, Emperor of India -

Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David;

later The Duke of Windsor; 1894-1972 ]

and Duchess of Windsor

[ Wallis, Duchess of Windsor (born Bessie Wallis Warfield,

later Spencer, then Simpson; 1896-1986 ]

meet Adolf Hitler

in 1937

Caption from Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nazi_Windsors.jpg

 

Photo from The Daily Mail


IAN KERSHAW

Last updated at 1:18 AM on 07th June 2008

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1024798/
The-day-lost-Second-World-War--fictional-account-happened.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/2701965.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/661966.stm

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2003/jan/16/
past.monarchy

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2003/jan/25/
freedomofinformation.monarchy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spyclists:

how Hitler Youth's

cycling tours

caused panic

in prewar Britain

 

Nazis' bid

to forge ties

with Lord Baden-Powell

and boy scouts

rang government

alarm bells

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/08/hitler-youth-prewar-cyclists-boy-scouts

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/08/
hitler-youth-prewar-cyclists-boy-scouts 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1936

 

Germany begins rearming

and invades the Rhineland

up to the French border

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwtwo/overview_britain_1918_1945_03.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 18, 1935

 

Anglo-German Naval Agreement

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-German_Naval_Agreement

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The second world war: a timeline

 

Significant events

before, during and resulting

from the second world war

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2009/sep/09/
second-world-war-timeline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Aerial Reconnaissance Archive (Tara)

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2009/nov/23/
secondworldwar-secret-photographs-online

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nazi Germany        1933-1945

 

 

Flag of Germany        1933

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Germany_1933.svg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/section.cfm?section_id=13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1933

 

Germany

 

Adolf Hitler

comes to power

on a programme

to reverse

the Versailles Treaty   

 

 

He withdraws

from the disarmament

conference

and leaves

the League of Nations.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwtwo/overview_britain_1918_1945_03.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwtwo/
overview_britain_1918_1945_03.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/53/INF3-208_Salvage_Save_waste_for_war_weapons_%28scarecrow_with_scrap%29.jpg

 

 

Rags make uniforms, metal makes tanks, paper makes bullets.

Save waste for war weapons

1939-46

Unknown

This file

is from the collections of The National Archives (United Kingdom),

catalogued under document record INF3/208

Wikimedia commons

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:INF3-208_Salvage_Save_waste_for_war_weapons_%28scarecrow_with_scrap%29.jpg

War art in The National Archives (United Kingdom)

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:War_art_in_The_National_Archives_%28United_Kingdom%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > 20th century

 

UK / British Empire > WW2

Victory in Europe Day / VE Day - 8 May 1945

 

 

UK, British empire > 20th century > WW2

Women at war

 

 

UK / British Empire > WW2

Evacuation Operation Pied Piper (September 1939),

The Blitz (1940-1941)

 

 

British fascism / fascism in the UK (1930s-1940s)

 

 

 

 

WW2 > 1939-1945

 

 

WW2 > 1939-1945

Germany, Europe > Antisemitism, Adolf Hitler, Nazi era, Holocaust

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

genocide, war,

weapons, espionage, torture

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Science

 

Alan Mathison Turing        UK        1912-1954

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

British Pathé

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2010/oct/02/british-pathe-archive

 

 

 

 

Germany: National Socialism and World War II

https://eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Germany:_National_Socialism_and_World_War_II  

 

 

 

 

A lost heritage: Nazi pictures reveal full devastation wreaked by allied bombers

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/10/secondworldwar.germany

https://www.uni-marburg.de/de/fotomarburg 

 

 

 

 

 

Second World War posters

 

Seventy years after the radio announcement

that informed the nation that Britain was at war,

Imperial War Museum London

is mounting Outbreak 1939,

a new special exhibition, which will explore

the build-up to and preparations for war,

from August 20.

 

Terry Charman,

senior Imperial War Museum Historian,

describes some of the iconic posters from 1939.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/britainatwar/5983711/
Second-World-War-posters.html

 

 

 

 

enemy propaganda

 

National Archives publish

wartime propaganda in online gallery        13 June 2012

 

Hundreds of images of war art including posters

and a portrait of the future queen are released online

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:
War_art_in_The_National_Archives_%28United_Kingdom%29

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/jun/13/
national-archives-wartime-propaganda-gallery