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History > 19th century > USA > Civil war > Confederate States of America    1861-1865

 

 

 

Portrait of Gen. Robert E. Lee, officer of the Confederate Army

Source: The Library od Congress Prints & Photographs Online Catalog

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/catalog.html

Date: 1863

 

Author: Vannerson, Julian, b. 1827 photographer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Robert_Edward_Lee.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_E._Lee

 

Primary source

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr09.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 9, 1865

 

Confederate general Robert Edward Lee surrenders

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr09.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/robert-e-lee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederate general Robert Edward Lee    1807-1870

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/robert-e-lee

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3257228

http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2005/spring/piece-lee.html

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/parole.html

http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=4083

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr09.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr02.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/18/us/
robert-e-lee-slaves.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/26/opinion/david-brooks-the-robert-e-lee-problem.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/17/arts/design/17hist.html

 

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-09-29-letters_N.htm

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/18/AR2007011801873.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederate Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon    1832-1904

 

 

 

Gordon, Maj. Gen. John B.

half-length. 111-B-1786.

NARA > Confederate Army Officers

http://www.archives.gov/research/civil-war/photos/index.html#portraits

http://www.archives.gov/research/civil-war/photos/images/civil-war-140.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Brown_Gordon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Confederate General John B. Hood    1831-1879

 

 

 

Hood, Gen. John B

bust-length, in civilian clothes. 111-B-5274.

NARA > Confederate Army Officers

http://www.archives.gov/research/civil-war/photos/images/civil-war-142.jpg

http://www.archives.gov/research/civil-war/photos/index.html#portraits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bell_Hood

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederate Maj. Gen. William Mahone    1826-1895

 

 

 

Mahone, Maj. Gen. William

half-length, seated. 111-B-5123.

NARA > Confederate Army Officers

http://www.archives.gov/research/civil-war/photos/images/civil-war-147.jpg

http://www.archives.gov/research/civil-war/photos/index.html#portraits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederate general Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard    1818-1893

 

 

 

Beauregard Bull Run quick step; General G.T. Beauregard. 1862

Rosenberger, J. A.

CREATED/PUBLISHED

[New Orleans], Louisiana, P.P. Werlein & Halsey, 1862

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/dukesm:@field(DOCID+@lit(ncdhasm.conf0106)) 

http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/sheetmusic/conf/conf01/conf0106/conf0106-1-150dpi.html
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul21.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/beauregard.html

 

http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/sheetmusic/conf/conf01/conf0106/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jefferson Finis Davis    1808-1889

 

 

 

Davis, Jefferson, President; three-quarter-length, standing.

Photographed by Mathew B. Brady before the war.

111-B-4146.

Confederate Officials

Pictures of the Civil War

Select Audiovisual Records

National Archives and Records Administration

Washington, DC 20408

http://www.archives.gov/research/military/civil-war/photos/images/civil-war-176.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

President

of the Confederate States of America

for its entire history from 1861 to 1865

 

 

Jefferson Finish Davis (1808-1889),

president

of the Confederate States of America

(provisional president

February 18, 1861 — February 17, 1862;

president

February 22, 1862 — May 10, 1865).

 

 

Davis never sought

the Confederate presidency.

 

When he learned of his election

as the provisional head of state,

he accepted the position

with considerable anxiety,

for he would be building a nation

while guiding it through a likely war

with a stronger opponent.

 

Born into a well-to-do family

in Christian (now Todd) County, Kentucky,

Davis left

Transylvania College in Lexington

to attend the U.S. Military Academy

at West Point,

graduating in 1828.

 

After serving

seven years in the army,

including participation

in the Black Hawk War,

he resigned his commission

to marry Sarah Knox Taylor

(daughter

of his former commanding officer

and future president Zachary Taylor)

and become a planter in Mississippi.

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/d/jefferson_f_davis/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

Jeff Davis. [n. p.] [n. d.]

COLLECTION

American Song Sheets

REPOSITORY

Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress

DIGITAL ID

as106630

SHELF LOCATION

American Song Sheets, Series 1, Volume 5

http://memory.loc.gov/rbc/amss/as1/as106630/001r.jpg
http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=amss&fileName=as1/as106630/amsspage.db&recNum=0
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/jefferson-davis 

https://jeffersondavis.rice.edu/

http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/davis.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/nov06.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may10.html#daviscapture

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/web05/features/bio/B15.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/13/opinion/the-many-images-of-jefferson-davis.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1861/02/19/news/
important-montgomery-inauguration-jefferson-davis-president-southern.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederate General John Cabell Breckenridge / Breckinridge    1821-1875

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_C._Breckinridge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest    1821-1877

 

 

 

Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest        1821-1877

added 28.3.2005

http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/Nathan_Bedford_Forrest.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederate general,

slave trader

and onetime leader

of the Ku Klux Klan.

 

(...)

 

Forrest was a general

for the Confederacy

during the Civil War,

and led Confederate forces

in the Fort Pillow Massacre,

where soldiers executed

several black troops

after they surrendered,

according to

survivors' accounts

and a federal investigation.

 

He was also

a prominent slave owner

and the first Grand Wizard

of the KKK.

https://www.npr.org/2019/07/14/
741629271/tennessee-governor-faces-backlash-for-honoring-confederate-general-and-kkk-leade

 

 

https://www.history.com/topics/
american-civil-war/fort-pillow-massacre

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/07/14/
741629271/tennessee-governor-faces-backlash-for-honoring-confederate-general-and-kkk-leade

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/20/
us/a-confederate-generals-final-stand-divides-memphis.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20 December 1860

 

South Carolina Ordinance of Secession

 

"An Ordinance to dissolve the Union

between the State of South Carolina

and other States"

 

 

On Dec. 20, 1860,

169 men

— politicians

and people of property —

met in the ballroom

of St. Andrew’s Hall

in Charleston, S.C.

 

After hours of debate,

they issued the 158-word

“Ordinance of Secession,”

which repealed the consent

of South Carolina

to the Constitution

and declared the state

to be an independent

country.

 

Four days later,

the same group

drafted a seven-page

“Declaration

of the Immediate Causes,”

explaining why

they had decided

to split the Union.

 

The authors of these papers

flattered themselves

that they’d conjured up

a second American Revolution.

 

Instead,

the Secession Convention

was the beginning

of the Civil War,

which killed

some 620,000 Americans;

 

an equivalent war today [ 2010 ]

would send home more

than six million body bags.

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/opinion/19Ball.html

 

 

 

 

 

Document Description:

After Abraham Lincoln

was elected President in early November 1860,

the South Carolina State Legislature

called for elections to a state convention

to be held on December 17th.

 

On December 20th,

all 169 delegates to the convention voted for secession

against Republican Presidential leadership

on matters of race, economics, and politics.

 

This document states

that South Carolina

has repealed the Constitution and its amendments

and disassociated itself from the United States of America.

 

The convention would also draft

the “Declaration of Immediate Causes”

explaining exactly why the state seceded,

and “The Address to the People of South Carolina . . .”

outlining the erosion of the Union

and calling for a confederacy of southern states.

Citation:

Constitutional Convention (1860-1862).

South Carolina Ordinance of Secession, 20 December 1860.

 

Constitutional and Organic Papers. S 131053.

South Carolina Department of Archives and History,

Columbia, South Carolina.

 

 

Transcription:

 

The State of South Carolina

At a Convention of the People of the State of South Carolina,

begun and holden at Columbia on the Seventeenth day of December

in the year or our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty

and thence continued by adjournment to Charleston,

and there by divers adjournments to the Twentieth day of December in the same year –

An Ordinance To dissolve the Union between the State of South Carolina and other States united

with her under the compact entitled “The Constitution of the United States of America.”

We, the People of the State of South Carolina, in Convention assembled do declare and ordain,

and it is herby declared and ordained, That the Ordinance adopted by us in Convention,

on the twenty-third day of May in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred and eight eight,

whereby the Constitution of the United State of America was ratified,

and also all Acts and parts of Acts of the General Assembly of this State,

ratifying amendment of the said Constitution, are here by repealed;

and that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States,

under the name of “The United States of America,” is hereby dissolved.

Done at Charleston, the twentieth day of December,

in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty

[signed] D.F. Jamison Delegate from Barnwell and

President of the Convention

[signatures of delegates to the convention]

Attest: Benj. J. Arthur, Clerk of the Convention

http://www.teachingushistory.org/lessons/documents/Ordinance.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/dec/21/south-carolina-secession-civil-war

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/opinion/19Ball.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Birth of ‘Dixie’

 

In what may be

a surprise to some,

the famous anthem

of the Confederacy

can trace its origins back

to a New York apartment

in March 1859.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/31/the-birth-of-dixie/

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/31/the-birth-of-dixie/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederates and Native Americans

 

 

White civilization,

as the Confederate vice president,

Alexander Stephens, said,

depended on the subjection

of black people.

 

He might have added

“and the erasure of Indians,”

but his audience

didn’t need to hear that;

they had already done it.

 

(...)

 

In Indian Territory

(now Oklahoma),

the Cherokee tried

to remain neutral,

but Confederates

threatened

to foment insurrection

if they didn’t join

the cause.

 

Members of the Creek Nation

who tried to flee to Kansas

were chased down.

 

Those who made it

out of Confederate territory

were left to starve

by Union troops.

 

Meanwhile,

in Minnesota,

the Union furthered the quest

for Manifest Destiny

by executing Indian resisters.

 

In Arizona and New Mexico,

the Union Army forced

Indian men,

women and children

to march 400 miles

to an internment camp.

 

The Confederacy’s

commitment to slavery

and the Union’s

commitment to expansion

were different versions

of the same story of imperialism.

 

Tribes who remained

east of the Mississippi

approached the war

with ambivalence.

 

Eastern Band Cherokees

formed a Confederate Army regiment,

but a small group of Lumbee men

led a multiracial gang of outlaws

to violently resist

Confederate assaults.

 

Known as the Lowry War,

this uprising helped

send the Confederates

packing and continued

into Reconstruction.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selected Images

from the Collections of the Library of Congress

 

Confederate States of America

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paConfed.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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