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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights era > Selma Marches    Alabama    March 1965

 

Bloody Sunday - March 7, 1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Protesters on one of 1965’s

Selma to Montgomery voting rights marches.

 

Photograph: Alamy Stock Photo

 

How civil rights activists risked their lives

to change America in 'freedom summer'

G

Friday 1 July 2016    12.58 BST

Last modified on Friday 1 July 2016    16.55 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jul/01/civil-rights-america-1960s-activists-voting-rights-vietnam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Timeline:

The Selma-to-Montgomery marches

 

 

1962-1963

 

Representatives

of the Student Nonviolent

Coordinating Committee

come to Selma

and begin staging protests.

 

 

 

 

Oct. 7, 1963

 

In what would be

known as "Freedom Day,"

about 350 blacks line up

to register to vote

at the Dallas County

Courthouse.

 

Registrars

go as slowly as possible

and take a two-hour

lunch break.

 

Few manage to register,

most of those are denied,

but the protest is considered

a huge victory by civil rights

advocates.
 

 

 


July 9, 1964

 

Dallas County Circuit Court

Judge James Hare

issues an injunction effectively

forbidding gatherings

of three or more people

to discuss

civil rights or voter registration

in Selma.
 

 

 


Dec. 28, 1964

 

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

presents the SCLC plan,

the "Project for an Alabama

Political Freedom Movement,"

a plan conceived by James Bevel

that calls for mass action

and voter registration attempts

in Selma and Dallas County.

 

 



Jan. 2, 1965

 

King begins his Selma campaign

when about 700 African Americans

show up for a meeting at Brown Chapel

in defiance of the injunction.

 

 



Jan. 18, 1965

 

Black civil rights advocates

meet at Brown Chapel.

 

Following

speeches and prayers,

King and John Lewis

lead 300 marchers

out of the church.

 

Selma Police Chief

Wilson Baker

allows them to march

in small groups

to the courthouse

to register

despite Hare's injunction,

but Sheriff Jim Clark

has them line up

in an alley

beside the courthouse,

where they are out of sight,

and leaves them there.

 

None is registered.

 

 



Jan. 19, 1965

 

Protesters return

to the courthouse to register

and demand to remain

at the front of the building.

 

Clark arrests them,

including

Hosea Williams of the SCLC,

Lewis of the SNCC

and Amelia Boynton.
 

 

 


Jan. 22, 1965

 

Since local teachers

can be fired,

few have taken overt roles

in the civil rights movement,

but Margaret Moore

and the Rev. F.D. Reese,

who is also a teacher

at Hudson High,

organize the unprecedented

teachers' march.

 

Almost every black

teacher in Selma

— 110 of them —

marches to register

to vote.

 

Clark and his deputies

push them down

the courthouse

stairs three times,

but they are not arrested.


 

 


Jan. 25, 1965

 

King

leads another march

of about 250 people

to the courthouse.

 

When Clark

painfully twists

the arm

of Annie Lee Cooper, 54,

and shoves her,

she slugs him — twice.
 

 

 


Feb. 1, 1965

 

King

and Ralph Abernathy

lead a protest

and refuse to break

into smaller groups.

 

Both are arrested

and placed in the Selma jail,

and refuse to be bonded out.
 

 

 


Feb. 4, 1965

 

One day after

addressing students

at Tuskegee Institute,

Malcolm X speaks

to a crowd at Brown Chapel,

carefully avoiding speaking

about his previous differences

with King concerning

non-violence.


 

 


Feb. 4, 1965

 

President Lyndon Johnson

makes his first public statement

supporting the Selma campaign.


 

 

 


Feb. 6, 1965

 

President Johnson says

he will urge Congress

to enact a voting rights bill

during the session.

 

 

 



February 1965

 

Gov. George C. Wallace

bans nighttime demonstrations

in Selma and Marion,

and assigns 75 troopers

to enforce it.

 

 

 



Feb. 18, 1965

 

State troopers

attack marchers

during a protest in Marion.

State trooper

James Bonard Fowler

shoots and kills

Jimmie Lee Jackson,

a 26-year-old deacon

of the St. James

Baptist Church.

 

Fowler

was charged

with murder

in 2007.

 

He pleaded guilty

to second-degree

manslaughter

in 2010,

when he was 67,

saying he thought Jackson

had been reaching

for a weapon.

 

He was sentenced

to six months,

but was released after five

because of failing health.

 

https://apps.npr.org/white-lies/#story

 

 

 

 

 

March 5, 1965

 

King

flies to Washington to speak

with President Johnson

about the Voting Rights Bill.

 

Then announces the plan

for a massive march

from Selma to Montgomery.
 

 

 

 


March 6, 1965

 

Alabama whites,

calling themselves

the Concerned White Citizens

of Alabama,

come to Selma to march

in support of black rights.

 

Klan members

have followed them

into town to protest their march,

and the demonstration breaks up

as it is clear violence

is about to break out.

 

 

 

 


March 7, 1965

 

In what would become

known as "Bloody Sunday,"

John Lewis and Hosea Williams

lead about 600 people

on what is intended to be a march

from Selma to Montgomery.

 

But Alabama state troopers,

some on horseback,

and Clark and his deputies

meet the marchers

at the Edmund Pettus Bridge.

 

When the marchers

refuse to disperse,

they are driven back

with billy clubs and tear gas,

with 16 being hospitalized

and at least 50 others injured.

 

The national coverage of the event

galvanizes the country,

and King calls for volunteers

from throughout the nation

to come to Selma

for another march on March 9.


 

 

 


March 8, 1965

 

Fred Gray and the SCLC file

Hosea Williams v George Wallace

before U.S. District Judge

Frank M. Johnson Jr. in Montgomery,

asking the court

to prevent state troopers

from blocking the march.

 

Wallace representatives argue

that the march should be blocked

because it would block roadways,

interfering with state commerce

and transportation

and be a threat to public safety.

 

Johnson, concerned about

the safety of the marchers,

says the march should be put off

until the court can hold

a formal hearing

and make a decision.

 

 

 

 

March 9, 1965

 

Martin Luther King Jr.

leads another march

to the Edmund Pettus Bridge.

 

About 2,000 people,

more than half

of them white

and about a third

members of the clergy,

participate

in the second march.

 

King leads

the march to the bridge,

then tells the protesters

to disperse.

 

The march becomes known

as Turnaround Tuesday.


 

 

 


March 9, 1965

 

James Reeb,

a Unitarian

Universalist minister

who had come from Boston

and marched in the protest

earlier in the day,

is beaten severely

by KKK members.

 

He dies of head injuries

two days later

at the age of 38.

 

https://apps.npr.org/white-lies/

 

 

 

 

March 11, 1965

 

Upset with the way

the SCLC

is handling things in Selma,

James Forman

and much of the SNCC staff

move to Montgomery

and begin

a series of demonstrations.

 

The group

also asks for students

from across the country

to join them.

 

Tuskegee Institute students

come to Montgomery

in an attempt to deliver

a petition to Wallace.

 

 

 

 

March 13, 1965

 

President Johnson

meets with Wallace

to decry the brutality

surrounding the protests

and asks him to mobilize

the Alabama National Guard

to protect demonstrators.

 

 

 

 

March 14, 1965

 

SNCC staff members

lead 400 Alabama

State University students,

joined by a group

of white students

from across the country,

on a march

from the ASU campus

to the Capitol.

 

Although Montgomery police

react peacefully to the march,

as the students

approach the Capitol,

state troopers,

the sheriff's office

and a posse

it has deputized

attack the marchers.

 

Photos of the violence

make national headlines.

 

 

 

 

March 15, 1965

 

President Johnson

addresses Congress

in support of a Voting Rights Bill,

quoting the famous civil rights cry

"We shall overcome."

 

 

 

 

March 17, 1965

 

Federal District Court Judge

Frank M. Johnson Jr.

rules in favor of the marchers

after receiving

a Justice Department plan

outlining their protection

during the march.

 

 

 

 

March 17, 1965

 

Despite the arguments

between the SCLC and the SNCC,

King joins Forman

in leading a march of 2000 people

in Montgomery

to the Montgomery County

courthouse.

 

After the march,

King announces

the third Selma-to-Montgomery

march.

 

City of Montgomery officials

apologize for the assault

on SNCC protesters

by county and state law enforcement

and ask King and Formanto

work with them

on how best to deal

with future protests in the city;

student leaders

promise they will seek

permits for future

protest marches.

 

But Wallace continues

to arrest protestors

who venture on

to state-controlled property.

 

 

 

 

March 18, 1965

 

Wallace blasts

Judge Johnson's ruling,

saying the state

cannot afford

to provide the security

the marchers need

and that he will ask

the federal government

for help.

 

 

 

 

March 19, 1965

 

Wallace

sends a telegram

to President Johnson

asking for help

in providing security

for the march.

 

 

 

 

March 20, 1965

 

President Johnson issues

an executive order

authorizing the federal use

of the Alabama National Guard

to supply protection.

 

He also sends

1,000 military policemen

and 2,000 Army troops

to escort the march

from Selma.

 

 

 

 

March 21, 1965

 

About 8,000 people

assemble at Brown Chapel

before starting

the five-day march

to Montgomery's Capitol.

 

 

 

 

March 24, 1965

 

Marchers rest

at the City of St. Jude,

a Catholic church

and school complex

on the outskirts of Montgomery,

where Harry Belafonte,

Tony Bennett, Joan Baez,

Sammy Davis Jr., Nina Simone,

Frankie Laine and Peter,

Paul and Mary perform

at a "Stars for Freedom" rally.

 

 

 

 

 

March 25, 1965

 

During

the Selma-to-Montgomery march,

about 25,000 demonstrators

join the marchers

when they reach Montgomery

for a final rally at the state Capitol.

 

King delivers his famous

"How Long, Not Long" speech.

 

 

 

 

March 25, 1965

 

That night,

Viola Liuzzo,

a white mother of five

who had driven from Detroit

to help protest

for black civil rights,

is shot and killed

by Ku Klux Klansmen

as she drives

toward Montgomery

to pick up

a carload of marchers.

 

She was 39.

 

https://apps.npr.org/white-lies/#story

 

 

 

 

August 6, 1965

 

President Johnson

signs the Voting Rights Act

into law.

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2015/03/05/
black-history-bloody-sunday-timeline/24463923/

 

 

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2015/03/05/
black-history-bloody-sunday-timeline/24463923/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/16/us/
16fowler.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mr. Martin,

the youngest photographer at The Birmingham News,

was one of the few photographers on the ground

in Selma on March 7, 1965, known as Bloody Sunday,

when state troopers violently beat back peaceful marchers

at the Edmund Pettus Bridge.

 

Here is the moment before the confrontation.

 

James “Spider” Martin Archive/Briscoe Center, University of Texas at Austin

 

Spider Martin’s Photographs of the Selma March Get a Broader View

NYT

FEB. 15, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
arts/design/spider-martins-photographs-of-the-selma-march-get-a-broader-view.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mr. Martin’s photographs

distilled the chaos of the march

into a series of dramas between individuals,

as in this widely reproduced shot of John Lewis,

one of the leaders of the march,

being beaten by state troopers.

 

James “Spider” Martin Archive/Briscoe Center, University of Texas at Austin

 

Spider Martin’s Photographs of the Selma March Get a Broader View

NYT

FEB. 15, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
arts/design/spider-martins-photographs-of-the-selma-march-get-a-broader-view.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The civil rights leader Andrew Young later said

that it was largely because of Mr. Martin’s images,

like this shot of the organizer Amelia Boynton

being lifted to her feet after being beaten unconscious,

“that we, as a people and a nation,

so vividly remember Bloody Sunday.”

 

James “Spider” Martin Archive/Briscoe Center, University of Texas at Austin

 

Spider Martin’s Photographs of the Selma March Get a Broader View

NYT

FEB. 15, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/arts/design/spider-martins-photographs-of-the-selma-march-get-a-broader-view.html

 

 

Related

Watching 'Selma' with 103-year-old matriarch of the movement

By Moni Basu, CNN        Updated 0428 GMT (1228 HKT) January 10, 2015

http://edition.cnn.com/2015/01/09/us/selma-civil-rights-matriarch/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

People watching as marchers arrived

in Montgomery, Ala. 1965.

 

Morton Broffman

 

Complicating the Picture of Urban Life

NYT

Feb. 23, 2015

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/02/23/complicating-the-picture-of-urban-life/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Youths celebrating their completion of the march to Montgomery.

 

James H. Barker/Steven Kasher Gallery

 

Documenting Selma, From the Inside

NYT

Mar. 2, 2015

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/02/documenting-selma-from-the-inside-2/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Obama Speaks on 50th Anniversary of Selma        NYT        8 March 2015

 

 

 

 

Obama Speaks on 50th Anniversary of Selma | The New York Times        8 March 2015

 

President Obama addressed a crowd of thousands

on the 50th anniversary of the "Bloody Sunday" civil rights demonstrations

in Selma, Alabama.

 

Produced by: AP

Read the story here: http://nyti.ms/1BZQNNP

Watch more videos at: http://nytimes.com/video

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2iBkoTSUv6g

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Call From Selma        NYT        7 March 2015

 

 

 

 

A Call From Selma | Op-Docs | The New York Times        7 March 2015

 

This short documentary explores

how the murder of a white minister in Selma, Ala.,

helped catalyze the civil rights movement.

 

Produced by: Andrew Beck Grace

Read the story here: http://nyti.ms/1GqJNL3

Watch more videos at: http://nytimes.com/video

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=klNPO8X-q3Q

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gay Talese on the Legacy of Selma        NYT        8 March 2015

 

 

 

 

Gay Talese on the Legacy of Selma | The New York Times        8 March 2015

 

Gay Talese reflects on how events in Selma, Alabama, fifty years ago

(March 7, 2015, marks the 50th anniversary of "Bloody Sunday,"

a turning point in the civil rights movement)

affected race relations in the United States.

 

Produced by: Colin Archdeacon and Natalia V. Osipova

Read the story here: http://nyti.ms/1GePGHB

Watch more videos at: http://nytimes.com/video

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WFfr81lILjw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bloody Sunday veterans in Selma, Alabama, 50 years on – video

G

Monday 9 March 2015        11.19 GMT

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/video/2015/mar/09/
bloody-sunday-veterans-selma-alabama-video

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amelia Boynton Robinson        1911-2015

 

 

 

Mrs. Boynton Robinson with a fellow marcher in 1965

after being knocked unconscious by Alabama troopers at the bridge.

 

Pictorial Parade/Archive Photos/Getty Images

 

Amelia Boynton Robinson, a Pivotal Figure at the Selma March, Dies at 104

NYT

AUG. 26, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/27/us/
amelia-boynton-robinson-a-pivotal-figure-at-the-selma-march-dies-at-104.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[ on 'Bloody Sunday", March 7 1965 ]

the sight of Amelia Robinson (above)

being hit during a demonstration in Selma

shocked the nation.

 

Sheriff Jim Clark’s hated volunteer posse

was reported to have clubbed protesters during the day.

 

Photograph: Topfoto/AP

 

The Guardian        p. 43        9.6.2007

http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2007/jun/09/guardianobituaries.usa

 

Related

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/08/26/434925503/
amelia-boynton-robinson-survivor-of-bloody-sunday-dies-at-104

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Born

in Savannah, Ga.,

Boynton Robinson

was a pioneer

in the voting rights

movement

who took part

in the event that came

to be known

as "Bloody Sunday,"

when she

and other activists

were attacked

by state troopers

as they tried to march across

the Edmund Pettus Bridge.

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/08/26/434925503/
amelia-boynton-robinson-survivor-of-bloody-sunday-dies-at-104

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/27/us/
amelia-boynton-robinson-a-pivotal-figure-at-the-selma-march-dies-at-104.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/08/26/
434925503/amelia-boynton-robinson-survivor-of-bloody-sunday-dies-at-104

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Bonard Fowler        1933-2015

 

Jimmie Lee Jackson,

a 26-year-old laborer

and church deacon,

was shot to death

in Mack’s Cafe in Marion, Ala.,

on the night of Feb. 18, 1965,

and the killing proved historic:

 

It provoked

the fateful voting-rights march

from Selma to Montgomery,

turning the tide

for the civil rights movement.

 

For more than four decades, though,

the crime itself was largely ignored.

 

Justice for Mr. Jackson

was deferred,

largely because of what

distinguished his case

from those of other

black Americans killed

at the hands of Southern whites

back then.

 

In his case,

the suspect was not only white

but also a law-enforcement officer.

 

It was not

until March 6, 2005,

in an interview

with The Anniston Star,

that the officer,

Bonard Fowler,

by then a former

Alabama state trooper,

acknowledged publicly

that he had fired the shot

that felled Mr. Jackson.

 

He insisted

that he had acted

in self-defense.

 

Two years later,

a grand jury

convened by Alabama’s

only black district attorney

indicted Mr. Fowler

on charges of murder.

 

He pleaded guilty

to misdemeanor

manslaughter,

apologized

and served five months

in jail.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/10/us/bonard-fowler-alabama-officer-in-shooting-that-led-to-selma-march-dies-at-81.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/10/us/
bonard-fowler-alabama-officer-in-shooting-that-led-to-selma-march-dies-at-81.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viola Gregg Liuzzo        1925 - March 25, 1965

 

(...)  Mrs. Liuzzo,

a 39-year-old wife

of a Detroit teamsters official

and mother of four,

who had come

to Alabama to help

in the Selma-to-Montgomery

civil rights march

in the spring of 1965.

 

On March 25,

the day after

the procession,

as she drove

a young black

volunteer home,

she was shot to death

on a desolate

stretch of road.

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/10/04/us/gary-t-rowe-jr-64-who-informed-on-klan-in-civil-rights-killing-is-dead.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/08/12/
209595935/killed-for-taking-part-in-everybody-s-fight

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/10/04/us/
gary-t-rowe-jr-64-who-informed-on-klan-in-civil-rights-killing-is-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On 25 March 1965,

Martin Luther King

led thousands

of nonviolent demonstrators

to the steps of the capitol

in Montgomery, Alabama,

after a 5-day, 54-mile march

from Selma, Alabama,

where local African Americans,

the Student Nonviolent

Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

and the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference (SCLC)

had been campaigning

for voting rights.

 

King told

the assembled crowd:

 

‘‘There never was a moment

in American history

more honorable

and more inspiring

than the pilgrimage

of clergymen and laymen

of every race and faith

pouring into Selma

to face danger at the side

of its embattled Negroes’’

(King,

‘‘Address at the Conclusion

of the Selma to Montgomery March,’’

121).

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_selma_to_montgomery_march/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_selma_to_montgomery_march/

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2015/03/20/394028357/
diverse-voices-reflect-on-historic-march-from-selma-to-montgomery

http://www.bostonglobe.com/news/bigpicture/2015/03/09/
return-selma/H3Bze9M9ha7GB3df7m09JP/story.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Reeb        1927 - March 11, 1965

 

American Unitarian

Universalist

minister, pastor

and civil rights activist

in Washington, D.C.

and Boston,

Massachusetts.

 

While participating

in the Selma Voting Rights

Movement actions

in Selma, Alabama,

in 1965,

he was murdered

by white segregationists,

dying of head injuries

in the hospital

two days after

being severely beaten.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Reeb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/06/05/
729955756/the-x-on-the-map

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/04/30/
718690988/the-sphinx-of-washington-street

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/04/30/
718663251/the-counter-narrative

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/04/30/
718661791/the-who-and-the-what

 

https://apps.npr.org/white-lies/ - June 2019

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/06/us/
namon-oneal-hoggle-accused-in-a-civil-rights-killing-dies-at-81.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 March 1965

 

"Bloody Sunday"

 

March from Selma to Montgomery

 

 

In 1965,

at the height

of the modern

civil rights movement,

activists organized

a march for voting rights,

from Selma, Alabama,

to Montgomery,

the state capital.

 

On March 7,

some 600 people

assembled

at a downtown church,

knelt briefly in prayer,

and began

walking silently,

two-by-two

through

the city streets.

 

With Hosea Williams

of the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference

(SCLC)

leading the demonstration,

and John Lewis, Chairman

of the Student Nonviolent

Coordinating Committee

(SNCC), at his side,

the marchers were stopped

as they were leaving Selma,

at the end of

the Edmund Pettus Bridge,

by some 150 Alabama

state troopers,

sheriff ’s deputies,

and possemen,

who ordered

the demonstrators

to disperse.

 

One minute

and five seconds

after a two-minute warning

was announced,

the troops advanced,

wielding clubs,

bullwhips,

and tear gas.

 

John Lewis,

who suffered

a skull fracture,

was one

of fifty-eight people

treated for injuries

at the local hospital.

 

The day

is remembered in history

as “Bloody Sunday.”

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=2

 

 

 

 

peaceful protesters

seeking voting rights

for disenfranchised blacks

tried to march

from Selma

to Montgomery,

the Alabama capital,

but were mercilessly

clubbed

and tear-gassed

by white men

with badges.

 

That state-sanctioned

violence

on March 7, 1965

— Bloody Sunday —

sickened the nation.

 

More marches

followed,

ultimately

under the protection

of federal troops,

and that summer,

Congress passed

a Voting Rights Act

to sweep away practices

that had long deprived

blacks of equal partnership

in the American democracy.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/09/us/gees-bend-alabama-martin-luther-king-voting-rights-1965.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2015/03/20/
394028357/diverse-voices-reflect-on-historic-march-from-selma-to-montgomery

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/
1965-martin-luther-king-jr-leads-walk-in-selma/

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/09/us/
gees-bend-alabama-martin-luther-king-voting-rights-1965.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/09/
opinion/charles-blow-obama-and-selma-the-meaning-of-bloody-sunday.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/09/us/
selma-commemoration-edmund-pettus-bridge-crossing.html

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/video/2015/mar/09/
bloody-sunday-veterans-selma-alabama-video

http://www.npr.org/2015/03/09/
391795376/50-years-later-thousands-commemorate-selmas-bloody-sunday

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2015/03/08/
391707017/selma-gathering-to-re-enact-march-across-bloody-sunday-bridge

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/08/us/
obama-in-selma-for-edmund-pettus-bridge-attack-anniversary.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/08/us/
obama-in-selma-for-edmund-pettus-bridge-attack-anniversary.html

http://www.npr.org/2015/03/08/
391619554/obama-evokes-the-eternal-struggle-in-selma

http://www.npr.org/2015/03/08/
391619526/selma-mayor-an-awesome-time-for-our-city

http://www.npr.org/2015/03/08/
391619519/obama-in-selma-the-race-is-not-yet-won

http://www.nbcnews.com/watch/live-video/
watch-live-remembering-selma-50-years-later-322485827772

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/03/08/
opinion/sunday/Exposures-Selma-Malin-Fezehai.html

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2015/03/07/
391458779/obama-50-years-after-bloody-sunday-march-is-not-yet-over

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/07/us/
politics/obama-backs-justice-departments-decision-not-to-indict-ferguson-officer.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/07/us/
selma-gay-talese.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/07/
opinion/still-waiting-in-selma.html

http://www.npr.org/2015/03/06/
391217903/obama-returns-to-selma-for-50th-anniversary-of-historic-march

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/06/
opinion/a-call-from-selma.html

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2015/03/06/
390943835/photographer-helped-expose-brutality-of-selmas-bloody-sunday

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/mar/06/
alabama-selma-50-years-civil-rights-struggle

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2015/03/05/
391041989/the-racist-history-behind-the-iconic-selma-bridge

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
arts/design/spider-martins-photographs-of-the-selma-march-get-a-broader-view.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/21/
movies/david-oyelowos-pivotal-role-in-selma.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/28/us/
james-m-nabrit-a-fighter-for-civil-rights-dies-at-80.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/03/
opinion/sunday/bloody-sunday-revisited.html

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=2

 

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/civil-rights-history/ - Jan 15, 2007

 

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/01/23/the-mission-2

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2002/04/05/
arts/james-karales-photographer-of-social-upheaval-dies-at-71.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Gardner Clark Jr    1922-2007

 

US sheriff who used violence

against civil rights protesters

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2007/jun/09/guardianobituaries.usa

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2007/jun/09/
guardianobituaries.usa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 1965

 

Civil rights activist Jimmy Lee Jackson    1938-1965

 

 

On the night

of 18 February 1965,

an Alabama state trooper

shot

Jimmie Lee Jackson

in the stomach

as he tried

to protect his mother

from being beaten

at Mack’s Café.

 

Jackson,

along with several

other African Americans,

had taken refuge there

from troopers

breaking up a night march

protesting the arrest

of James Orange,

a field secretary

for the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference

(SCLC)

in Marion, Alabama.

 

Jackson

died from his wound

eight days later.

 

Speaking at his funeral,

King called Jackson,

“a martyred hero

of a holy crusade

for freedom

and human dignity”

(King, 3 March 1965).

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/
encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_jackson_jimmie_lee_19381965/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/jackson-jimmie-lee 

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/indictment-in-landmark-civil-rights-slay/  

http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-2011

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/06/05/
729955756/the-x-on-the-map

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/10/us/
bonard-fowler-alabama-officer-in-shooting-that-led-to-selma-march-dies-at-81.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

Lyndon Baines Johnson    1908-1973

36th President of the United States    1963-1969

 

 

USA > 20th century > 1920s-1970s > Civil rights era

 

 

America, USA > 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

Slavery, Racism, Civil war, Abraham Lincoln

 

 

America, USA > 18th, 19th century

 

 

USA > 19th century > Emancipation Proclamation - 1863

 

 

United Kingdom > Slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations, racism, segregation, civil rights

apartheid

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Photography > Photographers > 20th century > USA

 

Ernest C. Withers    1922-2007

 

Gordon Parks    1912-2006

 

James "Spider" Martin    1939-2003

 

Grey Villet    1927-2000

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

Documenting Selma, From the Inside

 

A timely new show

at the Steven Kasher Gallery in New York,

“Selma March 1965,”

reminds us that not all civil rights photographs

were created equal.

 

Commemorating the 50th anniversary this month

of the historic Selma-to-Montgomery marches,

the exhibition features the work

of three documentarians of the protests:

James Barker, Spider Martin and Charles Moore.

By Maurice Berger        NYT        Mar. 2, 2015

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/02/
documenting-selma-from-the-inside-2/

 

 

 

 

Freedom Journey 1965:

Selma to Montgomery March in pictures

G    Wednesday 17 December 2014

http://www.theguardian.com/film/gallery/2014/dec/17/
1965-selma-montgomery-march-stephen-somerstein