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History > 20th century > Cold War / холодная война - late 1940s-1980s

 

USA,

USSR / СССР, Afghanistan,

Cuba, Chile, Nicaragua, El Salvador,

Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia,

Laos, Korea, Vietnam, China,

Moon

 

 

 

 

Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Gangnus        USA        1933-2017

 

(...) internationally

acclaimed poet

with the charisma

of an actor

and the instincts

of a politician

whose defiant verse

inspired

a generation

of young Russians

in their fight

against Stalinism

during the Cold War

 

(...)

 

Mr. Yevtushenko’s

poems of protest,

often declaimed

with sweeping gestures

to thousands

of excited admirers

in public squares,

sports stadiums

and lecture halls,

captured

the tangled emotions

of Russia’s young

— hope, fear, anger

and euphoric

anticipation —

as the country

struggled

to free itself

from repression

during the tense,

confused years

after Joseph Stalin’s

death in 1953.

 

In 1961 alone

Mr. Yevtushenko

gave 250 poetry

readings.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/01/world/europe/yevgeny-yevtushenko-dead-dissident-soviet-poet.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/01/world/europe/
yevgeny-yevtushenko-dead-dissident-soviet-poet.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jeremy Judah Stone        USA        1935-2016

 

mathematician

whose ideas about minimizing

the possibility

of a nuclear catastrophe

influenced arms-control

negotiators in the United States

and the Soviet Union

during the Cold War

http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/05/us/
jeremy-stone-mathematician-nuclear-arms-control-cold-war-dead.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/05/us/
jeremy-stone-mathematician-nuclear-arms-control-cold-war-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leonid Plyushch / Плющ Леонід Іванович        1938 or 1939-2015

 

Ukrainian mathematician

who became a leading political

dissident in the Soviet era,

prompting the Kremlin

to commit him

to a mental asylum

for a nightmarish three years

of drugs and deprivation

in the early 1970s

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/07/world/europe/
leonid-plyushch-ukrainian-mathematician-and-soviet-dissident-dies.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/07/world/europe/
leonid-plyushch-ukrainian-mathematician-and-soviet-dissident-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Piña Craven        USA        1924-2015

 

former Navy scientist

whose innovations

in ocean technology

and exploration

led to some

of the nation’s

most celebrated

feats of espionage

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/19/us/
john-p-craven-90-scientist-who-shaped-cold-war-spying-at-sea-dies.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/19/us/
john-p-craven-90-scientist-who-shaped-cold-war-spying-at-sea-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USSR        Eduard Amvrosiyevich Shevardnadze        1928-2014

 

 

 

 Mr. Shevardnadze, right, and Mikhail Gorbachev

arriving in Iceland for talks with President Ronald Reagan in 1986.

 

Credit Dominique Faget/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

 

Eduard Shevardnadze, Foreign Minister Under Gorbachev, Dies at 86

By DOUGLAS MARTIN        NYT        JULY 7, 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/08/world/europe/
eduard-shevardnadze-soviet-foreign-minister-under-gorbachev-is-dead-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

as Mikhail S. Gorbachev’s

foreign minister

(he) helped hone

the “new thinking,”

foreign and domestic,

that transformed

and ultimately rent

the Soviet Union,

then led his native Georgia

through its turbulent start

as an independent state

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/08/world/europe/
eduard-shevardnadze-soviet-foreign-minister-under-gorbachev-is-dead-at-86.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/08/world/europe/
eduard-shevardnadze-soviet-foreign-minister-under-gorbachev-is-dead-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boris Nikolyaevich Yeltsin / Борис Николаевич Ельцин        1931-2007

 

 

 

Russia

Soviet politician Boris Yeltsin

in office w. pic of Lenin on wall.

 

Location: Moscow, Russia

Date taken: February 1989

 

Photographer: Ted Thai

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=e9c5ba040ce68c88

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/boris-n-yeltsin  

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2011/08/22/1
39843553/2-decades-ago-coup-attempt-helps-to-end-soviet-union

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/23/world/europe/23iht-yeltsin.5.5408683.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/23/world/europe/23cnd-yeltsin.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/apr/23/russia.guardianobituaries

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/38422.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA        Barry Morris Goldwater        1909-1998

 

 

 

Senator Barry Goldwater

Date taken: 1961

 

Photographer: Joe Scherschel

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=7770e9aca113bd40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/05/30/us/
barry-goldwater-is-dead-at-89-conservatives-standardbearer.html

 

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/daily/may98/goldwater30.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US and Russia halve nuclear warheads        3 January 1993

 

The United States of America

and the Russian Federation

agree to cut the number

of nuclear warheads they have

by between 3,000 and 3,500.

 

US President

George Bush

(...)

and his Russian counterpart

Boris Yeltsin,

sign the second

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty

- Start II - in Moscow.
 

 

Currently each side

has about 10,000 warheads

and Start II marks

the biggest reduction

ever agreed.
 

 

In addition,

sea-based weapons

will be cut to 1,750 each

and all land-based

multiple-warhead missiles

will be eliminated.

 

Mr Bush

said the treaty offers

"for parents and children,

a future free from fear",

and Mr Yeltsin called it

"a treaty of hope".

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/3/newsid_4114000/4114673.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/3/newsid_4114000/4114673.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1992

 

Poland

 

Soviet troops start to leave Poland

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25 December 1991

 

Gorbachev resigns

as Soviet Union breaks up

 

 

Mikhail Gorbachev,

leader of the Soviet Union

for almost seven years

and executive president

for nearly two,

steps down from office.

 

He announces his resignation

in a 10 minute speech,

broadcast live on television,

as the Soviet Union

passes into history,

replaced by the Commonwealth

of Independent States (CIS).

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/25/newsid_2542000/2542749.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/25/newsid_2542000/2542749.stm

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/25/world/europe/25yanayev.html

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/mikhail-s-gorbachev

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1991/08/19/world/
soviet-crisis-gorbachev-ousted-apparent-coup-soviet-armed-forces-hard-liners.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1991 coup attempt

against Mikhail Gorbachev - in pictures

 

The failed coup

against the former Soviet president

precipitated the dissolution of the USSR

in December of the same year

https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2011/aug/16/russia?intcmp=122

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2011/08/22/
139843553/2-decades-ago-coup-attempt-helps-to-end-soviet-union

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2011/aug/16/russia?intcmp=122

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990

 

Poland

 

Walesa elected president of Poland

 

 

Market reforms,

including large-scale privatisation,

are launched.

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/10/
lech-waesa-not-agent-spy-polish-security-services-interview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25 December 1989

 

Romania's 'first couple' executed

 

 

Deposed Romanian president

Nicolae Ceausescu

and his wife Elena

are shot by a firing squad

after a secret military tribunal

find them both guilty of crimes

against the state.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/25/newsid_2542000/2542623.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/25/
newsid_2542000/2542623.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UK        Harold Adrian Russell Philby / Kim Philby    1912-1988

 

Double agent

whose betrayal of his country

and his social class

indelibly marked

British politics.

 

(...)

 

Mr. Philby fled

to the Soviet Union in 1963,

when his involvement

in a Soviet spy ring

was about to be revealed.

 

Twelve years earlier,

in 1951,

Mr. Philby's warning

had allowed two fellow spies,

Guy Burgess

and Donald Maclean,

to flee to Moscow

just before

British counterintelligence

was to interrogate them.

http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/12/obituaries/kim-philby-double-agent-dies.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/12/
obituaries/kim-philby-double-agent-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1987

 

USA / USSR

 

The Pershing-II

and SS-20

nuclear missiles

are banned

by the Intermediate-range

Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty,

signed by the United States

and the Soviet Union

in December 1987.

 

The INF Treaty

is a milestone

in the effort

to control

nuclear arms.

 

It is the first

international agreement

to eliminate an entire class

of nuclear weapons

--those having a range

of 500-5,500 kilometers

(300-3,400 miles).

 

The U.S. Pershing-II

and the Soviet SS-20

were regarded as the most

threatening missiles

in this class.

http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal100/inf.html

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/22/
newsid_2489000/2489209.stm

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/02/
747525453/historic-arms-control-treaty-ends-with-washington-and-moscow-blaming-each-other

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/10/23/
659874129/6-questions-about-an-arms-control-treaty-on-the-rocks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12 October 1986

 

Reykjavik summit ends in failure

 

 

US President

Ronald Reagan

(1981-1989)

and Soviet leader

Mikhail Gorbachev

failed to reach agreement

at a disarmament summit

in Reykjavik.

 

The two men came close

to striking a radical

arms reduction deal

after a weekend

of lengthy negotiations

at Hofdi House

in the Icelandic capital.

 

But the talks finally stalled

over President Reagan's

refusal to abandon

his Strategic Defence Initiative

(SDI).

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/12/newsid_3732000/3732902.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/12/
newsid_3732000/3732902.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicaragua / USA        US guilty of backing Contras        27 June 1986

 

 

 

Time Covers -The 80S

TIME cover 03-31-1986 ill. of Daniel Ortega.

Date taken: March 31, 1986

 

Photographer: Paul Davis

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=24fd9fc131a0d4f2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The United States

is found guilty

of violating international law

by supporting armed

Contra rebels

in Nicaragua.

 

The International

Court of Justice

rules that the US

should compensate

the country,

although

it has not yet fixed

an amount.

 

But the Reagan

administration

boycots the case

and says

it will ignore the verdict

of the United Nations court.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/27/newsid_2520000/2520169.stm

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/reagan-iran/

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19909695

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/04/us/
david-m-abshire-who-helped-reagan-through-iran-contra-scandal-dies-at-88.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/21/us/
politics/lawrence-e-walsh-iran-contra-prosecutor-dies-at-102.html

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/27/newsid_2520000/2520169.stm

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1998/06/26/
movies/jobless-scot-in-nicaragua-discovers-political-insight.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28 April 1986

 

USSR

 

Soviets admit nuclear accident

at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

in Ukraine

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/28/
newsid_2500000/2500975.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21 November 1985

 

USA / USSR

 

Superpowers aim for 'safer world'

 

 

The Geneva summit

ends in optimism

but with no agreement

on the "Star Wars"

space defence system.

 

Both United States President

Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)

and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev

spoke of the world

being a "safer place"

at the end of their two-day meeting

in Switzerland.

 

The two men

broke with convention

and met together

without advisers

in discussions

President Reagan dubbed

the "fireside summit".

 

The negotiations resulted

in the Geneva Accord,

which commits

the two countries to:

 

- speeding up arms talks

 

- working towards

the abolition of chemical weapons

 

- a new commitment

to human rights

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/21/newsid_2549000/2549897.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/21/
newsid_2549000/2549897.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв / Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev



 

 

Time Covers -The 80S

TIME cover 07-27-1987 painting of Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev;

inset John Poindexter by Dennis Brack.

 

Date taken: July 27, 1987

 

Photographer: Skip Liepke

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=6ba163a2e638c22c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/mikhail-s-gorbachev

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/09/10/
547560506/gorbachev-is-a-gripping-sympathetic-and-detailed-portrait

 

http://www.npr.org/2011/08/22/
139843553/2-decades-ago-coup-attempt-helps-to-end-soviet-union

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 March 1985

 

USSR

 

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev

becomes Soviet leader

 

 

Mikhail Gorbachev

takes over

following the death

of Konstantin Chernenko.

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/11/
newsid_2538000/2538327.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 November 1984

 

Nicaragua

 

Sandinistas claim election victory

 

 

Nicaragua's

ruling Sandinista Front (FSLN)

claim a decisive victory

in the country's

first elections

since the revolution

five years ago.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/5/newsid_2538000/2538379.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/5/
newsid_2538000/2538379.stm

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/02/world/americas/
tomas-borge-martinez-dies-at-81.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23 March 1983

 

USA

 

Reagan (1981-1989)

launches Cold War into space

 

 

President Reagan

unveils plans

to combat nuclear war

in space.

 

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)

proposes a defensive shield,

using laser

or particle beam technology

to "intercept and destroy"

incoming missiles

as they travel through the stars.

 

Defense analysts described it

as the first major attempt to move away

from the 30 year-old Cold War strategy

of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)

- where the threat of nuclear attack

acts as a deterrent.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/23/newsid_2794000/2794525.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/23/newsid_2794000/2794525.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1983

 

Poland

 

Martial law lifted

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USSR

 

Anatoly Mikhailovich Kornukov /

Анатолий Михайлович Корнуков    1942-2014

 

 

retired commander in chief

of the Russian Air Force

who in 1983 relayed the order

to shoot down

Korean Air Lines Flight 007

as it strayed into Soviet airspace,

killing all 269 aboard

 

(...)

 

In 1983,

General Kornukov

was in command

of air defenses

on Sakhalin Island,

off the Siberian coast.

 

(...)

 

On Sept. 1 of that year,

Flight 007,

a commercial 747 bound

to Seoul, South Korea,

from New York,

wandered accidentally

into Soviet airspace

near Sakhalin.

 

The Soviet Union

believed that the airliner

was a spy plane

sent by the United States.

 

Following orders

from his superiors,

General Kornukov

commanded the pilot

of a Soviet fighter jet

to shoot it down.

 

The pilot did so,

hitting Flight 007

with two air-to-air missiles

seconds before

it would have re-entered

international airspace.

 

Among those killed

aboard the airliner,

which plummeted

into the sea,

was Representative

Lawrence P. McDonald,

Democrat of Georgia.

 

The episode,

condemned by

President Ronald Reagan

as “a terrorist attack,”

is renowned as one

of the darkest moments

of the Cold War.

 

General Kornukov’s

role in the affair

came to wide attention

in 1998,

after Russia’s president,

Boris N. Yeltsin,

appointed him chief

of the Russian Air Force.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/02/world/europe/anatoly-kornukov-who-led-russian-air-force-dies-at-72.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/02/world/europe/
anatoly-kornukov-who-led-russian-air-force-dies-at-72.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 September 1983

 

Korean Air Lines

Flight 007

(is) shot down

by Soviet fighter planes

 

 

A commercial 747 bound

from New York

to Seoul, South Korea,

KAL 007 was shot down

near Sakhalin Island,

off the coast of Siberia,

on Sept. 1, 1983,

after straying accidentally

into Soviet air space.

 

All 269 people aboard

were killed.

 

The Soviet Union

long maintained

that the flight

was a spy plane

sent by the United States,

and the attack endures

in public memory

as one of the last,

bitterest engagements

of the cold war.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/us/
hans-ephraimson-abt-air-crash-victims-crusader-dies-at-91.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/us/
hans-ephraimson-abt-air-crash-victims-crusader-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USSR        Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev / Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев        1906-1982

 

 

 

 The Soviet leader Leonid I. Brezhnev (L)

on a plane with President Richard M. Nixon (R) in 1973.

 

Credit Dirck Halstead Liason via Getty Images

 

 A History Lesson That Needs Relearning

NYT

1.3.2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/02/
sunday-review/a-history-lesson-that-needs-relearning.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 As the leader

of the Soviet Union,

Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev

was a canny and careful

Communist Party functionary

who sought

to make his country

the military equal

of the United States

and promote

its political influence

around the world

through the policy of detente.

 

In domestic affairs,

as General Secretary

of the Communist Party,

Mr. Brezhnev

(pronounced BRYEHZH-nyev)

ruled as first among his equals

on the Politburo,

not as an autocrat,

and professed to want

economic development

of his country of 265 million people

spread over a sixth of the globe's

land area.

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1219.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1219.html
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA            President Ronald Wilson Reagan (1981-1989) takes office        January 20, 1981

 

 

 

[ Anglonautes: Nancy Reagan (M) with husband Ronald Reagan (R) ]

Anti-Communist Rally In Hollywood Bowl

 

Date taken: 1961

 

Photographer: Ralph Crane

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=7b5686ccbceff66b 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ronaldreagan

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/reagan_ronald_w.shtml

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/ronald-reagan 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ronald-reagan 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2004/jun/07/guardianobituaries.past 

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A04E0DA1131F935A35755C0A9629C8B63

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poland        Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski        1923-2014

 

 

 

General Jaruzelski at the Polish Parliament in 1981.

 

Chris Niedenthal/Forum, via Reuters

 

Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, Solidarity’s Foil, Dies at 90

By MICHAEL T. KAUFMAN and NICHOLAS KULISH        NYT        MAY 25, 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/26/
world/europe/gen-wojciech-jaruzelski-polands-last-communist-leader-dies-at-90.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

last Communist leader of Poland,

who sent tanks to crush Solidarity’s

stirrings for democracy in 1981

and went on to preside over the death

of the system that had nurtured him

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/26/world/europe/
gen-wojciech-jaruzelski-polands-last-communist-leader-dies-at-90.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/26/world/europe/
gen-wojciech-jaruzelski-polands-last-communist-leader-dies-at-90.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1981

 

Poland        Martial law imposed

 

 

Many of Solidarity's leaders,

including Walesa,

are imprisoned.

 

Wojciech Jaruzelski

Poland's last communist leader

 

 

 

 

Time Covers -The 80S

TIME Cover: 12-28-1981 of Polish General Jaruzelski.

Photo Credit: Rudi Frey.

 

Date taken: December 28, 1981

 

Photographer: Rudi Frey

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=c08fb2c5ff02986e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1332541.stm

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/02/18/
467209160/polish-institute-files-show-lech-walesa-worked-with-communist-era-secret-police

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1980

 

Poland

 

Disturbances at the shipyard in Gdansk

lead to the emergence of the Solidarity trade union

under Lech Walesa

 

 

 

Time Covers -The 80S

TIME cover 12-29-1980 ill of Poland's Solidarity leader, Lech Walesa.

 

Date taken: December 29, 1980

 

Photographer: Leslie Cabarga

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=03b4be40a62056b5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yugoslavia        Marshal Josip Broz Tito         1892-1980

 

 

 

Tito

 

Date taken: 1960

 

Photographer: Robert W Kelley

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=c6c0dc1407e211d9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For 35 years,

Josip Broz Tito

held Yugoslavia together

despite its mix of nationalities,

languages and religions.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8636034.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8636034.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/16/newsid_2808000/2808379.stm 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/yugoslavia_01.shtml

http://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/josip-broz-tito 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/27/world/europe/
jovanka-broz-titos-widow-is-dead-at-88.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Communist Yugoslavia

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/18/
opinion/punk-rock-communist-yugoslavia.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

El Salvador’s civil war    1980s-1992

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 January 1980

 

Afghanistan

 

Afghan leader

defends Soviet invasion

 

 

President Carter

announces

further US sanctions

against the USSR

including a reduction

of Soviet embassy staff

and restricted

landing rights

for the Russian airline

'Aeroflot'.

 

Mr Carter

also imposes an embargo

on grain sales to the USSR

that will see US exports

fall from 25 million

to eight million tonnes.

 

The President

described

the Soviet incursions

into Afghanistan

as "an extremely serious

threat to peace"

and "a callous violation

of international law

and the United Nations

charter."

 

He warned that

"A Soviet occupied Afghanistan

threatens both Iran and Pakistan

and is a stepping stone

to possible control

over much of the world's

oil supplies."

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/3/newsid_2492000/2492329.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/3/
newsid_2492000/2492329.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17 July 1979

 

Nicaragua

 

Sandinista rebels

take Nicaraguan capital

 

overthrow

of dictator

Anastasio Somoza

(1925-1980)

 

 

Fighters

of the left-wing

Sandinista National

Liberation Front

overthrow the regime

in the central American

republic of Nicaragua

and take the capital,

Managua.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/17/newsid_3870000/3870281.stm

 

 

 

For more

than half a century,

the Somoza family ruled

the Central American

republic of Nicaragua

as its personal fiefdom.

 

They owned most

of the farming land

and the industry.

 

All political dissent

was suppressed.

 

In the early 1970s,

the left-wing Sandinista

National Liberation Front

launched its first

armed attacks

on the regime.

 

In July 1979,

the Sandinistas

stormed to power,

and General

Anastasio Somoza

and his followers

fled into exile.

 

 

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-19909695

 

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p023cq3x

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/reviews/6d63/

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/17/
newsid_3870000/3870281.stm

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1983/10/21/
movies/screen-under-fire.html

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandinista!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Estelí, Nicaragua, 1978

 

Turbulence, trauma, hope:

Koen Wessing's indelible images of history – in pictures

G

Thu 17 Jan 2019        04.56 EST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/jan/17/
turbulence-trauma-hope-koen-wessings-indelible-images-of-history-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA, USSR        Strategic Arms Limitation Talks II (SALT II)        1972-1979

 

 

 

Image: A2092-03A

Event: Summit meeting

Location: Vladivostok, USSR

Description:

President Ford (L)

and Soviet General Secretary

Leonid I. Brezhnev (R)

sign a joint communiqué

following talks

on the limitation of strategic offensive arms.

 

The document was signed

in the conference hall of the Okeansky Sanatorium,

Vladivostok, USSR.

 

Date: November 24, 1974

 

Credit: Courtesy Gerald R. Ford Library

Photographer: David Hume Kennerly

http://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/images/avproj/pop-ups/A2092-03A.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The second round

of Strategic Arms

Limitation Talks,

which opened

in November 1972,

aimed to replace

the five-year

Interim Agreement

with a more comprehensive

long-term treaty to limit

the number and types

of nuclear missiles.

 

The two sides remained

far apart in the negotiations

until a summit between

American President

Gerald Ford

and Soviet General Secretary

Leonid Brezhnev

in 1974 in Vladivostok

during which

the parties reached

a basic framework

for an agreement.

 

But, despite the framework,

negotiations bogged down

over the limitations

on American cruise missiles

and the Soviet "Backfire"-class

bombers.

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/military/proliferation/treaties.html

 

 

 

President Ford

and Soviet General Secretary

Leonid I. Brezhnev /

Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев​

sign a joint communiqué

following talks

on the limitation

of strategic offensive arms.

 

The document

was signed

in the conference hall

of the Okeansky Sanatorium,

Vladivostok, USSR.

- November 24, 1974

http://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/images/avproj/pop-ups/A2092-03A.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/military/proliferation/treaties.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 February 1974

 

USSR

 

Russian author charged with treason

 

 

The Soviet authorities

formally charge Russian writer

Alexander Solzhenitsyn /

Александр Исаевич Солженицын

(1918-2008)

with treason

one day after expelling him

from the country.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/14/newsid_2541000/2541129.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/14/newsid_2541000/2541129.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/2276650.stm

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/aleksandr-solzhenitsyn

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/11/
opinion/solzhenitsyn-soviet-union-putin.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/04/books/04solzhenitsyn.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chile

 

11 September 1973

 

U.S. Role in Chilean Coup

 

 

General Augusto Pinochet

(1915-2006)

ousts Salvador Allende

(1908-1973)

in CIA-sponsored coup

and proceeds

to establish

a brutal dictatorship

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1222905.stm

 

 

 

 

3,000 people (...)

disappeared or died

during the 17-year

military dictatorship

of Augusto Pinochet,

who was installed

in a coup in 1973

that overthrew Chile’s

democratically

elected president,

Salvador Allende.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/29/
obituaries/ana-gonzlez-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 70S

Time cover 09-24-1973

of deposed President of Chile Salvador Allende.

 

Date taken: September 24, 1973

 

Photographer: Carl Roodman

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=df2431bd40a46d63

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 2011,

developments such as the first ever inquiry

into the death of President Allende,

made exhibiting his work to the Chilean public

seem all the more relevant.

 

His exhibition

at the Centro Gabriela Mistral in Santiago

was shown in March and April of that year

 

Turbulence, trauma, hope:

Koen Wessing's indelible images of history – in pictures

G

Thu 17 Jan 2019        04.56 EST

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/jan/17/
turbulence-trauma-hope-koen-wessings-indelible-images-of-history-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1222905.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A716591

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/documentaries/features/chile.shtml

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/29/
obituaries/ana-gonzlez-dead.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/08/
manuel-contreras-head-of-chiles-spy-agency-under-pinochet-dies-aged-86

 

https://www.npr.org/2014/09/05/
346137565/murder-charges-dredge-memories-of-dark-era-in-chile

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/11/chile-coup-anniversary-victor-jara-murder

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/08/pinochet-victim-widow-fights-for-justice

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/07/chile-coup-pinochet-allende

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2013/sep/07/
snapshot-photography-chile-pinochet-etchart

 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=6606013 - Dec. 10, 2016

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2011/06/03/
136918171/was-poet-pablo-neruda-poisoned-in-1973-chile-will-investigate

https://www.npr.org/2011/05/31/
136831116/chile-investigates-ex-presidents-cause-of-death

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/sep/10/
chile.jonathanfranklin 

https://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=1421901 - Sept. 6, 2003

 

https://www.theguardian.com/Columnists/Column/0,,305870,00.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1973/sep/12/
chile.fromthearchive1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China

 

February 21-28, 1972

 

 

Richard M. Nixon

(1913- 1994)

meets Mao Tse-Tung

(1893-1976)

and Chinese Premier

Chou En-Lai

(1898-1976)

 

 

 

 

Nixon In China

(L-R) US President Richard Nixon

and Chinese Premier Chou Enlai

 

Location: China

Date taken: February 1972

 

Photographer: John Dominis

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/88318cd4835aef91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/china/sfeature/nixon.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/nixon-chinatrip/

 

 

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/17/
feb-17-1972-president-nixon-departs-for-diplomatic-trip-to-china/

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/on-this-day/february-17/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/21/newsid_2728000/2728761.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edgar Parks Snow        1905-1972

 

Né aux États-Unis,

Edgar Snow (1905-1972)

a à peine plus de 20 ans

quand il embarque

comme passager clandestin

sur un bateau pour la Chine.

 

Témoin du chaos

qui règne dans le pays

dans les années 1930

– famine, maladies,

analphabétisme et misère

sur fond

de corruption généralisée

et de guerre civile –,

il deviendra

le plus éminent chroniqueur

de la révolution chinoise.

 

Très présent

dans ce film

à travers ses textes,

ses photos

et des extraits de films,

l’auteur

d’« Étoile rouge sur la Chine »

apparaît aussi

comme l’un de ceux

qui auront permis

la rencontre

entre Nixon et Mao

en février 1972.

 

Une rencontre

qui se déroula

une semaine

après sa mort.

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/044131-000/ailleurs-ma-maison

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMGrsj_2PWY

 

 

http://blogs.mediapart.fr/blog/claude-hudelot/030714/
la-tres-lucide-veuve-dedgar-snow-auteur-du-mythique-red-star-over-china-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1970s

 

Poland enjoys

relative economic prosperity

based on foreign loans

 

 

Successive US presidents

Nixon, Ford and Carter

visit Poland.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1970

 

Poland        Food price riots in Gdansk

 

 

The protests are suppressed,

hundreds are killed.

 

Edward Gierek

becomes party leader.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1970

 

Chile

 

Salvador Allende

(1908-1973)

becomes world's first

democratically elected

Marxist president

and embarks on

an extensive programme

of nationalisation

and radical social reform

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1222905.stm

 

 

 

 

Time cover:

10-19-1970 of Salvador Allende, cover art by Bob Peak.

(Dupe filed with TC 191741E - #712347)

 

Date taken: August 18, 2003

 

Photographer: Bob Peak

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=4ade47e93698899d

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

President Allende Of Chile - Santiago Chile

 

Photographer: Michael Mauney

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=cb7f3a4cdaa26b9b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1222905.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20 July 1969

 

USA / Moon

 

Man takes first steps on the Moon

 

 

American Neil Armstrong

becomes the first man

to walk on the Moon

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/21/newsid_2635000/2635845.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/21/
newsid_2635000/2635845.stm

 

Anglonautes > USA > 20th century > Man on the moon (20 July 1969)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24 December 1968

 

USA

 

First astronauts orbit Moon

 

 

The Apollo 8 spacecraft

takes its crew of three astronauts

safely into orbit around the Moon,

the first manned space mission

to achieve the feat.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/24/newsid_4083000/4083587.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/24/newsid_4083000/4083587.stm

http://www.nasa.gov/topics/history/features/apollo_8.html#.U-hsw2NDxyo

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/nov/30/apollo-8-mission 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Czechoslovakia > Prague > Soviet invasion - August 1968

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27 June 1967

 

USA

 

Three astronauts die

in Apollo 1 tragedy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three American astronauts die

after fire swept through

the Apollo spacecraft

designed for a manned

flight to the Moon

during rehearsals

at Cape Kennedy.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/27/newsid_3392000/3392419.stm

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/01/26/
511660847/on-50th-anniversary-nasa-creates-tribute-to-apollo-1-astronauts

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/27/
newsid_3392000/3392419.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24 March 1965

 

USA

 

Millions watch space probe crash into Moon

 

 

A ground-breaking

15-minute live broadcast

shows ordinary Americans

what it feels like

to be a space probe

hurtling to destruction

on the Moon.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/24/newsid_4063000/4063187.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/24/
newsid_4063000/4063187.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Fitzgerald Kennedy        1917 - November 22,1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germany        Konrad Adenauer        1876-1967

 

 

 

Kennedy Visit To Germany

[ Konrad Adenauer - 1963 ]

 

Photographer: John Dominis

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=12b742b80597679

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adenauer

was West Germany's

first chancellor

and a key figure

in rebuilding the country

after World War Two.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/adenauer_konrad.shtml

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3022166.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1966

 

U.S. Blocks China’s U.N. Seat

 

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/09/16/1966-
u-s-blocks-chinas-u-n-seat/

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/11/30/1966-
un-rejects-red-china/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1966

 

Chinese-Soviet Split

 

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/03/23/
1966-chinese-soviet-split/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16 June 1963

 

USSR

 

Soviets launch

first woman into space

 

 

A former textile worker

from the Soviet Union

becomes the first woman

in space.

 

Lieutenant

Valentina Tereshkova, 26,

is the fifth Russian cosmonaut

to go into the Earth's orbit

when her spaceship Vostok VI

is launched at 1230 Moscow time.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/16/newsid_2685000/2685283.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/16/
newsid_2685000/2685283.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 1963

 

John F Kennedy:

'We all breathe the same air'

 

 

In June 1963,

JFK made a speech

that changed the outcome

of the cold war.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/may/31/jfk-to-move-the-world

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/may/31/
jfk-to-move-the-world -
broken link

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vietnam War

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1960s - 1970s

 

U.S. involvement in Laos

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/01/30/
512449534/how-the-u-s-war-in-laos-was-key-to-the-birth-of-a-military-cia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1962

 

The United States

and the Soviet Union

exchange prisoners

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1962/feb/12/russia.usa 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/10/
newsid_2731000/2731827.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 December 1962

 

USA

 

'Music of spheres' hails Venus fly-by

 

 

The unmanned

US spacecraft,

Mariner 2,

takes the first-ever

scan from space

of the planet Venus

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/14/
newsid_4061000/4061955.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/14/
newsid_4061000/4061955.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 1962

 

USA / Cuba        Missile Crisis

 

George Whelan Anderson, Jr.        1906-1992

 

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 60S

TIME cover 11-02-1962 of US Navy Admiral George Anderson.

 

Date taken: November 02, 1962

 

Photographer: Boris Chaliapin

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=448fade3c0eafbb9

 

Related > NYT obituary

http://www.nytimes.com/1992/03/22/us/
adm-george-w-anderson-85-was-in-charge-of-cuba-blockade.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/military/cuban-missile-crisis.html

https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/spiesfly/brugioni.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/16/
opinion/the-eyeball-to-eyeball-myth-and-the-cuban-missile-crisiss-legacy.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/oct/15/
cuban-missile-crisis-russian-roulette

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2012/oct/14/
cuban-missile-crisis-exhibition-kennedy-recordings-video

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/
from-the-archive-blog/2012/oct/14/cuban-missile-crisis-50-archive-1962

http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN1922589220080219

 

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2011/04/cuba_looks_back_-_and_forward.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/2002/oct/14/netnotes.cuba 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/10/19/home/missile.html

http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/10/19/home/crisis-review.html

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1022.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1992/03/22/us/
adm-george-w-anderson-85-was-in-charge-of-cuba-blockade.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26 April 1962

 

USA / Moon

 

First US rocket lands on Moon

 

 

The American Moon

rocket Ranger IV

lands on the far side of the moon

but fails to send back pictures

due to a technical fault.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/26/
newsid_2950000/2950011.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/26/
newsid_2950000/2950011.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20 February 1962

 

USA

 

US spaceman orbits Earth

 

 

The first American

to orbit the Earth

lands safely

in the Atlantic Ocean.

 

Marine Lieutenant

John Glenn, 40,

travelled about 81,000 miles

(more than 130,000km)

as he circled

the globe three times

at more than 17,000 mph

(27,000kph)

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/20/newsid_2552000/2552161.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/20/
newsid_2552000/2552161.stm

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/12/08/
252101790/john-glenn-first-american-to-orbit-the-earth-dies-at-95

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 February 1962

 

USSR

 

Russia frees US spy plane pilot

 

 

American spy plane pilot

Francis Gary Powers

is freed from prison

in the Soviet Union

in exchange for a Russian spy

jailed in the US.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/10/newsid_2731000/2731827.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/10/
newsid_2731000/2731827.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 7, 1962

 

USA / Cuba

 

U.S. imposes

full economic embargo

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN1922589220080219

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA / Cuba        Bay of Pigs Invasion        Missile crisis        1961-1962

 

 

 

(L-R) Pres. Kennedy talking w. former Pres. Eisenhower

re: Cuban Missile Crisis; at Camp David.

 

Location: Camp David, MD, US

Date taken: April 1961

 

Photographer: Ed Clark

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=2bbfbd69e03b946a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30 October 1961

 

World condemns

Russia's nuclear test

 

 

Russia explodes

the world's largest ever

nuclear device

provoking widespread

condemnation

from around the world.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/30/
newsid_3666000/3666785.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/30/
newsid_3666000/3666785.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 August 1961

 

USSR

 

Russian cosmonaut

spends day in space

 

 

The USSR launches

its second cosmonaut into space

just four months after Yuri Gagarin

made his historic venture

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/6/
newsid_2944000/2944638.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/6/
newsid_2944000/2944638.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25 May 1961

 

USA

 

Kennedy pledges man on Moon

 

 

President John F Kennedy

calls for millions of dollars

to fund a space programme

to get the first man

on the Moon by 1970

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/25/newsid_4369000/4369187.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/25/
newsid_4369000/4369187.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 May 1961

 

Shepard becomes first US astronaut

 

 

Commander Alan Shepard

is recovered

from his space capsule

in the Atlantic

after becoming

the first American

in space

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/5/newsid_2504000/2504317.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/5/
newsid_2504000/2504317.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 19, 1961

 

Cuba

 

Castro directs troops

in defeat of invasion attempt

by U.S.-backed Cuban exiles

at Bay of Pigs

http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN1922589220080219

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4925262.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/17/newsid_3394000/3394067.stm

http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/military/cuban-missile-crisis.html

http://www.foia.cia.gov/bay_of_pigs.asp

http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/diplomacy/forrel/cuba/cubamenu.htm

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1962-cuba-un1.html

http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/10/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12 April 1961

 

USSR

 

Soviets win space race /  Ю́рий Алексе́евич Гага́рин

 

 

The Soviet Union

beats the USA

in the race to get

the first man into space.

 

At just after 0700BST,

Major Yuri Alexeyevich Gagarin

is fired from the Baikonur launch pad

in Kazakhstan, Soviet central Asia,

in the space craft Vostok (East).

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/12/
newsid_2477000/2477715.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/12/
newsid_2477000/2477715.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 3, 1961

 

U.S. breaks

diplomatic ties with Havana

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN1922589220080219

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1961

 

Berlin

 

Kennedy, Khrushchev

and the most dangerous place

on Earth

 

 

http://www.reuters.com/video/2011/05/13/
berlin-1961-kennedy-khrushchev-and-the-m?videoId=210782253

 

 

http://blogs.reuters.com/berlin1961/2011/05/05/reliving-the-cold-wars-tensest-moment/

http://blogs.reuters.com/berlin1961/2011/05/18/a-bumper-crop-of-soviet-humor/

http://blogs.reuters.com/berlin1961/2011/05/19/acheson-fills-a-kennedy-power-vacuum/

http://blogs.reuters.com/berlin1961/2011/05/16/the-snubbed-soviet-strikes-back/

http://blogs.reuters.com/berlin1961/2011/05/05/the-characters-who-clashed-in-berlin-1961/

http://blogs.reuters.com/berlin1961/2011/05/06/how-misreading-khrushchev-led-to-confrontation/

http://blogs.reuters.com/berlin1961/2011/05/08/the-legacy-of-soviet-rape-in-germany/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UN        Khrushchev anger erupts at UN        29 September 1960

 

 

 

Anti-communist pickets

during the UN General Assembly meeting

being attended by Soviet Prime Minister Nikita S. Khrushchev.

 

Location: New York, NY, US

Date taken: September 1960

 

Photographer: Al Fenn

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=ac58e4480ac64f40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anti-communist pickets

during the UN General Assembly meeting

being attended by Soviet Prime Minister Nikita S. Khrushchev.

 

Location: New York, NY, US

Date taken: September 1960

 

Photographer: Al Fenn

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=ca33146de7a00c7b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anti-communist poster and pickets

during United Nation General Assembly meeting.

 

Location: New York, NY, US

Date taken: September 1960

 

Photographer: Ralph Crane

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=7d393e2c5f13121a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Soviet Premier

Nikita Khrushchev

disrupts a meeting

of the United Nations

General Assembly

with several angry

outbursts

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/29/newsid_3087000/3087171.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/29/
newsid_3087000/3087171.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19 August 1960

 

Moscow jails American U-2 spy pilot

 

 

The United States pilot,

Francis Gary Powers,

is sentenced

to 10 years in prison

by a Soviet military court

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/19/newsid_2962000/2962600.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/19/
newsid_2962000/2962600.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/world/2001/
military_fact_files/support_u2s.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1, 1960

 

The U2 Incident

 

An American

U-2 spy plane

is shot down

over the Soviet Union

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/34_eisenhower/psources/ps_u2.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/spiesfly/brugioni.html

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0210.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2010/03/21/business/0321-PLANE_3.html

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4653988
- May 16, 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA        Cold war        Anti-Communism rallies        1960s

 

 

 

Anti-Communist Rally In Hollywood Bowl

 

Date taken: 1961

 

Photographer: Ralph Crane

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=a9923d9a06ec2d13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An anti-Communism rally.

 

Location: Miami, FL, US

Date taken: March 1961

 

Photographer: Michael Rougier

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=f9f9e51ee748101f

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1960-1980

 

Africa

 

 

The early hope

of the newly independent

African nations

was rapidly undermined

by the cold war struggle

as Soviet backing

for African liberation

movements

was countered

by American support

for military coups

and authoritarian

leadership.

 

Under protection

of western aid

based largely

on anti-communist

credentials

with little concern

about the quality

of governance,

military dictatorships

and one-party states

run by presidents-for-life

emerged from Nigeria

to Malawi,

Kenya to Zambia,

Zaire to Ivory Coast,

while the Soviets

sponsored governments

such as Ethiopia

and Mozambique.

 

The cold war confrontation

was at its bloodiest in Angola

where the Soviet-backed

government

and Cuban troops

fought a long war

against Jonas Savimbi's

US-sponsored rebels

and South Africa's army.

 

The conflict destroyed

towns and villages

across the oil-rich country

and cost hundreds

of thousands of lives.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/nelson-mandela-how-africa-changed

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/
nelson-mandela-how-africa-changed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1959 American exhibition in Moscow

 

Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev        US Vice-President Richard Nixon        Kitchen debate        24 July 1959

 

 

 

Nixon/Khrushchev Kitchen Debate

Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev (2L) vehemently arguing

w. VP Richard Nixon (2R) who is furiously objecting

as an excited interpreter (C)

translates their firey words re US ideas on home construction

during "kitchen debate" at American Natl. Exhibit at Moscow Fair

 

Location: Russia

Date taken: July 25, 1959

 

Photographer: Howard Sochurek

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=ff81b75fe9158c84

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/24/newsid_2779000/2779551.stm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3G5I9h6CFaM

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/opinion/23thu4.html

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=101430375 - March 30, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soviet Union        Nikita Khrushchev / Никита Сергеевич Хрущёв        1894-1971

 


 

 

Time Covers - The 60S

TIME cover 09-08-1961

Russian Premier Nikita Khrushchev by Carl Mydans;

fireball by J. R. Eyerman.

 

Date taken: September 08, 1961

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/khrushchev_nikita.shtml  

https://www.theguardian.com/world/series/great-speeches-nikita-khrushchev 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Foster Dulles        1888-1959

 

 

 

John Foster Dulles

 

Date taken: April 04, 1950

 

Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=0face65e0cb87433

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. Secretary of State

under President

Dwight D. Eisenhower

from 1953 to 1959

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0225.html

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/29/newsid_2514000/2514607.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/2/newsid_3760000/3760378.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26 October 1959

 

USSR, Moon

 

World glimpses far side of the Moon

 

 

The Soviet Union

has revealed

the first pictures

of the far side of the Moon.

 

The pictures were taken

about three weeks ago

from Lunik 3,

the Soviet satellite

launched on 4 October,

and transmitted by radio

to the Earth,

300,000 miles

(483,000 km) away.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/26/newsid_4045000/4045913.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/26/
newsid_4045000/4045913.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12 September 1959

 

USSR, Moon

 

Soviets launch rocket at the Moon

 

 

A massive Russian rocket,

carrying 860lb (391kg)

of scientific instruments,

is successfully launched

at the Moon.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/12/
newsid_3054000/3054080.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/12/
newsid_3054000/3054080.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28 May 1959

 

USA

 

Monkeys survive space mission

 

 

Two monkeys

become the first living creatures

to survive a space flight

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/28/newsid_3725000/3725961.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/28/
newsid_3725000/3725961.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13 December 1958

 

USA

 

Monkey lost after space flight

 

 

The search

for a small bushy-tailed monkey

fired into space in the nose cone

of a Jupiter rocket is called off.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/13/newsid_3240000/3240133.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/13/
newsid_3240000/3240133.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA

 

anti-Communist witch hunts

 

Joseph R. McCarthy    1908-1957

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 November 1957

 

USSR

 

Russians launch dog into space

 

 

The Soviet Union launches

the first ever living creature

into the cosmos

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/3/
newsid_3191000/3191083.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/3/
newsid_3191000/3191083.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USSR        Спутник-1        Sputnik satellite blasts into space        4 October 1957

 

 

 

Nikita Khrushchev (m)

and East German leaders with a Sputnik 3 replica

in 1959.

 

Credit Bettmann/Corbis

 

The Lack of Major Wars May Be Hurting Economic Growth

NYT

JUNE 13, 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/14/upshot/the-lack-of-major-wars-may-be-hurting-economic-growth.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Russian satellite

is launched into space

 

the first man-made object ever

to leave the Earth's atmosphere

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/4/newsid_2685000/2685115.stm

 

 

 

первый искусственный спутник Земли,

советский космический аппарат,

запущенный на орбиту

4 октября 1957 года

http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BF%D1%83%D1%82%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA-1

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/4/
newsid_2685000/2685115.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hungary        Soviet troops overrun Hungary        4 November 1956


 

 

Picket lines at Russian legation with signs and pictures

about Russian tyranny at Budapest re Hungarian Revolution.

 

Location: New York, NY, US

Date taken: November 1956

 

Photographer: Walter Sanders

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=f74480d354bc64fb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russian tanks on the streets of Budapest.

 

Location: Budapest, Hungary

Date taken: November 1956

 

Photographer: Michael Rougier

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=78e468281d1b1079

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A truck collecting bodies on the streets of Budapest

during the Hungarian insurrection.

 

Credit Erich Lessing/Magnum Photos

 

Erich Lessing, 95,

Photographer Who Chronicled Postwar Europe,

Dies

NYT

Sept. 7, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/07/
obituaries/erich-lessing-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soviet forces crushed

the October 1956 uprising

 

(...)

 

after the uprising

(...) at least 225 people

were executed

and more than 10,000

imprisoned.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/02/world/europe/
bela-biszku-communist-hungary-1956-uprising.html

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/4/
newsid_2739000/2739039.stm

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/07/
obituaries/erich-lessing-dead.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/02/world/europe/
bela-biszku-communist-hungary-1956-uprising.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26 October 1956

 

Fighting spreads in Hungary revolution

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/26/
newsid_3200000/3200703.stm

 

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/d01973411a2cbaed.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23 October 1956

 

Hungarians rise up against Soviet rule

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/23/
newsid_3140000/3140400.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 June 1956

 

Truman rejects anti-Stalin talk

 

 

The former President

of the United States,

Harry Truman,

shruggs off suggestions

Moscow may be about to reject

its Stalinist past

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/18/newsid_3048000/3048197.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/18/
newsid_3048000/3048197.stm

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/truman_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25 February 1956

 

Khrushchev lashes out at Stalin

 

 

The Soviet leader,

Nikita Khrushchev,

denounces Joseph Stalin

as a brutal despot

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/25/newsid_2703000/2703581.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/25/
newsid_2703000/2703581.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1956

 

Poland

 

 

More than 50 people killed

in rioting in Poznan

over demands

for greater freedom

 

Liberal Communist leader

Wladislaw Gomulka

takes over.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1955

 

West Germany joins Nato;

East Germany joins the Warsaw Pact

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1053880.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14 May 1955

 

Communist states sign Warsaw Pact

 

 

The Soviet Union

and its Eastern Bloc allies

sign a security pact

in the Polish capital, Warsaw,

after a three-day conference

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/14/newsid_3771000/3771065.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/14/
newsid_3771000/3771065.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA        Pacific ocean        US tests hydrogen bomb in Bikini        1 March 1954

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 50S

TIME cover 04-12-1954

mushroom cloud from 1952 American H-bomb test

over the Marshall Islands.

 

Date taken: April 12, 1954

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=a1dc83d18ec3b3cf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The US produces the biggest

ever man-made explosion so far

in the Pacific archipelago of Bikini,

part of the Marshall Islands.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/1/newsid_2781000/2781419.stm

 

 

 

 

Part of the intense

cold war nuclear arms race,

the 15-megatonne Bravo test

on 1 March 1954

was a thousand times

more powerful

than the atomic bomb

dropped on Hiroshima.

 

It exposed thousands

in the surrounding area

to radioactive fallout.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/02/bikini-atoll-nuclear-test-60-years

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/02/bikini-atoll-
nuclear-test-60-years

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/1/
newsid_2781000/2781419.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

East Germany        Building workers in East Berlin riot over working conditions        1953

 

 

 

Konrad Adenauer at funeral after East Berlin riots.

 

Location: Germany

Date taken: June 1953

 

Photographer: Ralph Crane

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=32609b90be32b4f0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Red Army steps in

to suppress the protests

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1484769.stm

 

http://www.britishpathe.com/record.php?id=38765

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA

 

Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (1915-1953)

 

and Julius Rosenberg (1918-1953)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 March 1953

 

UK / Yugoslavia

 

Marshal Tito

makes historic visit to London

 

 

Marshal

Josef Tito of Yugoslavia

arrives in Britain,

the first Communist

head of state

to visit the country.

 

The Duke of Edinburgh,

Prime Minister

Winston Churchill

and Foreign Secretary

Anthony Eden

greeted him

at Westminster

at the start

of his five-day visit.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/16/newsid_2808000/2808379.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/16/
newsid_2808000/2808379.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 November, 1952

 

USA

 

Pacific ocean

 

Detonation of the world's

first hydrogen bomb

 

 

US Government scientists

in the Marshall Islands

pressed the button

which would usher in

a new age of human history.

 

The 10.4-megaton blast

on the far away Enewetak Atoll

was hundreds of times

more powerful

than the A-bomb explosion

at Hiroshima.

 

Unlike that device

which tapped energy

by splitting atomic nuclei,

the Enewetak weapon

forced together

nuclei of hydrogen

to unleash an even greater

destructive force.

 

Internationally,

the test restored at a stroke

the US lead in the race

for weapons

of mass destruction.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2388027.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2388027.stm

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX63.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Street barricade on street leading into the Soviet zone.

 

Location: West Berlin, Germany

Date taken: May 1952

 

Photographer: Carl Mydans

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29 August 1949

 

USSR

 

First Soviet atomic bomb

 

 

The USSR,

which had spies

in the Manhattan project,

tested its first nuclear bomb

in 1949.

 

Increasingly powerful

thermonuclear devices

were tested in remote

parts of the world,

culminating

with the Soviet Tsar Bomba

which produced an explosion

visible 1,000 kilometres away

and a mushroom cloud

taller than Everest.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2015/aug/05/
hiroshima-nuclear-guide-anniversary-atomic-bomb

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2015/aug/05/
hiroshima-nuclear-guide-anniversary-atomic-bomb

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1993/01/14/world/soviet-a-bomb-built-from-us-data-russian-says.html

http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/soviet_atomic_bomb_test.asp

http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2007/08/dayintech_0829

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Soviet Union and the United States

 

Berlin blockade        1948

 

U-2 weather planes

on a spying mission over the Soviet Union        1960

 

The Bay of Pigs,

Cuban missile crisis        1961-1962

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1998/03/98/berlin/72088.stm

https://projects.iq.harvard.edu/coldwarstudies

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/Story/0,6051,105121,00.html 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/churchill/wc-coldwar.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/intro.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html

https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/x2jfk.html

 

 

http://century.guardian.co.uk/year/0,6050,128371,00.html

http://century.guardian.co.uk/1960-1969/Story/0,6051,105522,00.html

http://century.guardian.co.uk/1960-1969/Story/0,6051,105566,00.html

http://century.guardian.co.uk/1960-1969/Story/0,6051,105569,00.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1948/jun/25/germany.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Korean War        1950-1953

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USSR        Joseph Stalin        1879-1953

 

One of the most powerful

and murderous dictators

in history,

Stalin was the supreme ruler

of the Soviet Union

for a quarter of a century.

 

His regime of terror

caused

the death and suffering

of tens of millions,

but he also oversaw

the war machine

that played a key role

in the defeat of Nazism.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/stalin_joseph.shtml
 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/stalin_joseph.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/5/newsid_2710000/2710127.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/08/
rudolf-slansky-czechoslovakia-show-trial

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United Kingdom

 

The Cambridge spies

 

Donald Maclean (1913 - 1983)

 

Guy Burgess (1911 - 1963)

 

Harold 'Kim' Philby (1912 - 1988)

 

and Anthony Blunt (1907 - 1983)

 

were British members

of a KGB spy ring

that penetrated

the intelligence system

of the UK

and passed

vital information

to the Soviets

during World War Two

and the early stages

of the Cold War.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/spies_cambridge.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/spies_cambridge.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eastern Europe

after the second world war

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/11/
second-world-war-eastern-europe 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1947

 

Poland

 

Communist rule

 

 

Poland becomes

a Communist People's Republic

after Soviet-run elections,

under the Stalinist leadership

of Boleslaw Bierut.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1947

 

Prague, Czechoslovakia

 

Photos by Walter Sanders

 

 

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/8a63d438331fd5ae.html
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Pathé archive

 

Ronald Reagan testifies

at the House Un-American

Activities Committee

 

Hollywood stars

- including future

president Ronald Reagan -

give testimony

before the anti-communist

House Un-American

Activities Committee

in 1947.

 

It was chaired

by J Parnell Thomas,

who would later be

convicted for fraud.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2010/oct/21/british-pathe-archive-ronald-reagan-video

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2010/oct/21/
british-pathe-archive-ronald-reagan-video

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In July 1946,

the United States conducted

two atomic tests at Bikini Atoll

in the Pacific.

 

The tests,

codenamed Able

(an atmospheric explosion)

and Baker (underwater),

were among the very first

of the more than 1,000 tests

that the U.S. would

eventually conduct

in Nevada

and the South Pacific

over the next five decades.

http://life.time.com/history/able-and-baker-photos-from-two-american-a-bomb-tests-in-july-1946/#1

 

 

http://life.time.com/history/
able-and-baker-photos-from-two-american-a-bomb-tests-in-july-1946/#1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 March 1946

 

The Sinews of Peace / Iron Curtain Speech

 

 

by Winston S. Churchill,

Prime Minister

of the United Kingdom

at the Westminster College,

Fulton, Missouri, USA

 

 

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/
SID-C78F8A8F-3DB25E3F/natolive/news_16942.htm
 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/churchill_defender_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marshall Josef Tito forms Communist Yugoslavia        1945

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 40S

Time cover: 09-16-1946 of Josip Broz Tito.

 

Date taken: September 16, 1946

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=6cb4d8384e0780cc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 40S

Time cover: 10-09-1944 of Marshal Tito.

 

Date taken: October 09, 1944

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=ebd614c6e86ccce5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

He maintained Yugoslavia's

independence from the USSR

and developed

his own form of communism

with power decentralised

to workers' councils.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/16/newsid_2808000/2808379.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/16/
newsid_2808000/2808379.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17 July - 2 August 1945

 

Germany

 

Potsdam Conference

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1144829.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 February 1945

 

Yalta conference

 

Dividing Germany

after the second world war

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/10/second-world-war-germany-yalta 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1144865.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USSR / СССР

 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

 

Союз Советских Социалистических Республик

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A832411

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/25/newsid
_2542000/2542749.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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20th century > Cold war