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History > 20th century > Cold War > USA > Vietnam war (1962-1975) > Vietnam war opponents

 

 

 

Protesters against the Vietnam war marching

in Washington DC in November 1969.

 

Photograph: JP Laffont/Sygma/Corbis

 

Vietnam war: your stories, photographs and memories

G

Tuesday 14 April 2015        09.01 BST

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/14/
vietnam-40-years-war-your-stories-photographs-and-memories

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A protest march against the war in Vietnam

by students from the University of Mississippi

on Oct. 15, 1969.

 

Credit D. Gorton

 

Photographing the White South in the Turbulence of the 1960s

Doy Gorton, a son of the Mississippi Delta

who joined the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee,

returned to Mississippi to embark on a project

photographing his fellow white Southerners.

 

NYT        Sept. 13, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/13/
lens/photographing-the-white-south-in-the-turbulence-of-the-1960s.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Douglas Fitzgerald Dowd        1919-2017

 

(...) radical economics

professor and author

who was in the vanguard

of early teach-ins

and other demonstrations

against the Vietnam War

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/13/us/
politics/douglas-dowd-97-antiwar-activist-and-critic-of-capitalism-is-dead.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/13/us/
politics/douglas-dowd-97-antiwar-activist-and-critic-of-capitalism-is-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Emmet Hayden        1939-2016

 

Tom Hayden (...)

burst out

of the 1960s counterculture

as a radical leader of America’s

civil rights and antiwar movements,

but rocked the boat

more gently later in life

with a progressive political agenda

as an author and California

state legislator

 

(...)

 

During the racial unrest

and antiwar protests

of the ’60s and early ’70s,

Mr. Hayden

was one of the nation’s

most visible radicals.

 

He was a founder

of Students for a Democratic Society,

a defendant in the Chicago Seven trial

after riots at the 1968

Democratic National Convention,

and a peace activist

who married Jane Fonda,

went to Hanoi

and escorted

American prisoners of war

home from Vietnam.

 

As a civil rights worker,

he was beaten in Mississippi

and jailed in Georgia.

 

In his cell

he began writing

what became

the Port Huron Statement,

the political manifesto

of S.D.S. and the New Left

that envisioned

an alliance of college students

in a peaceful crusade to overcome

what it called repressive government,

corporate greed and racism.

 

Its aim was to create

a multiracial, egalitarian society.

 

Like his allies

the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

and Senator Robert F. Kennedy,

who were assassinated in 1968,

Mr. Hayden opposed violent protests

but backed militant demonstrations,

like the occupation

of Columbia University campus buildings

by students and the burning of draft cards.

 

He also helped plan protests

that, as it happened,

turned into clashes

with the Chicago police

outside the Democratic convention.

 

In 1974,

with the Vietnam War

in its final stages

after American

military involvement

had all but ended,

Mr. Hayden and Ms. Fonda,

who were by then married,

traveled across Vietnam,

talking to people

about their lives after years of war,

and produced a documentary film,

“Introduction to the Enemy.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/25/us/tom-hayden-dead.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/25/us/
tom-hayden-dead.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/10/24/
499130324/longtime-progressive-activist-tom-hayden-dies-at-76

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Horace Julian Bond        1940-2015

 

former chairman

of the National Association

for the Advancement of Colored People,

(...) charismatic figure

of the 1960s civil rights movement,

(...) lightning rod

of the anti-Vietnam War campaign

and (...)  lifelong champion

of equal rights for minorities

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/17/us/
julian-bond-former-naacp-chairman-and-civil-rights-leader-dies-at-75.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/17/us/
julian-bond-former-naacp-chairman-and-civil-rights-leader-dies-at-75.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Richard Pierce Havens        1941-2013

 

Mr. Havens

embodied the spirit of the ’60s

— espousing peace and love,

hanging out in Greenwich Village

and playing gigs from the Isle of Wight

to the Fillmore (both East and West)

to Carnegie Hall.

 

He surfaced only in the mid-1960s,

but before the end of the decade

many rock musicians

were citing him as an influence.

 

His rendition of “Handsome Johnny”

became an anti-Vietnam War anthem.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/23/arts/music/richie-havens-guitarist-and-singer-dies-at-72.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/23/
arts/music/richie-havens-guitarist-and-singer-dies-at-72.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Donald Walter Duncan        CAN        1930-2009

 

 

 

Mr. Duncan,

who as a Green Beret

had been decorated for his service in Vietnam,

wrote an article published in Ramparts in 1966

saying he had witnessed atrocities there.

 

Ramparts

 

Donald W. Duncan, 79,

Ex-Green Beret and Early Critic of Vietnam War,

Is Dead

NYT        By ROBERT D. McFADDEN        MAY 6, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/07/us/
donald-w-duncan-79-ex-green-beret-and-early-critic-of-vietnam-war-is-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Green Beret master sergeant

who came home from Vietnam

a disillusioned hero in 1965

 

(...)

 

In an America torn by protests

against the war

in the late 1960s and early ’70s,

Mr. Duncan was often in the news,

although not as prominently

as the pediatrician

Dr. Benjamin Spock,

the Roman Catholic priests

Daniel and Philip Berrigan

or the actress Jane Fonda,

who was photographed

laughing and applauding

on an antiaircraft gun in Hanoi.

 

(...)

 

But in 1966,

well before the Tet offensive

and the My Lai massacre

stirred national discontent,

Mr. Duncan was one

of the first returning veterans

to portray the war

as a moral quagmire

that had little to do

with fighting

the spread of Communism,

as American leaders

were portraying it.

 

Sergeant Duncan,

who went to war convinced

it was an anti-Communist crusade,

ended his Special Forces duty

a changed man.

 

A 10-year veteran,

he rejected an offer

of an officer’s commission

and left the Army.

 

Back home,

he became

a fierce critic of the war,

writing articles and a memoir

and speaking at rallies

across the country

with the singer Joan Baez,

the writer Norman Mailer

and the comedian Dick Gregory.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/07/us/
donald-w-duncan-79-ex-green-beret-and-early-critic-of-vietnam-war-is-dead.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/07/us/
donald-w-duncan-79-ex-green-beret-and-early-critic-of-vietnam-war-is-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daniel Ellsberg        Pentagon Papers        1971-1973

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 70S

Time cover: 07-05-1971 of Daniel Ellsberg.=

 

Date taken: July 05, 1971

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=4c2d3dab8df3f9b5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Future anti war activist Daniel Ellsberg

as a young Marine Lieutenant.

 

Location: Quantico, VA, US

Date taken: July 15, 1954

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=390f1b48c42c9177

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daniel Ellsberg's

leaks from inside the Pentagon

helped to end the Vietnam war.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/feb/06/londonreviewofbooks1

 

 

On June 13, 1971,

The New York Times

began publishing

the Pentagon Papers,

a documentary history tracing

the ultimately doomed involvement

of the United States

in a grinding war in the jungles

and rice paddies of Southeast Asia.

 

They demonstrated,

among other things,

that the Johnson Administration

had systematically lied,

not only to the public

but also to Congress,

about a subject

of transcendent national

interest and significance.

 

The Government

sought and won

a court order restraining

further publication

after three articles

had appeared.

 

Other newspapers

then began publishing.

 

They, too, were restrained,

until finally, on June 30, 1971,

the United States Supreme Court

ruled, by a vote of 9 to 0,

that publication could resume.

http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/subjects/p/pentagon_papers/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/daniel-ellsberg 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/pentagon-papers 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2003/feb/06/
londonreviewofbooks1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gerald Gold    1927-2012

 

an editor

for The New York Times

who helped supervise

the herculean task

of combing through

a secret 2.5-million-word

Defense Department history

of the Vietnam War,

later known

as the Pentagon Papers,

to produce articles

showing that officials

had lied about the war

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/03/
business/media/gerald-gold-times-editor-on-the-pentagon-papers-is-dead-at-85.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/03/
business/media/gerald-gold-times-editor-on-the-pentagon-papers-is-dead-at-85.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George William Webber    1920-2010

 

Over the years,

Mr. Webber protested

the Vietnam War

and other American policies

and was arrested several times.

 

In 1974,

these activities provoked

the United States

ambassador to Vietnam,

Graham A. Martin,

to write a four-page letter

to Mr. Webber

after Mr. Webber led a group

of antiwar activists to Vietnam.

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/13/us/13webber.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/13/us/
13webber.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1971

 

Vietnam War        The Harrisburg Seven

 

anti-war activists accused of plotting to kidnap Henry Kissinger

 

 

 

March On Harrisburg

 

Anti-war demonstrators marching in support of the Harrisburg 6,

anti-war activists accused of plotting to kidnap Henry Kissinger.

 

Location: Harrisburg, PA, US

Date taken: 1971

 

Photographer: Bill Ray

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=dbae4b243826e530

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2002/12/08/us/
philip-berrigan-former-priest-peace-advocate-vietnam-war-era-dies-79.html

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,903278,00.html

http://news.google.com/newspapers?
nid=2002&dat=19720124&id=krAiAAAAIBAJ&sjid=H7MFAAAAIBAJ&pg=823,1941961

http://news.google.com/newspapers?
nid=1876&dat=19710113&id=gDMsAAAAIBAJ&sjid=xMsEAAAAIBAJ&pg=5695,1829635

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=1558e84a88709539

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dwight Alan Armstrong    1951-2010

 

College building bombing        Aug. 24, 1970

 

 

one of four young men

who in 1970 bombed a building

on the University of Wisconsin

campus in Madison,

killing one person

and injuring several others,

during a time of intense agitation

against the Vietnam War.

 

The center,

which operated under a contract

with the United States Army,

had been the target

of many nonviolent protests

since it opened in the 1950s.

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/27/us/27armstrong.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/27/us/
27armstrong.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carl Preston Oglesby    1935-2011

 

Carl Oglesby

led Students

for a Democratic Society

as it publicly opposed

the Vietnam War

but who was later expelled

by a radical faction

that became

the Weather Underground

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/14/us/carl-oglesby-antiwar-leader-in-1960s-dies-at-76.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/14/us/
carl-oglesby-antiwar-leader-in-1960s-dies-at-76.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Sunday morning,

August 22, 1971,

then-FBI director

J. Edgar Hoover

and Nixon Attorney General

John Mitchell

announced

that 20 antiwar activists

had been arrested

the previous night

attempting to break in

and vandalize

a Camden, New Jersey

draft board office.

 

Five days later,

eight more plotters

were indicted.

 

Charged with conspiracy

to remove and destroy

files from draft,

FBI and Army intelligence offices,

destruction of government property

and interfering with

the Selective Service system,

members of the "Camden 28" faced

up to 47 years in federal prison.

 

Who were

these dangerous radicals

that America's premier

law enforcement agency

so proudly took down?

 

They included

four Catholic priests,

a Lutheran minister

and 23 members

of the "Catholic Left."

http://www.pbs.org/pov/camden28/film_description.php

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/pov/camden28/film_description.php

http://www.camden28.org/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mngS24z-STE

http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/348979/The-Camden-28/overview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tinker

v.

Des Moines

Independent Community School District

 

CITATION 393 US 503 (1969)

 

ARGUED Nov 12, 1968

DECIDED Feb 24, 1969

 

 

In December 1965,

a group of students in Des Moines

held a meeting in the home

of 16-year-old Christopher Eckhardt

to plan a public showing

of their support

for a truce

in the Vietnam war.

 

They decided

to wear black armbands

throughout the holiday season

and to fast on December 16

and New Year's Eve.

 

The principals

of the Des Moines school

learned of the plan

and met on December 14

to create a policy

that stated that any student

wearing an armband

would be asked to remove it,

with refusal to do so

resulting in suspension.

 

On December 16,

Mary Beth Tinker

and Christopher Eckhardt

wore their armbands to school

and were sent home.

 

The following day,

John Tinker did the same

with the same result.

 

The students

did not return to school

until after New Year's Day,

the planned end of the protest.
 

 

Through their parents,

the students sued

the school district

for violating the students'

right of expression

and sought an injunction

to prevent the school district

from disciplining the students.

 

The district court

dismissed the case

and held

that the school district's actions

were reasonable

to uphold school discipline.

 

The U.S. Court of Appeals

for the Eighth Circuit

affirmed the decision

without opinion.

 

(...)

 

The Supreme Court held

that the armbands

represented pure speech

that is entirely separate

from the actions or conduct

of those participating in it.

 

The Court also held

that the students

did not lose their First Amendment

rights to freedom of speech

when they stepped

onto school property.

 

In order to justify

the suppression of speech,

the school officials

must be able to prove

that the conduct in question would

"materially and substantially interfere"

with the operation of the school.

 

In this case,

the school district's actions

evidently stemmed

from a fear of possible disruption

rather than any actual interference.

https://www.oyez.org/cases/1968/21

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.oyez.org/cases/1968/21

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/01/03/
571647322/students-identify-with-50-year-old-supreme-court-case

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Chicago Seven        Riot Conspiracy Trial        Chicago, Illinois        1969

 

 

 

Yippie & Black Panther

confronting each other at the riot conspiracy trial of the Chicago Eight.

 

Location: Chicago, IL, US

Date taken: September 1969

 

Photographer: Lee Balterman

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=58a4ab7a0f5e80ea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Chicago Seven

(also Conspiracy Seven,

originally Eight)

were seven defendants

- Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin,

David Dellinger,

Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis,

John Froines, and Lee Weiner -

charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot,

and other charges related to protests

that took place in Chicago, Illinois

on the occasion of the 1968

Democratic National Convention.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Seven

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Riot Conspiracy Trial - Chicago, Illinois

 

Date taken: 1969

 

Photographer: Lee Balterman

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=6e73d45d01af4d72

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.chicagotribune.com/topic/crime-law-justice/trials/
chicago-seven-trial-(1969)-EVHST000052.topic

http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/
chi-chicagodays-seventrial-story,0,6172471.story

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,839946,00.html

http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/chicago10/trial.html

http://www.npr.org/news/national/election2000/demconvention/past.1968.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/convention96/retro/chicago.html

http://edition.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1996/conventions/chicago/facts/chicago68/index.shtml

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1987/05/14/arts/film-on-chicago-8-includes-originals.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968

 

Anti-Vietnam war protests

at the Democratic Convention in Chicago

 

 

 

 

‘It was during that march and later the same evening

that we got a glimpse of democracy-in-action, Machiavelli/Gestapo-style,’

Terry Southern wrote.

 

Left to right:

Jean Genet, William S Burroughs, and Terry Southern

 

When the photographer who shot the Beatles

captured the moment the Vietnam war came home

 

Michael Cooper was most famous

for shooting candid moments with the Rolling Stones

and the cover of the Beatles’ 1967 album

Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band.

 

But in the summer of 1968

he found himself in Chicago

to witness ‘America’s crack-up’

– as a police riot filled television screens

and an inter-generational conflict

opened up over the Vietnam war

G

Sun 26 Aug 2018        06.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2018/aug/26/
michael-cooper-chicago-68-photographs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Protesters clashed with National Guard members

outside the Conrad Hilton Hotel in Chicago in August 1968.

 

CreditCreditBarton Silverman

 

‘The Whole World Is Watching’:

The 1968 Democratic Convention, 50 Years Later

 

On Aug. 28, 1968,

violent clashes in Chicago between demonstrators and police

produced one of the most polarizing showdowns of the 1960s.

 

People are still debating what it all meant.

 

The New York Times        Aug. 28, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/28/
us/politics/chicago-1968-democratic-convention-.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A tumultuous season

of assassinations, riots and war,

1968 was the year

that changed America,

in ways that still unfold today.

 

And part of that momentous drama

played out on summer nights in Chicago

when blood ran in the streets

and police orchestrated a riot

as anti-war protesters tried to march

upon the Democratic national convention

calling for an end to the Vietnam war.

 

After four days

and nights of violence,

668 people had been arrested,

425 demonstrators were treated

at temporary medical facilities,

200 were treated on the spot,

400 given first aid

for tear gas exposure

and 110 went to hospital.

 

A total of 192 police officers

were injured.

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2018/aug/19/
the-whole-world-is-watching-chicago-police-riot-vietnam-war-regan

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/28/
us/politics/chicago-1968-democratic-convention-.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2018/aug/26/
michael-cooper-chicago-68-photographs

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/24/
opinion/sunday/chicago-protests-1968-culture-war.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2018/aug/19/
the-whole-world-is-watching-chicago-police-riot-vietnam-war-regan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bobby Seale,

co-founder and chairman of the Black Panther Party,

selling Mao’s Red Book to raise money

at the first San Francisco peace march

against the Vietnam War.

 

April 15, 1967.

Stephen Shames/Courtesy of Steven Kasher Gallery

 


Reconsidering the Black Panthers Through Photos

By Maurice Berger        NYT        Sep. 8, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2016/09/08/
blogs/reconsidering-the-black-panthers-through-photos/s/08-lens-panthers-slide-LZYR.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anti-Vietnam War rally in New York. 1967.

 

CreditLeRoy Henderson

 

Photographing Ordinary Life in Passing

LeRoy W. Henderson Jr.

has traveled up and down the East Coast,

stopping alongside rural roads in his native Virginia,

at rallies on the National Mall

and on bustling New York City street corners.

 

NYT        June 19, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/19/
lens/photographing-ordinary-life-in-passing.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Vietnam War protest in New York. 1967.

 

CreditLeRoy Henderson

 

Photographing Ordinary Life in Passing

LeRoy W. Henderson Jr.

has traveled up and down the East Coast,

stopping alongside rural roads in his native Virginia,

at rallies on the National Mall

and on bustling New York City street corners.

 

NYT        June 19, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/19/
lens/photographing-ordinary-life-in-passing.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 4, 1967

 

Martin Lurther King

delivers his first public

antiwar speech,

Beyond Vietnam,”

at New York’s

Riverside Church

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1967_04_04/

 

 

 

 

The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

at an antiwar demonstration in New York in April 1967,

with Dr. Benjamin Spock to his right.

 

 

When Martin Luther King Came Out Against Vietnam

David J. Garrow        NYT        VIETNAM '67        APRIL 4, 2017

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/04/
opinion/when-martin-luther-king-came-out-against-vietnam.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King

delivered the address,

known variously

as “Beyond Vietnam”

and “A Time to Break Silence,”

at Riverside Church in Manhattan

on April 4, 1967.

 

“A time comes when silence

is betrayal,” he said.

“And that time has come for us

in relation to Vietnam.”

 

He added:

“If we continue,

there will be

no doubt in my mind

and in the mind of the world

that we have

no honorable intentions

in Vietnam.

 

If we do not stop our war

against the people of Vietnam

immediately,

the world will be left

with no other alternative

than to see this

as some horrible, clumsy

and deadly game

we have decided to play.”

 

The speech, which articulated

what was then a relatively

unpopular position,

touched off a firestorm.

 

In an editorial titled

“Dr. King’s Disservice to His Cause,”

Life magazine called it

“a demagogic slander

that sounded like a script

for Radio Hanoi.”

 

The National Association

for the Advancement of Colored People

described the address

as “a serious tactical error.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/22/us/
vincent-harding-civil-rights-author-and-associate-of-dr-king-dies-at-82.html

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/doc_beyond_vietnam/ 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_beyond_vietnam_4_april_1967/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_the_vietnam_war_1961_1975/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/kingweb/liberation_curriculum/pdfs/vietnameditorials.pdf

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
question_and_answer_period_following_beyond_vietnam_speech/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1967_04_04/

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/05/
opinion/dr-king-on-the-vietnam-war.html

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/04/
opinion/when-martin-luther-king-came-out-against-vietnam.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/22/us/
vincent-harding-civil-rights-author-and-associate-of-dr-king-dies-at-82.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anti Vietnam war demonstrations


 

 

Anti-war demonstrators sitting amongst pink flowers.

 

Location: Washington, DC, US

Date taken: 1970

 

Photographer: John Olson

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=5c3ef0f0aaedf265

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 1967

 

March on the Pentagon

 

 tens of thousands of people

gathered in Washington

to protest the Vietnam War

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/10/20/
opinion/sunday/march-on-the-pentagon-oral-history.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/10/20/
opinion/sunday/march-on-the-pentagon-oral-history.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A protester faces soldiers near the Pentagon

on October 21, 1967.

 

Credit Marc Riboud/Magnum Photos

 

The March on the Pentagon: An Oral History        NYT        OCT. 20, 2017

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/10/20/
opinion/sunday/march-on-the-pentagon-oral-history.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Young men burn their draft cards

at an anti-Vietnam war demonstration

outside the Pentagon in 1967.

 

Photograph: Bettmann Archive

 

How civil rights activists risked their lives

to change America in 'freedom summer'

G

Friday 1 July 2016    12.58 BST

Last modified on Friday 1 July 2016    16.55 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jul/01/civil-rights-america-1960s-activists-voting-rights-vietnam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Young men burning their draft cards. New York. 1967.

 

Hiroji Kubota/Magnum Photos

 

Hiroji Kubota, Photographer        By Misha Erwitt        NYT        Nov. 18, 2015

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/11/18/hiroji-kubota-photographer/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. / Muhammad Ali    1942-2016

 

 

 

Lt. Col. J. Edwin McKee escorting Clay

from the armed forces examining station

in Houston on April 28, 1967,

after he refused to be drafted into the army,

requesting conscientious objector status.

 

Clay was stripped of his title by boxing commissions

and was convicted of draft evasion.

 

He did not fight for three and a half years.

 

Muhammad Ali, Titan of Boxing and the 20th Century, Dies at 74

By ROBERT LIPSYTE    NYT    JUNE 4, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/04/sports/muhammad-ali-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A group of top black athletes gather

to give support to Muhammad Ali

give his reasons for rejecting the draft during the Vietnam War

at a meeting of the Negro Industrial and Economic Union,

held in Cleveland in June 1967.

 

Seated in the front row, from left to right:

Bill Russell, Ali, Jim Brown and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar.

 

Standing behind them are:

Carl Stokes, Walter Beach, Bobby Mitchell, Sid Williams,

Curtis McClinton, Willie Davis, Jim Shorter and John Wooten.

 

Photograph: Robert Abbott Sengstacke/Getty Images

G

Friday 8 December 2017        18.26 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2017/dec/08/
kareem-abdul-jabbar-kaepernick-trump-interview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ali's boldest move

— and most controversial —

came in 1967.

 

At the height

of the Vietnam War,

he refused induction

into the U.S. military,

saying,

"I ain't got no quarrel

with them Viet Cong."

 

"My intention is to box,

to win a clean fight.

But in war, the intention

is to kill, kill, kill, kill

and continue

killing innocent people,"

he said.

 

Some called him a traitor.

 

For those

in a growing

anti-war movement,

Ali was a hero

who paid

a significant price.

 

He was convicted

of draft evasion,

and though he avoided jail time,

he was stripped

of his heavyweight title

and banned from boxing

at the age of 25,

just as he was entering

his prime.

 

It would be more than three years

before Ali returned to the ring.

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/04/
171025748/boxer-muhammad-ali-the-greatest-of-all-time-dies-at-74

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/10/
481523465/in-political-activism-ali-pulled-no-punches-and-paid-a-heavy-price

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/05/
sports/in-muhammad-ali-an-example-of-a-truer-kind-of-bravery-in-sports.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/04/
opinion/muhammad-ali-worshipped-misunderstood-exploited.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/04/
171025748/boxer-muhammad-ali-the-greatest-of-all-time-dies-at-74

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/23/
movies/trials-of-muhammad-ali-traces-alis-battle-over-vietnam.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spring Mobilization

Vietnam protestors carrying anti-war signs

during march from dowtown Market Street

to Golden Gate Park's Kezar Stadium

for rally called

"Spring Mobilization to End the War in Vietnam".

 

Location: San Francisco, CA, US

Date taken: April 1967

 

Photographer: Ralph Crane

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=7d9765e5567a2103

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georgia legislature’s refusal

to seat Julian Bond,

the black civil rights leader,

for opposing American

involvement in Vietnam

and supporting draft resisters.

 

His exclusion

was overturned

by the United States

Supreme Court

in 1966,

and Mr. Bond served

20 years

in the legislature.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/14/us/eugene-c-patterson-editor-and-civil-rights-crusader-dies-at-89.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/14/us/
eugene-c-patterson-editor-and-civil-rights-crusader-dies-at-89.html

 

 

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?
res=9C05EFDE153EE731A25755C0A9649D946791D6CF

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?
res=9E02E0DD153BE333A25752C1A9679C946791D6CF

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A May Day rally in Union Square

demanding an end to the war in Vietnam

and no intervention in the Dominican Republic.

 

Manhattan, May 1, 1965.

 

Credit Builder Levy

 

Striving for Justice and Equality With a Camera on New York's Streets

 

For decades,

Builder Levy photographed protests and social issues,

as well as the neighborhoods where he taught in New York,

to counter media depictions he saw as problematic.

 

NYT        Aug. 24, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/24/
lens/builder-levy-justice-equality-new-york-streets.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

National Surveillance Agency        Operation Minaret

 

The National Security Agency

secretly tapped

into the overseas phone calls

of prominent critics

of the Vietnam War,

including Martin Luther King,

Muhammad Ali

and two actively serving

US senators

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/26/nsa-surveillance-anti-vietnam-muhammad-ali-mlk

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/26/
nsa-surveillance-anti-vietnam-muhammad-ali-mlk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Vietnam antiwar movement

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/15/
opinion/south-vietnam-had-an-antiwar-movement-too.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > History > 20th century

 

Vietnam war opponents > The Berrigans

 

 

USA > 20th century > Vietnam War (1962-1975)

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr.    1929-1968

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Photography

 

war photography

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Books

 

USA > William Seward Burroughs II (1914-1997)

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

genocide, war,

weapons, espionage, torture

 

 

conflicts, wars > civilians > migrants, refugees

 

 

boxing

Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. / Muhammad Ali    1942-2016