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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights era > Freedom riders    1961


 

 

Freedom Riders

 

(L-R) Freedom Riders Julia Aaron & David Dennis

sitting on board interstate bus as they & 25 others (bkgrd. & unseen)

are escorted by 2 MS Natl. Guardsmen holding bayonets,

on way fr. Montgomery, AL to Jackson, MS.

 

Location: US

Date taken: May 1961

 

Photographer: Paul Schutzer

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=51c800f48f732301

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Freedom Riders

 

Date taken: 1961

 

Photographer: Joe Scherschel

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=03d0ea10f3afe675

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Margaret Leonard from New Orleans, at age 19.

 

CreditCourtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History

 

50 Years After Their Mug Shots,

Portraits of Mississippi’s Freedom Riders

The journalist and photographer Eric Etheridge

provides visual and oral histories of the courageous men and women

known as the Freedom Riders in the 1960s.

 

NYT        May 15, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carol Silver, from New York, at age 22.

 

CreditCourtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History

 

50 Years After Their Mug Shots,

Portraits of Mississippi’s Freedom Riders

The journalist and photographer Eric Etheridge

provides visual and oral histories of the courageous men and women

known as the Freedom Riders in the 1960s.

 

NYT        May 15, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Rev. LeRoy Glenn Wright from Nashville, at age 19.

 

CreditCourtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History

 

50 Years After Their Mug Shots,

Portraits of Mississippi’s Freedom Riders

The journalist and photographer Eric Etheridge

provides visual and oral histories of the courageous men and women

known as the Freedom Riders in the 1960s.

 

NYT        May 15, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hezekiah Watkins, from Jackson, Miss., at age 13.

 

CreditCourtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives and History

 

50 Years After Their Mug Shots,

Portraits of Mississippi’s Freedom Riders

The journalist and photographer Eric Etheridge

provides visual and oral histories of the courageous men and women

known as the Freedom Riders in the 1960s.

 

NYT        May 15, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Freedom Riders

were a racially mixed group,

mostly college students,

who were riding buses

through the South to test

the Supreme Court’s

recent ban on segregation

in waiting rooms and restaurants

that served interstate travelers

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/20/opinion/20Lafayette.html

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/primarydocuments/610426-023.pdf

http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/364/454.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/people/ralph-abernathy

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/people/robert-f-kennedy

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/people/ralph-abernathy#people_header

http://nuweb9.neu.edu/civilrights/roman-duckworth-jr/

http://video.pbs.org/video/1559971986/

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/15/
lens/50-years-after-mug-shots-portraits-of-mississippi-freedom-riders.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/jul/01/
civil-rights-america-1960s-activists-voting-rights-vietnam

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/21/us/
george-houser-freedom-rides-pioneer-dies-at-99.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/11/us/
claude-sitton-times-reporter-who-covered-south-in-civil-rights-era-dies-at-89.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/11/us/
claude-sitton-excerpt-an-eyewitness-account.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2014/06/04/
318858249/the-modest-bus-station-at-the-center-of-a-world-changing-confrontation

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/20/
opinion/20Lafayette.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/16/
opinion/16mon4.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/15/
arts/television/for-stanley-nelson-the-prize-is-documentary-filmmaking.html

http://www.npr.org/sections/ablogsupreme/2011/05/05/
135920869/instruments-of-change-music-of-the-freedom-riders-50-years-later

http://www.npr.org/2011/05/05/
136025553/freedom-riders-risked-their-lives-for-equality

http://www.npr.org/2011/05/04/
135985034/freedom-riders-reflect-on-50th-anniversary

http://www.npr.org/2011/04/29/
135836458/a-freedom-ride-organizer-on-non-violent-resistance

http://www.npr.org/2011/04/07/
135096701/ahead-of-anniversary-freedom-riders-remember

 

http://www.npr.org/2006/01/12/
5149667/get-on-the-bus-the-freedom-riders-of-1961

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Congress of Racial Equality    CORE

 

The Freedom Rides

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9b.html

http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/civilrights-55-65/freeride.html

http://www.mecca.org/~crights/freedom.html

http://www.iwfr.org/civilhistory.asp

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/21/us/
george-houser-freedom-rides-pioneer-dies-at-99.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On July 16, 1944,

Irene Morgan

was arrested by the sheriff

of Middlesex County, Virginia,

after refusing to give up her seat

on a Greyhound bus

while traveling home

from Baltimore, MD.

 

The legal staff

of the National Association

for the Advancement

of Colored People (NAACP)

took up her case,

and on June 3, 1946,

the U.S Supreme Court

ruled in her favor,

striking down racial segregation

on interstate buses

as a violation of the interstate

commerce clause.

 

In December 1960,

Boynton v. Virginia

expanded the Morgan decision,

outlawing segregated

waiting rooms,

lunch counters,

and restroom facilities

for interstate passengers.

 

However,

both rulings

were largely ignored

in the Deep South.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/issues/freedom-to-travel

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/freedomriders/issues/freedom-to-travel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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