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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights era > Interracial marriage > Miscegenation laws > Loving v. Virginia

 

 

 

Richard Loving kisses his wife Mildred

as he arrives home from work,

King and Queen County, Virginia, April 1965.

 

© Estate of Grey Villet

http://life.time.com/history/richard-and-mildred-loving-grey-villet-photos-1966

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Richard kisses his wife as he arrives home from work.

 

The Lovings were were sentenced to one year in prison,

suspended if they left Virginia

and did not return together for at least 25 years.

 

The couple moved to Washington DC

 

Photograph: © Grey Villet, 1965

 

The Lovings,

a marriage that changed history – in pictures

 

In July 1958,

Mildred and Richard Loving

were arrested for interracial marriage,

then a crime in their home state of Virginia.

 

Life photographer Grey Villet

spent a few weeks with them,

two years before their case brought down the law.

Here are some of his images of the heroic lovers

from the book The Lovings: An Intimate Portrait

 

G        Wednesday 29 March 2017        11.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2017/mar/29/the-lovings-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mildred and Richard Loving,

pictured on their front porch

in King and Queen County, Virginia, in 1965.

 

In June 1958,

the couple went to Washington DC

to marry, to work around Virginia’s Racial Integrity Act of 1924,

which made marriage between whites and non-whites a crime.

 

After an anonymous tip,

police officers raided their home a month later,

telling the Lovings their marriage certificate was invalid.

 

In 1959,

the Lovings pled guilty to ‘cohabiting as man and wife,

against the peace and dignity of the Commonwealth’

 

Photograph: © Grey Villet, 1965

 

The Lovings,

a marriage that changed history – in pictures

 

In July 1958,

Mildred and Richard Loving

were arrested for interracial marriage,

then a crime in their home state of Virginia.

 

Life photographer Grey Villet

spent a few weeks with them,

two years before their case brought down the law.

Here are some of his images of the heroic lovers

from the book The Lovings: An Intimate Portrait

 

G        Wednesday 29 March 2017        11.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2017/mar/29/the-lovings-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The case went from the Virginia Caroline county circuit court,

all the way to the US supreme court in Washington.

 

The Lovings did not attend the hearings in Washington,

but Cohen conveyed a message from Richard:

‘Mr Cohen, tell the court I love my wife,

and it is just unfair that I can’t live with her in Virginia.’

 

The Supreme Court overturned the Lovings’ convictions

in a unanimous decision in June 1967,

ruling that the ban on interracial marriage was unconstitutional

and in violation of the 14th Amendment

 

Photograph: © Grey Villet, 1965

 

The Lovings,

a marriage that changed history – in pictures

 

In July 1958,

Mildred and Richard Loving

were arrested for interracial marriage,

then a crime in their home state of Virginia.

 

Life photographer Grey Villet

spent a few weeks with them,

two years before their case brought down the law.

Here are some of his images of the heroic lovers

from the book The Lovings: An Intimate Portrait

 

G        Wednesday 29 March 2017        11.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2017/mar/29/the-lovings-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For five years,

the Lovings lived in internal exile

while they raised their three children, Peggy, Sidney and Donald,

seen here playing in the fields near their Virginia home

 

The Lovings,

a marriage that changed history – in pictures

 

In July 1958,

Mildred and Richard Loving

were arrested for interracial marriage,

then a crime in their home state of Virginia.

 

Life photographer Grey Villet

spent a few weeks with them,

two years before their case brought down the law.

Here are some of his images of the heroic lovers

from the book The Lovings: An Intimate Portrait

 

G        Wednesday 29 March 2017        11.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2017/mar/29/the-lovings-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Mildred Delores Loving        1940-2008

 

black woman whose anger

over being banished from Virginia

for marrying a white man

led to a landmark Supreme Court ruling

overturning state miscegenation laws

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/us/06loving.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2017/mar/29/
the-lovings-in-pictures

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/11/04/
500648860/-loving-shows-a-quiet-couple-in-the-eye-of-historys-storm

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/us/
06loving.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/may/07/
usa.humanrights

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laws banning

"race-mixing"

were enforced

in Nazi Germany

(the Nuremberg Laws)

from 1935 until 1945,

in certain U.S. states

from the Colonial era

until 1967

and in South Africa

during the early part

of the Apartheid era.

 

All these laws

primarily banned

marriage between spouses

of different racially

or ethnically defined groups,

which was termed

"amalgamation"

or "miscegenation"

in the U.S.

 

The laws

in Nazi Germany

and many of the U.S. states,

as well as South Africa,

also banned sexual relations

between such individuals.

 

In the United States,

the various state laws

prohibited the marriage

of whites and blacks,

and in many states

also the intermarriage of whites

with Native Americans or Asians.

 

In the U.S.,

such laws were known

as anti-miscegenation laws.

 

From 1913 until 1948,

30 out of the then 48 states

enforced such laws.

 

Although

an "Anti-Miscegenation

Amendment"

to the United States Constitution

was proposed in 1871,

in 1912–1913, and in 1928,

no nation-wide law against

racially mixed marriages

was ever enacted.

 

In 1967,

the United States Supreme Court

unanimously ruled

in Loving v. Virginia

that anti-miscegenation laws

are unconstitutional.

 

With this ruling,

these laws

were no longer in effect

in the remaining 16 states

that still had them.

 

The laws in U.S. states

were established

to maintain

"racial purity"

and white supremacy.

 

Such laws

were passed in South Africa

because of fears

that the white minority

would be "bred-out"

by the black majority.

 

The Nazi ban

on interracial marriage

and interracial sex

was enacted

in September 1935

as part of the Nuremberg Laws,

the Gesetz zum Schutze

des deutschen Blutes

und der deutschen Ehre

(The Law for the Protection

of German Blood

and German Honour).

 

The Nuremberg Laws

classified Jews as a race,

and forbade marriage

and extramarital sexual relations

between persons

of Jewish origin

and persons

of "German or related blood".

 

Such intercourse

was condemned as

Rassenschande

(lit. "race-disgrace")

and could be punished

by imprisonment

(usually followed

by deportation

to a concentration camp)

and even by death.

 

The Prohibition

of Mixed Marriages Act

in South Africa,

enacted in 1949,

banned intermarriage

between different racial groups,

including between whites

and non-whites.

 

The Immorality Act,

enacted in 1950,

also made it

a criminal offense

for a white person

to have

any sexual relations

with a person

of a different race.

 

Both laws

were repealed in 1985.

https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Miscegenation.html

 

 

https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Miscegenation.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loving Decision:

40 Years of Legal Interracial Unions

 

NPR        June 11, 2007        5:18 PM ET

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10889047

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Movie        Guess Who's Coming to Dinner        1967

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1967/12/12/
archives/screen-guess-whos-coming-to-dinner-arrivestracyhepburn-picture.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. Supreme Court ruling        Loving v. Virginia

 

388 U.S. 1

Loving v. Virginia (No. 395)

Argued: April 10, 1967

Decided: June 12, 1967

206 Va. 924, 147 S.E.2d 78, reversed.

 

Syllabus

 

Virginia's

statutory scheme to prevent

marriages between persons solely

on the basis of racial classifications

held to violate the Equal Protection

and Due Process Clauses

of the Fourteenth Amendment.

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/388/1

 

 

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/388/1

 

 

 

 

Amendment XIV        Section 1

 

Passed by Congress June 13, 1866.

Ratified July 9, 1868.

 

 

All persons born or naturalized

in the United States,

and subject to the jurisdiction thereof,

are citizens of the United States

and of the state wherein they reside.

 

No state shall make or enforce any law

which shall abridge the privileges or immunities

of citizens of the United States;

 

nor shall any state deprive any person

of life, liberty, or property,

without due process of law;

 

nor deny to any person

within its jurisdiction

the equal protection of the laws.

http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv

 

 

http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv

http://www.14thamendment.us/amendment/14th_amendment.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/05/18/
528939766/five-fold-increase-in-interracial-marriages-50-years-
after-they-became-legal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On March 18, 1966,

LIFE magazine published a feature

under the quietly chilling headline,

“The Crime of Being Married.”

 

The article,

illustrated with photographs

by LIFE’s Grey Villet,

told the story

of Richard and Mildred Loving,

a married interracial couple

battling Virginia’s

anti-miscegenation laws.

 

Villet’s warm,

intimate pictures

revealed a close-knit family,

including children

and grandparents,

living their lives in opposition

to a patently unjust law

— but also captured

eloquent moments,

gestures and expressions

that affirmed just how heavily

their defiance weighed

on the very private couple.

http://life.time.com/history/richard-and-mildred-loving-grey-villet-photos-1966/?iid=lf|mostpop#1

 

 

 

 

The Loving Story:

Photographs by Grey Villet 

JANUARY 20–MAY 6, 2012

 

 

Forty-five years ago,

sixteen states still prohibited

interracial marriage.

 

Then, in 1967,

the U.S. Supreme Court

considered the case

of Richard Perry Loving,

a white man,

and his wife, Mildred Loving,

a woman of African American

and Native American descent,

who had been arrested

for miscegenation

nine years earlier in Virginia.

 

The Lovings were not active

in the Civil Rights movement

but their tenacious legal battle

to justify their marriage

changed history

when the Supreme Court

unanimously declared

Virginia's anti-miscegenation law

—and all race-based marriage bans—

unconstitutional.

 

LIFE magazine photographer

Grey Villet's intimate images

were uncovered

by director Nancy Buirski

during the making

of The Loving Story,

a documentary debuting

on February 14, 2012 on HBO.

 

The exhibition,

organized by Assistant Curator

of Collections Erin Barnett,

includes some 20 vintage prints

loaned by the estate of Grey Villet

and by the Loving family.

http://www.icp.org/museum/exhibitions/loving-story-photographs-grey-villet

 

 

 

 

The Supreme Court ruling,

in 1967,

struck down the last group

of segregation laws

to remain on the books

— those requiring

separation of the races

in marriage.

 

The ruling was unanimous,

its opinion written

by Chief Justice Earl Warren,

who in 1954 wrote

the court’s opinion

in Brown v. Board of Education,

declaring segregated public schools

unconstitutional.

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/us/06loving.html

 

 

http://www.tn.gov/tsla/exhibits/blackhistory/pdfs/Miscegenation%20laws.pdf

https://www.icp.org/exhibitions/the-loving-story-photographs-by-grey-villet 

http://life.time.com/history/richard-and-mildred-loving-grey-villet-photos-1966/

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/loving.html

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/388/1

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/06/12/
532580867/50-years-after-loving-hollywood-still-struggles-with-interracial-romance

http://www.npr.org/2017/06/12/
532061667/interracial-marriages-face-pushback-50-years-after-loving

http://www.npr.org/2017/06/12/
532123349/illicit-cohabitation-listen-to-6-stunning-moments-from-loving-v-virginia

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/06/12/
opinion/loving-virginia-50-year-anniversary.html

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/11/us/
mixed-race-marriage-loving-decision-anniversary.html

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/03/
opinion/sunday/how-interracial-love-is-saving-america.html

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/05/18/
528939766/five-fold-increase-in-interracial-marriages-50-years-after-they-became-legal

https://www.theguardian.com/books/gallery/2017/mar/29/
the-lovings-in-pictures

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2017/feb/05/
loving-review-marriage-changed-history-ruth-negga-joel-edgerton-jeff-nichols

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/26/
fashion/weddings/for-interracial-couples-growing-acceptance-with-some-exceptions.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/27/
arts/design/the-loving-story-at-international-center-of-photography.html

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/18/
the-heart-of-the-matter-love/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

miscegenation laws        1960s

 

ban in many US states

against interracial marriage

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/us/06loving.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/may/07/usa.humanrights

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sammy Davis Jr. (born Samuel George Davis, Jr.)    1925-1990

 

 

 

RatPac Press & Running Press (The Perseus Books Group)

 

Rat Pack's Sammy Davis Jr. Lives On Through Daughter's Stories

NPR        May 08, 2014        12:57 PM ET

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/08/
310700493/rat-packs-sammy-davis-jr-lives-on-through-daughters-storie

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In his own words,

Sammy Davis, Jr.

was "the only black,

Puerto Rican,

one-eyed,

Jewish entertainer

in the world."

 

His daughter,

Tracey Davis,

shares memories and details

of his life in her new book,

Sammy Davis Jr.:

A Personal Journey

with My Father.

 

It's based on conversations

Davis had with her father

as he battled throat cancer

near the end of his life.

 

He described his start

in vaudeville at 3 years old

where he was billed

as an adult midget.

 

"He didn't have

the traditional family life,"

Davis tells NPR's

Celeste Headlee.

 

"He was always

working, working, working,

and trying to become famous."

 

She says

that even after making it,

"he was scared

that it could be taken away

at any minute."

 

Sammy Davis Jr.

was frank

about the racial prejudice

that he suffered both

during his army service

and his time

in show business.

 

It also shadowed

his family life.

 

He married Swede

May Britt Wilkens in 1960

— a time when interracial marriage

was forbidden by law in 31 states.

 

They both converted

to Judaism.

 

As his daughter grew up,

she remembers "there [were] times

that a swastika was painted somewhere

or the N-word was written on a car."

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/08/
310700493/rat-packs-sammy-davis-jr-lives-on-through-daughters-stories

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/13/
arts/ruby-dee-actress-dies-at-91.html?hp#slideshow/100000002936114/100000002936208

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/08/
310700493/rat-packs-sammy-davis-jr-lives-on-through-daughters-stories

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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