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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights era > Martin Luther King    1929-1968

 

 

 

 

MLK50: Honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

 

To honor the 50th anniversary of Martin Luther King Jr’s death,

President Obama and Congressman John Lewis

participated in a My Brother’s Keeper Alliance roundtable

with students from Ron Brown College Preparatory High School

in Washington, D.C.

 

President Obama, Congressman Lewis,

and the students discussed Dr. King’s legacy

and how his mission remains relevant in today’s world.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?time_continue=9&v=M3ZrBunSPsQ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Rev. James E. Groppi, center,

at a demonstration in Milwaukee in 1968.

 

The city is one of the most segregated in America.

 

Credit Paul Shane/Associated Press

 

Racial Violence in Milwaukee Was Decades in the Making,

Residents Say

By JOHN ELIGONAUG        NYT        August 14, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/15/us/
racial-violence-in-milwaukee-was-decades-in-the-making-residents-say.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The funeral procession for the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

in Atlanta on April 9, 1968.

 

He was assassinated at a Memphis hotel five days earlier.

 

Don Hogan Charles/The New York Times

 

Don Hogan Charles, Lauded Photographer of Civil Rights Era, Dies at 79

DEC. 25, 2017        NYT        By NIRAJ CHOKSHI

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/25/
obituaries/don-hogan-charles-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

From left, at the 1968 funeral for Dr. King:

his father, the Rev. Martin Luther King Sr.;

his mother, Alberta Williams King;

his wife, Coretta Scott King;

his brother, the Rev. A.D. King;

and the singer Harry Belafonte.

 

Don Hogan Charles/The New York Times

 

Don Hogan Charles, Lauded Photographer of Civil Rights Era, Dies at 79

DEC. 25, 2017        NYT        By NIRAJ CHOKSHI

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/25/
obituaries/don-hogan-charles-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The body of Martin Luther King lying in state in Memphis, Tennessee.

Pictured nearest the coffin are (left to right)

Revd Ralph Abernathy, Bernard Lee, Andrew Young

 

Photograph: Keystone/Hulton

 

06.04.1968        Martin Luther King is killed; Harlem reacts

WJ Weatherby, the Guardian

The Guardian        G2        pp. 16-17        3.4.2006 > Full text

 

Harlem — the accepted capital of Negro America — had lost its King today.

Adam Clayton Powell carries on like its king

and Stokely Carmichael sometimes speaks with a regal “we”,

but their following is small compared with that of “Martin”,

as everyone called him.

 

Harlem has seen the big men come and go;

only Martin seemed to have the trick of survival.

 

He was never treated here

with quite the awe Negro Alabama or Negro Mississippi

showed him.

 

They rarely touched the hem of his garment

as he walked by, as some did in the deep south.

 

That’s not the hip Harlem way.

 

But even those who were not impressed

by his religion or his politics were impressed

by his staying power in the white strongholds.

 

Today it is as though a rock of ages has crumbled away:

the world of Harlem seems even more insecure

now that it knows not even Martin could survive any longer.

 

Seventh Avenue, the main boulevard,

looks like a street in mourning on this grey day,

and for a white man it is about as safe as a street in Vietnam.

 

Mayor John Lindsay,

usually among the more acceptable of white people,

found it too dangerous to show himself

and finally drove around in a car.

 

White cab drivers wouldn’t take you up

there this morningafter the bars closed.

It simply wasn’t safe unless you had a Negro passport.

 

Not even if you were big and well dressed

and therefore could be mistaken for a cop

This is a day when even one’s Harlem friends look the other way or act

as though their grief is private;

they have lost someone related to them but not to you.

 

It is pointless to recall the days

of seeing Martin on so many marches since the 50s;

all occasions he survived.

 

Memories of shared moments now

do not speak as loudly as your white face.

 

You pass the corner of Seventh Avenue and 125th Street,

where Malcolm X used to preach.

 

Malcolm, dead Malcolm, is the only one they speak of now

with the same respect they always accorded the live Martin.

 

Malcolm, Martin — twin martyrs now,

and our dream must be of what might have happened.

 

With both gone, no alliance seems possible in the movement,

and Harlem, as usual, seems to be grieving for what might have been.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Izola Ware Curry        1916-2015

 

 

 

Ms. Curry in 1958.

 

Associated Press

 

Izola Ware Curry, Who Stabbed King in 1958, Dies at 98

By MARGALIT FOX        NYT        MARCH 21, 2015

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/22/us/
izola-ware-curry-who-stabbed-king-in-1958-dies-at-98.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

mentally ill woman

who in 1958 stabbed

the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

at a Harlem book signing

— an episode

that a decade later

would become

a rhetorical touchstone

in the last oration of his life —

 

(...)

 

What surprised

many observers

at the time of the crime

was that Ms. Curry

herself was black,

the daughter

of sharecroppers

from the rural South.

 

Questions persisted

about what could

have moved her

to attack Dr. King,

then a 29-year-old

Alabama preacher

who had assumed

the national stage

amid the Montgomery

bus boycott of 1955-56.

 

The stabbing

nearly cost

Dr. King his life,

requiring hours

of delicate surgery

to remove Ms. Curry’s blade,

a seven-inch ivory-handled

steel letter opener,

which had lodged

near his heart.

 

If he had so much

as sneezed,

his doctors later told him,

he would not have survived.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/22/us/i
zola-ware-curry-who-stabbed-king-in-1958-dies-at-98.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/22/us/
izola-ware-curry-who-stabbed-king-in-1958-dies-at-98.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Earl Ray (1928-1998) - Martin Luther King killer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marcus Wayne Chenault Jr.        1951-1995

 

(Marcus Wayne Chenault Jr.)

killed the mother

of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

at a Sunday service

in Ebenezer Baptist Church

in Atlanta in 1974

 

(...)

 

Mr. Chenault,

the son of a middle-class

black family

in Dayton, Ohio,

had just been welcomed

to the church

for a morning service

when he rose from his seat

in the front pew,

drew two pistols

and started firing.

 

Alberta King, 70,

was fatally struck

at the church's new organ

as she was playing

"The Lord's Prayer."

 

(...)

 

One woman

among the 400 worshippers

was wounded.

 

At his arraignment,

Mr. Chenault told a magistrate

that he had come to Atlanta

"on a mission,"

and said he decided months earlier

that black ministers were a menace

to black people and must be killed.

 

He also told the police

that his mission was to kill

the Rev. Martin Luther King Sr.,

but he shot Mrs. King instead

because she was close to him.

 

Their son Dr. King,

the civil rights leader,

was assassinated

by an escaped convict,

James Earl Ray,

in Memphis on April 4, 1968.

http://www.nytimes.com/1995/08/22/
obituaries/m-w-chenault-44-gunman-who-killed-mother-of-dr-king.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1995/08/22/
obituaries/m-w-chenault-44-gunman-who-killed-mother-of-dr-king.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther (Michael) King, Sr.        1897-1984

 

In a speech expressing his views

on ‘‘the true mission of the Church’’

Martin Luther King, Sr.

told his fellow clergymen

that they must not forget

the words of God:

 

‘‘The spirit of the Lord is upon me,

because he hath anointed me

to preach the Gospel to the poor.…

 

In this we find we are to do something

about the brokenhearted, poor, unemployed,

the captive, the blind, and the bruised’’

(King, Sr., 17 October 1940).

 

Martin Luther King, Jr.

credited his father

with influencing his decision

to join the ministry, saying:

‘‘He set forth a noble example

that I didn’t [mind] following’’

(Papers 1:363).

 

King, Sr.

was born Michael King

on 19 December 1897,

in Stockbridge, Georgia.

 

The eldest son

of James and Delia King,

King, Sr. attended school

from three to five months a year

at the Stockbridge Colored School.

 

‘‘We had no books,

no materials to write with,

and no blackboard,’’ he wrote,

‘‘But I loved going’’ (King, Sr., 37).

 

King experienced

a number of brutal incidents

while growing up in the rural South,

including witnessing the lynching

of a black man.

 

On another occasion

he had to subdue

his drunken father

who was assaulting

his mother.

 

His mother took the children

to Floyd Chapel Baptist Church

to ‘‘ease the harsh tone of farm life’’

according to King (King, Sr., 26).

 

Michael grew to respect

the few black preachers

who were willing to speak out

against racial injustices,

despite the risk

of violent white retaliation.

 

He gradually developed

an interest in preaching,

initially practicing eulogies

on the family’s chickens.

 

By the end of 1917,

he had decided

to become a minister.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/
encyclopedia/enc_king_martin_luther_michael_sr_1897_1984/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_king_martin_luther_michael_sr_1897_1984/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alberta Williams King        1903-1974

 

Alberta Williams King,

mother of Martin Luther King, Jr.,

was born in Atlanta in 1903,

the only surviving child

of Jennie Celeste Williams

and Adam Daniel Williams,

pastor of Atlanta’s

Ebenezer Baptist Church.

 

King often spoke

of the positive influence his mother

had on his moral development,

deeming her ‘‘the best mother

in the world’’ (Papers 1:161).

In a piece he wrote as a student

at Crozer Theological Seminary,

he described his mother as being

‘‘behind the scene setting forth

those motherly cares,

the lack of which leaves

a missing link in life’’

(Papers 1:360).

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_king_alberta_williams_1903_1974/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_king_alberta_williams_1903_1974/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1995/08/22/
obituaries/m-w-chenault-44-gunman-who-killed-mother-of-dr-king.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alfred Daniel Williams King        1930-1969

 

Although Alfred Daniel King,

called A.D. by family and friends,

lived in the shadows

of his famous brother,

Martin Luther King, Jr.,

he was a participant

in the African American

freedom struggle

often appearing

at his brother’s side

in movements in Atlanta

and Birmingham.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_king_alfred_daniel_williams_1930_1969/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_king_alfred_daniel_williams_1930_1969/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 4, 1968

 

Memphis, Tennessee

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr., 39,

is shot to death in Memphis

by an escaped convict,

James Earl Ray (1928-1998)

 

News of Dr. King’s death

soon spread throughout

the nation.

 

At a campaign rally,

Senator Robert F. Kennedy,

a strong supporter of civil rights

and a Democrat running for president,

commemorated Dr. King in an address.

 

“What we need in the United States

is not division;

 

what we need in the United States

is not hatred;

 

what we need in the United States

is not violence or lawlessness;

 

but love and wisdom,

and compassion toward one another,

and a feeling of justice toward those

who still suffer within our country,

whether they be white or they be black,”

he said.

 

(Just more than

two months later,

Mr. Kennedy

would also be killed

by an assassin’s bullet

after a campaign appearance

in California.)

 

Riots broke out

in many cities

after the fatal shooting

of Dr. King.

 

The Times said

that in Memphis,

the “tragedy

had been followed

by incidents that included

sporadic shooting, fires,

bricks and bottles

thrown at policemen,

and looting that started

in Negro districts

and then spread

over the city.”

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/04/april-4-1968-the-assassination-of-martin-luther-king/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0404.html

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_kings_assassination_4_april_1968/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1968_04_04/

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/james-earl-ray 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_kings_assassination_4_april_1968/

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/03/
insider/the-lone-journalist-on-the-scene-when-king-was-shot-and-the-newsroom-he-rallied.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/24/
business/media/jack-rosenthal-dead-new-york-times-editor.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2013/apr/05/james-early-ray-video

http://register.shelby.tn.us/james_earl_ray/main.php

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/04/
opinion/my-dinner-with-martin-luther-king-jr.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2012/apr/06/
archive-1968-martin-luther-king-non-violence

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/04/
april-4-1968-the-assassination-of-martin-luther-king/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/22/books/22book.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/16/us/
museum-gives-voice-to-doubts-on-dr-king-s-killer.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2002/04/05/us/
a-minister-says-his-father-now-dead-killed-dr-king.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2000/01/17/nyregion/
consensus-king-s-life-if-not-his-death-conspiracy-verdict-splits-some-but-his.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1999/12/09/us/memphis-
jury-sees-conspiracy-in-martin-luther-king-s-killing.html

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/topics/MLK/shooting.pdf

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0404.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,,106511,00.html 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,,106509,00.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The New York Times reporter Earl Caldwell

and Martin Luther King Jr.

at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis

shortly before the assassination on April 4, 1968.

 

CreditBarney Sellers/Memphis Commercial Appeal

 

The Lone Journalist on the Scene

When King Was Shot and the Newsroom He Rallied

NYT        April 3, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/03/
insider/the-lone-journalist-on-the-scene-when-king-was-shot-and-the-newsroom-he-rallied.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl Caldwell (standing next to police officer)

on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel

as Martin Luther King Jr. lies mortally wounded.

 

Caldwell’s room was one floor below.

 

He raced up after he heard the shot.

 

Credit Joseph Louw/The LIFE Images Collection, via Getty Images

 

The Lone Journalist on the Scene

When King Was Shot and the Newsroom He Rallied

NYT        April 3, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/03/
insider/the-lone-journalist-on-the-scene-when-king-was-shot-and-the-newsroom-he-rallied.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr.        1929 - April 4,1968

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/martin-luther-king-jr 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/martin-luther-king

http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html

http://www.nobelprizes.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html

http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/frequentdocs/birmingham.pdf

http://www.stanford.edu/group/King//frequentdocs/clergy.pdf

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan15.html

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0404.html

http://projects.seattletimes.com/mlk/

http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/index.htm

http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/

http://www.time.com/time/photoessays/mlk/

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html#09a

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html#09b

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan15.html

http://www.loc.gov/wiseguide/jan03/kingjr.html

http://www.archives.gov/northeast/nyc/exhibits/mlk.html

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/memphis-v-mlk/

http://www.nps.gov/malu/forteachers/otherresources.htm

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2018/11/02/
417513631/when-boys-cant-be-boys

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/14/
obituaries/dorothy-cotton-rights-champion-and-close-aide-to-king-dies-at-88.html

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?time_continue=9&v=M3ZrBunSPsQ - Obama Foundation - 4 April 2018

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/04/04/
599484639/barack-obama-and-john-lewis-remember-the-work-of-martin-luther-king-jr

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/04/03/
insider/the-lone-journalist-on-the-scene-when-king-was-shot-and-the-newsroom-he-rallied.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2018/apr/04/
martin-luther-king-his-life-and-legacy-in-pictures

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/30/
lens/dr-kings-complex-relationship-with-the-camera.html

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/22/
opinion/martin-luther-king-christmas.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/sep/03/
martin-luther-king-newcastle-university-degree-1967-freedom-city-exhibition

 

 

 

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/08/05/
1966-rock-hits-dr-king-in-chicago-riot/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/04/
arts/bob-fitch-photojournalist-of-civil-rights-era-dies-at-76.html

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/02/22/
lee-friedlanders-civil-rights-photos/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/01/17/
obituaries/martin-luther-king-day-black-leaders-rosa-parks.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/01/15/
463042309/the-accidental-wheelman-of-martin-luther-king-jr

 

 

 

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/
1965-martin-luther-king-jr-leads-walk-in-selma/

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/03/13/
392091406/a-king-speech-youve-never-heard-plus-
your-chance-to-do-archive-sleuthing

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/02/
martin-luther-king-in-london-1964-reflections-on-a-landmark-visit

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/02/
us/sculptor-removes-phrase-from-memorial-to-Martin-Luther-King-Jr.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/16/
opinion/dr-kings-righteous-fury.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2012/aug/24/
martin-luther-king-audio-interview-video

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/aug/24/
martin-luther-king-tape-discovered

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/17/
opinion/kings-forgotten-manifesto.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/jan/14/
martin-luther-king-race

 

 

 

 

http://www.cbsnews.com/elements/2008/03/31/
in_depth_us/timeline3982827_0_content.shtml

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/
americas/us-race-relations-the-enduring-legacy-
of-martin-luther-king-804009.html

 

http://commentisfree.guardian.co.uk/jonathan_david_farley/2008/04/
preventing_the_rise_of_a_messi.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/mar/31/usa.
race

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/jun/28/
highereducation.usa

 

http://www.guardianbookshop.co.uk/BerteShopWeb/
viewProduct.do?ISBN=9780349112985

 

 

 

 

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/04/
april-4-1968-the-assassination-of-martin-luther-king/

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/audioslideshow/2012/jan/16/
gil-scott-heron-holiday-martin-luther-king-day

 

http://www.cagle.com/news/civil-rights-2012/

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/17/us/
memorial-of-martin-luther-king-jr-dedicated-in-washington.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/oct/16/
martin-luther-king-honoured-washington

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/23/us/
23mlk.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/greatspeeches/king/0,,2060106,00.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/dec/24/
arts.usa

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1968/apr/05/usa.
fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1963/aug/29/usa.
fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King at the reception

after the W.E.B. Du Bois Centennial Tribute at Carnegie Hall,

where he gave the keynote speech. 1968.

 

Builder Levy

 

What Martin Luther King Jr. Meant to New York

By John Leland        NYT        Jan. 11, 2018

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2018/01/11/
what-martin-luther-king-jr-meant-to-new-york/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson (L)

and Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (R)

 

Date 03/18/1966

 

Source: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum.

Image Serial Number: A2133-10.

http://photolab.lbjlib.utexas.edu/detail.asp?id=1083

 

Author: Yoichi R. Okamoto, White House Press Office (WHPO)

 

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Martin_Luther_King%2C_Jr._and_Lyndon_Johnson.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King,_Jr.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.

 

Location: US

Date taken: 1957

 

Photographer: Walter Bennett

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time Covers - The 50S

Time cover: 02-18-1957 of Martin Luther King.

Date taken: February 18, 1957

Vol. LXIX No. 7

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/0,9263,7601570218,00.html

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/a0f2ec7dfecb311c.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three portraits of Martin Luther King Jr.
 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/community/
bibliography/022003civilrights/viewcrbib.php

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Jr.

at a rally held in Selma, Alabama,

during marches to Montgomery.

Photograph: Flip Schulke/Corbis

Forty years after the shot rang out,

race fears still haunt the US

The Observer        Paul Harris        30.3.2008

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/30/race.uselections2008

Photo: Time        Caption: Observer    30.3.2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PHOTOGRAPHS BY FLIP SCHULKE/CORBIS

Time

added 12.2.2005

http://www.time.com/time/photoessays/mlk/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 April 1968

 

Memphis, Tennessee

 

Martin Lurther King delivers his last speech

"I've Been to the Mountaintop"        Full text

 

 

 

 

Dr Martin Luther King 1968 Prophetic Last speech Remember

YouTube > Fordefr55

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RzC2DiRy8zI

 

Related

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_ive_been_to_the_mountaintop_3_april_1968/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_ive_been_to_the_mountaintop_3_april_1968/

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
ive_been_to_the_mountaintop/

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oehry1JC9Rk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968

 

Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike

 

 

 

 

 

How Dr. King Changed a Sanitation Worker’s Life | Times Documentaries        NYT        April 4, 2018

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=yHrfi__nGEY&index=9&list=PL4CGYNsoW2iDMMRQRGO02ZDfhEiIUxy9G&t=0s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The night before

his assassination in April 1968,

Martin Luther King told a group

of striking sanitation workers

in Memphis, Tennessee:

 

“We’ve got to give ourselves

to this struggle until the end.

Nothing would be more tragic

than to stop at this point in Memphis.

We’ve got to see it through”

(King, “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop,” 217).

 

King believed

the struggle in Memphis

exposed the need for economic

equality and social justice

that he hoped

his Poor People’s Campaign

would highlight nationally.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_memphis_sanitation_workers_strike_1968/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_memphis_sanitation_workers_strike_1968/

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=yHrfi__nGEY&index=9&list=
PL4CGYNsoW2iDMMRQRGO02ZDfhEiIUxy9G&t=0s - April 4, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968

 

MLK's Poor People Campaign - King died before it started

 

 

 

 

 

In 1968, Poor Americans Came to D.C. To Protest, Some By Mule

 

Fifty years ago photographer and folklorist Roland Freeman

hitched his hopes to a humble caravan of mule-driven wagons.

 

He hadn't gone to school for photography,

but Freeman was inspired

by the courage of the civil rights activists

on the journey from Mississippi to Washington, D.C.

 

His photo project would be the beginning of a long career

documenting the African American community.

 

Video by Ben de la Cruz, Walter Ray Watson,

Nicole Werbeck, Pearl Mak and Keith Jenkins/NPR

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?time_continue=9&v=XO_Oj5tP6dA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"We're coming to Washington

in a poor people's campaign,"

King announced

at the National Cathedral

in Washington, D.C.,

on March 31, 1968.

 

"I was in Marks, Miss.,

the other day,

which is in Quitman County,

the poorest county

in the United States.

 

And I tell you I saw hundreds

of black boys and black girls

walking the streets

with no shoes to wear."

https://www.npr.org/2018/05/13/
610097454/how-a-mule-train-from-marks-miss-kicked-off-mlks-poor-people-campaign

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/19/
lens/photographing-ordinary-life-in-passing.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/pictureshow/2018/06/15/
617364245/in-1968-poor-americans-came-to-d-c-to-protest-some-by-mule

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?time_continue=9&v=XO_Oj5tP6dA - NPR - 15 June 2018

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/05/13/
610097454/how-a-mule-train-from-marks-miss-kicked-off-mlks-poor-people-campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 February 1968

 

Atlanta, Georgia        Ebenezer Baptist Church

 

 

King's

"Drum Major Instinct" sermon,

(...) was an adaptation

of the 1952 homily

‘‘Drum-Major Instincts’’

by J. Wallace Hamilton,

a well-known, liberal,

white Methodist preacher.

 

King encouraged

his congregation

to seek greatness,

but to do so

through service and love.

 

King concluded the sermon

by imagining his own funeral,

downplaying his famous achievements

and emphasizing his heart to do right.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/doc_the_drum_major_instinct/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
doc_the_drum_major_instinct/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_drum_major_instinct_1968/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/02/
us/sculptor-removes-phrase-from-memorial-to-Martin-Luther-King-Jr.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King surrounded by a crowd before his speech

at the United Nations on April 15, 1967.

 

Benedict J. Fernandez/Museum of the City of New York

 

What Martin Luther King Jr. Meant to New York

John Leland        NYT        Jan. 11, 2018

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2018/01/11/
what-martin-luther-king-jr-meant-to-new-york/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 4, 1967

 

Martin Lurther King delivers

his first public antiwar speech,

Beyond Vietnam,”

at New York’s Riverside Church

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1967_04_04/

 

 

 

Dr. King

delivered the address,

known variously

as “Beyond Vietnam”

and “A Time to Break Silence,”

at Riverside Church in Manhattan

on April 4, 1967.

 

“A time comes

when silence is betrayal,”

he said.

 

“And that time has come for us

in relation to Vietnam.”

 

He added: “If we continue,

there will be no doubt in my mind

and in the mind of the world

that we have no honorable intentions

in Vietnam.

 

If we do not stop our war

against the people of Vietnam

immediately,

the world will be left

with no other alternative

than to see this

as some horrible, clumsy

and deadly game

we have decided to play.”

 

The speech,

which articulated

what was then a relatively

unpopular position,

touched off a firestorm.

 

In an editorial titled

“Dr. King’s Disservice to His Cause,”

Life magazine called it

“a demagogic slander

that sounded like a script

for Radio Hanoi.”

 

The National Association

for the Advancement

of Colored People

described the address

as “a serious tactical error.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/22/us/
vincent-harding-civil-rights-author-and-associate-of-dr-king-dies-at-82.html

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/doc_beyond_vietnam/ 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_beyond_vietnam_4_april_1967/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_the_vietnam_war_1961_1975/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/kingweb/liberation_curriculum/pdfs/vietnameditorials.pdf

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/
documentsentry/question_and_answer_period_following_beyond_vietnam_speech/

http://kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1967_04_04/

 

 

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2018/01/11/
what-martin-luther-king-jr-meant-to-new-york/

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/05/
opinion/dr-king-on-the-vietnam-war.html

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/04/
opinion/when-martin-luther-king-came-out-against-vietnam.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/22/
us/vincent-harding-civil-rights-author-and-associate-of-dr-king-dies-at-82.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King writes notes before delivering his “Beyond Vietnam” speech

at Riverside Church. 1967.

 

The Estate of John C. Goodwin

 

What Martin Luther King Jr. Meant to New York

By John Leland        NYT        Jan. 11, 2018

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2018/01/11
/what-martin-luther-king-jr-meant-to-new-york/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1966

 

Civil rights leaders

Floyd B. McKissick,

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

and Stokely Carmichael

participate in voter registration march

after originator James H. Meredith

was shot

 

 

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/fdce1583fcdb2d6a.html

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/1/
newsid_2538000/2538169.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1966

 

Ernest Avants

and two fellow Ku Klux Klansman

abduct and kill

Ben Chester White,

a black farmhand,

in the hope

that the heinousness of the crime

would lure

the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

to Natchez, Miss.

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/21/us/21kornblum.html

http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=2826063&page=4

http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=2826063&page=4

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/17/us/
ernest-avants-72-plotter-against-dr-king.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 9, 1966

 

Martin L. King on voting--outtakes

 

 

In 1966, King turned his sights

toward another kind of march,

a more personal movement

that called on people

in an individual and private way.

 

Standing at a podium

on a damp Sunday

— Mother's Day —

in Kingstree, S.C.,

King told

a crowd of local people

that their struggle

wasn't over.

 

Though Congress

had passed legislation

assuring everyone the right

to vote without interference,

he said, they were only beginning

the battle.

 

King said that people

must make sure

all of their friends and family

register to vote and,

after getting people registered,

must take on "another,

even greater responsibility.

And that is to go out and vote."

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/04/02/
396859918/after-selma-kings-march-on-ballot-boxes

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/04/02/
396859918/after-selma-kings-march-on-ballot-boxes

https://mirc.sc.edu/islandora/object/usc:1157

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King playing pool in Chicago in 1966.

 

Bob Fitch,

via Department of Special Collections,

Stanford University Libraries

 

Bob Fitch, Photojournalist of Civil Rights Era, Dies at 76

NYT        By SAM ROBERTS        MAY 3, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/04/
arts/bob-fitch-photojournalist-of-civil-rights-era-dies-at-76.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 4, 1965

 

King preaches “The American Dream”

 

 

King delivers

the sermon "The American Dream"

to his home congregation in Atlanta.

 

He tells the people

at Ebenezer Baptist Church

that he has a dream that one day

the promise of the Declaration

of Independence will be fulfilled.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1965_07_04/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1965_07_04/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/doc_the_american_dream/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 25, 1965

 

Montgomery, Alabama

 

 

On the steps

of the State Capitol building,

Martin Luther King delivers

his "How Long, Not Long" speech

to 25,000 people

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TAYITODNvlM

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2009/nov/18/
selma-marches-lee-daniels

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Ferry: A Civil Rights Story        Retro Report        NYT        23 May 2015

 

 

 

 

The Ferry: A Civil Rights Story | Retro Report        8 March 2015

 

Weeks before Selma's Bloody Sunday in 1965,

the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

urged residents of Gee's Bend, Ala., to vote,

and fed a continuing fight

over a small ferry that would last for decades.

 

Read the story here: http://nyti.ms/1A92k6g

Visit Retro Report's website: http://www.RetroReport.org

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AIup5K3J5vc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Racial killings

 

February 1965

 

Civil rights activist

Jimmy Lee Jackson (1938-1965)

 

 

On the night

of 18 February 1965,

an Alabama state trooper

shot Jimmie Lee Jackson

in the stomach

as he tried to protect

his mother from being beaten

at Mack’s Café.

 

Jackson,

along with several

other African Americans,

had taken refuge there

from troopers breaking up

a night march

protesting the arrest

of James Orange,

a field secretary

for the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference (SCLC)

in Marion, Alabama.

 

Jackson

died from his wounds

eight days later.

 

Speaking at his funeral,

King called Jackson,

“a martyred hero

of a holy crusade

for freedom

and human dignity”

(King, 3 March 1965).

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_jackson_jimmie_lee_19381965/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_jackson_jimmie_lee_19381965/

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/05/09/
national/main2779979.shtml

http://www.annistonstar.com/opinion/2005/
as-insight-0306-jflemingcol-5c09o1640.htm

http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

 

Washington, DC

 

Nazi Picketing White House Arrival Of Martin Luther King

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 10, 1964

 

Martin Luther King's

Acceptance Speech,

on the occasion of the award

of the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo

 

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-acceptance.html

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
doc_acceptance_speech_at_nobel_peace_prize_ceremony/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1014.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King in London        December 1964

 

 

 

In the pulpit …

Martin Luther King at St Paul’s Cathedral,

London, 6 December 1964.

 

Photograph: Terry Disney/Getty Images

 

Martin Luther King in London, 1964: reflections on a landmark visit

G

Tuesday 2 December 2014        18.52 GMT

Last modified on Wednesday 3 December 2014        00.05 GMT

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/02/
martin-luther-king-in-london-1964-reflections-on-a-landmark-visit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(...) on 6 December,

as he travelled

from the US to Oslo

to collect

the 1964 Nobel peace prize

for his leadership

of the civil rights movement,

King broke his trip

to preach a scholarly sermon

in front of a 3,000-strong congregation

at St Paul’s Cathedral.

 

His evensong address,

The Three Dimensions

of a Complete Life,

is not one of the speeches

best known by the wider public,

but it underpinned

his theological career.

 

It was the sermon

he first preached as his trial address

at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church

in Montgomery in 1954.

 

He subsequently gave versions

of that sermon every year

until his assassination in 1968.

 

St Paul’s,

grand and imposing,

seemed an unlikely

stopping point for a man

of establishment-shaking politics,

but it was the perfect London platform

for King’s sermon.

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/02/
martin-luther-king-in-london-1964-reflections-on-a-landmark-visit

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2014/dec/02/
martin-luther-king-in-london-1964-reflections-on-a-landmark-visit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 January 1964

 

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973)

meets with Civil Rights leaders

 

 

Martin Luther King, Jr.  (1929-1968)

 

 

Whitney Young (1921-1971)

 

 

James Farmer (1920-1999)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

Martin Luther King > "I have a dream" - August 28, 1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 1963

 

Birmingham, Alabama

 

"Letter from Birmingham Jail"        Full text

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/resources/article/
annotated_letter_from_birmingham/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
annotated_letter_from_birmingham/

http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Letter_Birmingham.html

http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-1389

http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/documents/letter_birmingham_jail.pdf

http://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/
martin-luther-king-jrs-letter-from-birmingham-jail/explanation

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/08/
books/harvey-shapiro-poet-of-new-york-and-beyond-dies-at-88.html

 

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/30/
arthur-shores-gentle-giant-of-dynamite-hill-excerpt_n_1837322.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/13/us/
13woods.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King        Speech at the Great March on Detroit        23 June 1963

 

 

 

Martin Luther King, Jr.

speaks to a crowd in Detroit on June 23, 1963.

 

AP

 

Deconstructing Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Dream

by Allison Keyes

 

June 23, 2013        9:00 AM

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/06/23/
194271303/deconstructing-martin-luther-king-jr-s-dream

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two months before

the March on Washington,

King stood before a throng

of 25,000 people

at Cobo Hall in Detroit

to expound upon making

“the American Dream a reality”.

 

King repeatedly exclaimed,

“I have a dream this afternoon”.

 

He articulated the words

of the prophets Amos and Isaiah,

declaring that “justice

will roll down like waters,

and righteousness

like a mighty stream,”

for “every valley shall be exalted,

and every hill and mountain

shall be made low”.

 

As he had done

numerous times

in the previous two years,

King concluded his message

imagining the day

“when all of God’s children,

black men and white men,

Jews and Gentiles,

Protestants and Catholics,

will be able to join hands

and sing with the Negroes

in the spiritual of old:

Free at last! Free at last!

Thank God Almighty,

we are free at last!”.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
doc_speech_at_the_great_march_on_detroit/

 

 

 

 

Parts of King's Detroit speech

may sound familiar

to those who have heard the address

he gave at the March on Washington.

 

But the Detroit speech

was tailored especially

for a city with a long history

of Civil Rights activism.

 

(...)

 

King gave his Detroit speech

just two weeks after NAACP

field secretary Medgar Evers

was assassinated.

 

His speech also came on the heels

of protests in Birmingham, Ala.,

where police chief Bull Connor

ordered police to use

fire hoses and dogs

to break up demonstrations.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/06/23/
194271303/deconstructing-martin-luther-king-jr-s-dream

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
doc_speech_at_the_great_march_on_detroit/

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/06/23/
194271303/deconstructing-martin-luther-king-jr-s-dream

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Q3fosthiFU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1963

 

Birmingham, Alabama

 

Children’s Crusade

 

 

The 1963 campaign

to desegregate

Birmingham, Alabama,

generated national publicity

and federal action

because of the violent response

by local authorities

and the decision

by Martin Luther King, Jr.

and the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference (SCLC)

to recruit children

for demonstrations.

 

The “Children’s Crusade”

added a new dynamic

to the struggle in Birmingham

and was a major factor

in the success of the campaign.

 

Aware that support

for protests in Birmingham

was waning during April 1963,

King and the SCLC looked

for ways to jumpstart

the campaign.

 

When the arrest and jailing of King

did little to attract more protestors,

SCLC staff member James Bevel

proposed recruiting local students,

arguing that while many adults

may be reluctant

to participate in demonstrations

for fear of losing their jobs,

their children had less to lose.

 

King initially had reservations,

but after deliberation he agreed,

hoping for the action to “subpoena

the conscience of the nation

to the judgment seat of morality.”

 

SCLC

and the Alabama Christian Movement

for Human Rights (ACMHR) members

immediately canvassed colleges

and high schools for volunteers

and began training them

on the tactics of nonviolent

direct action.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_childrens_crusade/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_childrens_crusade/

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Moore_%28photographer%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 26, 1963

 

Birmingham, Alabama

 

 

Martin Luther King

is found guilty,

speaks at mass meeting

 

 

King is found guilty

of criminal contempt.

 

He later speaks

at the evening mass meeting,

urging the crowd

to continue the boycott

and the campaign to integrate

worship services.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1963_04_26/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1963_04_26/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 13, 1963

 

Birmingham, Alabama

 

 

Martin Luther King

spends the day

in solitary confinement

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1963_04_13/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1963_04_13/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 12, 1963

 

Birmingham, Alabama

 

 

King and Abernathy

are arrested in Birmingham

 

King and Ralph Abernathy

are arrested for violating

a state circuit court injunction

against protests,

after having led a march

the same day.

 

King is placed

in solitary confinement

in the Birmingham jail

where he will soon write

"Letter From Birmingham Jail."

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1963_04_12/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1963_04_12/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In April 1963

King and the Southern Christia

Leadership Conference (SCLC)

joined with Birmingham,

Alabama’s existing local movement,

the Alabama Christian Movement

for Human Rights (ACMHR),

in a massive direct action campaign

to attack the city’s segregation system

by putting pressure on Birmingham’s

merchants during the Easter season,

the second biggest shopping season

of the year.

 

As ACMHR founder

Fred Shuttlesworth

stated in the group’s

‘‘Birmingham Manifesto,’’

the campaign was

‘‘a moral witness

to give our community

a chance to survive’’

(ACMHR, 3 April 1963).

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_birmingham_campaign/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_birmingham_campaign/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. King talks with police after an assault

at the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

in Birmingham, 1962.

 

James Karales, courtesy of the Estate of James Karales

 

Race, Civil Rights and Photography

By The New York Times        Jan. 18, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/01/18/race-civil-rights-and-photography/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and his daughter Yolanda.

Atlanta, 1962.

 

Dr. King and other civil rights leaders

relied on the power of photographs

to persuade and to motivate change

during the Civil Rights Movement.

 

James Karales,

courtesy of the estate of James Karales

 

Race, Civil Rights and Photography

By The New York Times        Jan. 18, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/01/18/race-civil-rights-and-photography/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27 November 1962

 

I Have a Dream speech - first version

 

 

King’s 55-minute speech

at a high school gymnasium

in Rocky Mount

on 27 November 1962

 

Months before

the Rev Martin Luther King Jr

delivered his famous

I Have a Dream speech

to hundreds of thousands of people

gathered in Washington in 1963,

he fine-tuned his civil rights message

before a much smaller audience

in North Carolina.

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/aug/11/
martin-luther-king-i-have-a-dream-first-recording

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/aug/11/
martin-luther-king-i-have-a-dream-first-recording

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

holds his two-year-old son Martin Luther King III

[ born October 23, 1957 ]

as he stands near a burnt cross

in front of his home in Atlanta.

 

CreditGetty Images, via New-York Historical Society

 

Norman Rockwell’s Vision of F.D.R.’s Four Freedoms

NYT        March 8, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/08/
arts/new-york-historical-society-norman-rockwell-four-freedoms.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1959

 

India trip

 

 

From the early days

of the Montgomery bus boycott,

Martin Luther King, Jr.

referred to India’s Mahatma Gandhi

as ‘‘the guiding light of our technique

of nonviolent social change’’

(Papers 5:231).

 

Following the success

of the boycott in 1956,

King contemplated

traveling to India

to deepen his understanding

of Gandhian principles.

 

That same year,

Jawaharlal Nehru,

India’s prime minister,

made a short visit

to the United States.

 

Although unable

to arrange a meeting with King,

Nehru made inquiries through

his diplomatic representatives

concerning the possibility

of King visiting India in the future.

 

King secured funds for his trip to India

from the Christopher Reynolds Foundation,

the Montgomery Improvement Association,

the Southern Christian Leadership Conference,

and Dexter Avenue Baptist Church.

 

While King made travel plans

from Montgomery,

the co-sponsors of King’s trip,

American Friends Service Committee

and the Gandhi Smarak Nidhi

(Gandhi National Memorial Fund),

headed by Secretary G. Ramachandran,

began arranging for King to meet with

Indian officials and Gandhian activists

during his stay.

 

On 3 February 1959,

King, his wife, Coretta Scott King,

and Lawrence Reddick (1910-1995),

began a five week tour of India.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_kings_trip_to_india/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_kings_trip_to_india/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
590701_my_trip_to_the_land_of_gandhi/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
palm_sunday_sermon_on_mohandas_k_gandhi/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1959_02_03/

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=99480326

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/02/17/AR2009021703040.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harlem    Martin Luther King is stabbed by Izola Ware Curry (1916-2015)        20 September 1958

 

 

 

The letter opener Izola Ware Curry (...)

used to stab the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

protruded from his chest.

 

Vernoll Coleman/New York Daily News

 

Izola Ware Curry, Who Stabbed King in 1958, Dies at 98

By MARGALIT FOX        NYT        MARCH 21, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/22/us/
izola-ware-curry-who-stabbed-king-in-1958-dies-at-98.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During a book signing

at Blumstein’s

Department Store

in Harlem, New York,

King is stabbed

by Izola Ware Curry.

 

He is rushed

to Harlem Hospital

where a team of doctors

successfully remove

a seven-inch letter opener

from his chest.

https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/
king-resources/major-king-events-chronology-1929-1968 

 

(...)

 

At the time of the stabbing,

Dr. King was promoting his book

“Stride Toward Freedom:

The Montgomery Story,”

which recounted

the successful boycott

he helped lead

to desegregate buses

in Montgomery, Ala.

 

His assailant

was a mentally disturbed

black woman

who blamed Dr. King

for her woes.

 

Dr. King forgave her

and asked

that she not be prosecuted.

 

He later learned

that she had been

committed to a hospital

for the criminally insane.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/05/nyregion/
dr-wv-cordice-jr-95-a-surgeon-who-helped-save-dr-king-dies.html

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/resources/article/
king_major_events_chronology_1929_1968/

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/05/
nyregion/dr-wv-cordice-jr-95-a-surgeon-who-helped-save-dr-king-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 1958

 

Montgomery Alabama

 

 

Anglonautes' note:

these three Life photographs by Grey Villet

were taken in 1958 (September ?).

 

They may show

Martin Luther King Jr.

in Mongtomery, Alabama,

where his friend

Ralph Abernathy (1926-1990)

was appearing for a trial.

Photos by Charles Moore

seem to confirm this.
 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Trial Montgomery Alabama Integration

 

Undated - no caption

[ September 1958 ]

 

Photographer: Grey Villet

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/a180faaf02e8542d.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Trial Montgomery Alabama Integration

 

Undated - no caption

[ September 1958 ]

 

Photographer: Grey Villet

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/b60b79c4fef51607.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King Trial Montgomery Alabama Integration

 

Undated - no caption

[ September 1958 ]

 

Photographer: Grey Villet

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/ecf1d61c3dae2dca.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://everyday-i-show.livejournal.com/136142.html

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/pictureshow/2010/03/
charles_moore.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montgomery Story Comic Book        1 December 1957

 

   

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/the_montgomery_story_comic_book/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This comic book was published in 1957

by The Fellowship of the Reconciliation.

http://kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/
documentsentry/the_montgomery_story_comic_book/ 

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
the_montgomery_story_comic_book/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 17, 1957

 

Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom        Washington, DC

 

 

“Give Us the Ballot,”

Address

at the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prayer_Pilgrimage_for_Freedom

http://www.cbsnews.com/elements/2008/03/31/
in_depth_us/timeline3982827_0_content.shtml

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
doc_give_us_the_ballot_address_at_the_prayer_pilgrimage_for_freedom/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/primarydocuments/Vol4/17-May-1957_GiveUsTheBallot.pdf

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/13/arts/ruby-dee-actress-dies-at-91.html
?hp#slideshow/100000002936114/100000002936208

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1957

 

Ghana trip

 

 

In March 1957,

Martin Luther King, Jr.,

and his wife Coretta Scott King

traveled to West Africa

to attend Ghana’s

independence ceremony.

 

King’s voyage was symbolic

of a growing global alliance

of oppressed peoples

and was strategically well timed;

 

his attendance represented

an attempt to broaden

the scope of the civil rights struggle

in the United States on the heels

of the successful

Montgomery bus boycott.

 

King identified

with Ghana’s struggle;

furthermore,

he recognized a strong parallel

between resistance against

European colonialism in Africa

and the struggle against

racism in the United States.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_ghana_trip_1957/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_ghana_trip_1957/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 30, 1956

 

Martin Luther King's house is bombed

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1956_01_30/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

January 27, 1956

 

Martin Luther King

receives a threatening phone call

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1956_01_27/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1954

 

Martin Luther King becomes pastor

of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church

in Montgomery, Alabama

 

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1944
 

 

“The Negro and the Constitution”

On 13 April 1944,

in his junior year at Atlanta's

Booker T. Washington High School,

King, Jr., won an oratorical contest

sponsored by the black Elks.

 

With the runner-up

at Washington High, Hiram Kendall,

he won the right to represent

the school at the statewide contest

held at First Baptist Church

in Dublin, Georgia.

 

Kendall was a runner-up

at the state contest.

 

The theme of both contests was

"The Negro and the Constitution."

 

According to later accounts,

during the bus trip to the contest,

King and his teacher,

Sarah Grace Bradley,

were told by the driver

to surrender their seats

to newly boarding

white passengers.

 

King resisted at first,

but his teacher

finally persuaded him

to leave his seat.

 

They stood for several hours

during the bus ride to Atlanta.

 

King's oration

was published in May 1944

at the end of his junior,

and final, year at Washington High

in the school annual, The Cornellian.

 

More polished than other pieces

that King wrote as a teenager,

the essay probably

benefited from adult editing

and from King's

awareness of similar orations.

 

Citing the experiences

of the black opera singer

Marian Anderson as an example,

the oration outlines the contradictions

between the nation's biblical faith

and constitutional values

and the continuing problem

of racial discrimination.

 

But the conclusion is marked

by a hopeful rhetorical flourish:

"My heart throbs anew in the hope

that inspired by the example of Lincoln,

imbued with the spirit of Christ,

[America] will cast down

the last barrier to perfect freedom,"

said the young King.

 

"And I with my brother

of blackest hue possessing at last

my rightful heritage

and holding my head erect,

may stand beside the Saxon--a Negro--

and yet a man!"

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/doc_440500_000/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/doc_440500_000/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History > USA

 

Martin Luther King Jr.

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

"I have a dream"    August 28,1963

 

 

21st century / 20th century > Kennedy dynasty

 

 

20th century > 1940s-1970s > Civil rights era

 

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

Slavery, Racism, Civil war, Abraham Lincoln

 

 

18th / 19th century

 

 

19th century > Emancipation Proclamation - 1863

 

 

British Empire / UK > India > 20th century

 

 

British empire / UK > slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations, racism, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

New York Times > Disunion: The Civil War

Disunion revisits and reconsiders

America’s most perilous period

— using contemporary accounts, diaries, images

and historical assessments to follow

the Civil War as it unfolded.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/10/29/
opinion/20101029-civil-war.html

 

 

 

 

New York Times > Civil war timeline

 

This timeline tracks the posts

by contributors to the Disunion series.

Contemporary accounts, diaries, images

and historical assessments follow the Civil War as it unfolded.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/10/29/opinion/20101029-civil-war.html

 

 

 

 

Slavery and the Making of America > Timeline

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/index.html

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress > The African American Odyssey: A Quest for Full Citizenship

http://international.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King > Timeline

http://www.cbsnews.com/elements/2008/03/31/in_depth_us/timeline3982827_0_content.shtml

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress > Civil rights era

http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/naacp/civilrightsera/Pages/default.aspx

 

 

 

 

Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute

Major King Events Chronology: 1929-1968

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/resources/article/king_major_events_chronology_1929_1968/

 

 

 

 

The Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr.

Remembering Key Addresses, Sermons by the Civil Rights Leader

http://www.npr.org/news/specials/march40th/speeches.html

 

 

 

 

Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

http://www.nps.gov/malu/forteachers/otherresources.htm