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History > 20th century > USA > Civil rights era > Timeline in pictures > 1920s-1970s

 

 

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson (L)

meets with Martin Luther King, Jr. (R)

in the White House Cabinet Room

Date: 03/18/1966

 

Source: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum.

Image Serial Number: A2134-2A.

http://photolab.lbjlib.utexas.edu/detail.asp?id=18256

Author: Yoichi R. Okamoto

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Martin_Luther_King%2C_Jr._and_Lyndon_Johnson_2.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King,_Jr.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edgar Ray Killen        1925-2017

 

former Klansman

who was sentenced

to a 60-year prison term in 2005

for arranging the murders

of three young civil rights workers

outside Philadelphia, Miss., in 1964

during the Freedom Summer drive

to register Southern black voters

 

(...)

 

Mr. Killen was convicted

of state manslaughter charges

41 years to the day

after James Earl Chaney, 21,

a black man from Meridian, Miss.,

and two white New Yorkers,

Andrew Goodman, 20,

and Michael Schwerner, 24,

disappeared in a death trap

set by a local deputy sheriff

and a gang of his fellow

Ku Klux Klansmen.

 

He was prosecuted

in one of the South’s

major “atonement” trials,

in which the Mississippi authorities

revisited civil rights-era atrocities.

 

He was convicted

of a crime that galvanized

the civil rights movement,

stamped the town of Philadelphia

as an outpost of terror

and inspired the 1988

Hollywood movie

“Mississippi Burning,”

 

Mr. Killen

was a founding member

of the Klan in the Philadelphia area

and its chief recruiter,

according to the F.B.I.

 

He had been among

18 men tried in 1967

on federal charges

of conspiring to violate

the civil rights

of Mr. Chaney,

Mr. Goodman

and Mr. Schwerner.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/12/
obituaries/edgar-ray-killen-convicted-in-64-killings-of-rights-worker-dies-at-92.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/12/
obituaries/edgar-ray-killen-convicted-in-64-killings-of-rights-worker-dies-at-92.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/01/12/
577664811/edgar-ray-killen-dies-klansman-behind-civil-rights-workers-murders-in-1964

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40 years on,

Mississippi Burning case

finally reaches trial        2005

 

Forty years

after three civil rights workers

were killed on a dirt road in Mississippi

on a night that came to symbolise

the racial hate of the American south,

an elderly leader of the Ku Klux Klan

appeared in court yesterday

to be formally charged

with their murder.

 

In proceedings

interrupted by a bomb threat,

Edgar Ray Killen,

appeared handcuffed

and in an orange prison jump suit

to plead not guilty

to three counts of murder.

 

(...) Killen was a preacher

and a local Klan leader

in Neshoba County, Mississippi

when the killings took place

in 1964.

 

The FBI identified him

as the ringleader of the gang

that ran the three civil rights workers

off of a lonely road, killed them,

and hid their corpses

in an earthen dam.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/08/usa.
suzannegoldenberg

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2018/01/12/
577664811/edgar-ray-killen-dies-klansman-behind-civil-rights-workers-murders-in-1964

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/us/
marcus-d-gordon-judge-in-mississippi-burning-case-dies-at-84.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/22/us/
former-klansman-guilty-of-manslaughter-in-1964-deaths.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/08/
usa.suzannegoldenberg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kenneth Clark        1914-2005

 

US psychologist

whose work helped end

school segregation

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/may/06/
guardianobituaries.usa

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/may/06/
guardianobituaries.usa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A 1969 fall fashion show

at a women’s retailer, Tenenbaum’s of Greenville,

in the Mississippi Delta.

 

Credit D. Gorton

 

Photographing the White South in the Turbulence of the 1960s

Doy Gorton, a son of the Mississippi Delta

who joined the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee,

returned to Mississippi to embark on a project

photographing his fellow white Southerners.

 

NYT        Sept. 13, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/13/
lens/photographing-the-white-south-in-the-turbulence-of-the-1960s.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poor people campaign / march    1968

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 11, 1968

 

President Lyndon Johnson signs

the Civil Rights Act of 1968 / Fair Housing Act,

prohibiting discrimination

in the sale, rental,

and financing of housing

 

 

https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/fair-housing-act

https://www.justice.gov/crt/fair-housing-act-2

 

 

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/15/
fyi/main2359504.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 4, 1968

 

Martin Luther King (1929-1968)

is shot dead

by James Earl Ray (1928-1998)

in Memphis, Tennessee


 

 

 

 

1968 King Assassination Report (CBS News)

 

Walter Cronkite

had almost finished broadcasting the "CBS Evening News"

when he received word of Martin Luther King's assassination.

 

His report detailed the shooting

and the nation's reaction to the tragedy.

(CBSNews.com)

 

YouTube

http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=cmOBbxgxKvo&feature=related

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/10/newsid_2516000/2516725.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/4/newsid_2453000/2453987.stm

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/20/
opinion/20Lafayette.html

http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/
remembering-martin-luther-king-as-a-man-not-a-saint/2011/04/01/
AFvQjTXC_story.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/24/us/
24kershaw.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/06/
opinion/06branch.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/30/
race.usa

http://www.cbsnews.com/sections/civilrights/main273.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/23/
newsid_2914000/2914267.stm

 

http://www.cnn.com/US/9804/03/king.1968/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Tennessee National Guard fixed bayonets

on a march by Memphis sanitation workers and supporters.

1968.

 

Bettmann Collection/Getty Images

 

A Look at the Heart-Wrenching Moments From Equal Rights Battles

By Evelyn Nieves        NYT        Dec. 14, 2017

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2017/12/14/
a-look-at-the-heart-wrenching-moments-from-equal-rights-battles/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968

 

1,300 black men

from the Memphis Department

of Public Works

went on strike

after a malfunctioning truck

crushed two garbage collectors

to death.

https://www.npr.org/2018/01/15/
578176756/honoring-memphis-sanitation-workers-who-went-on-strike-in-1968

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/01/15/
578176756/honoring-memphis-sanitation-workers-who-went-on-strike-in-1968

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More than 20 civil rights cases

have been successfully

prosecuted since 1994,

including the 2005 conviction

of Edgar Ray Killen, 85,

one of the Klansmen

responsible for the 1964 deaths

of three civil rights workers,

James Chaney, Andrew Goodman

and Michael Schwerner - 2010

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/us/24rights.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/21/us/mississippi-
ends-inquiry-into-1964-killing-of-3-civil-rights-workers.html

http://www.ago.state.ms.us/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/
DOJ-Report-to-Mississippi-Attorney-General-Jim-Hood.pdf

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/29/us/
marcus-d-gordon-judge-in-mississippi-burning-case-dies-at-84.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/us/
24rights.html

http://movies.nytimes.com/2010/08/13/
movies/13neshoba.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/22/us/
former-klansman-guilty-of-manslaughter-in-1964-deaths.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Supreme Court

said no state could prohibit

mixed-race marriages because

“marriage is one

of the ‘basic civil rights of man.’ ”

- June 12, 1967

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/10/
opinion/president-obamas-moment.html

 

 

 

U.S. Supreme Court

LOVING v. VIRGINIA, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)

388 U.S. 1

LOVING ET UX. v. VIRGINIA.

APPEAL FROM THE SUPREME COURT

OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA.

No. 395.

Argued April 10, 1967.

Decided June 12, 1967.

 

 

Virginia's statutory scheme

to prevent marriages

between persons solely

on the basis of racial classifications

held to violate the Equal Protection

and Due Process Clauses

of the Fourteenth Amendment.

http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=388&invol=1

 

 

http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=388&invol=1

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/388/1

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/10/
opinion/president-obamas-moment.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sammy Davis Jr. (born Samuel George Davis, Jr.)        1925-1990

 

 

 

RatPac Press & Running Press (The Perseus Books Group)

 

Rat Pack's Sammy Davis Jr. Lives On Through Daughter's Stories

NPR        May 08, 2014        12:57 PM ET

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/08/
310700493/rat-packs-sammy-davis-jr-lives-on-through-daughters-storie

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In his own words,

Sammy Davis, Jr.

was "the only black, Puerto Rican,

one-eyed, Jewish entertainer

in the world."

 

His daughter, Tracey Davis,

shares memories and details

of his life in her new book,

Sammy Davis Jr.:

A Personal Journey

with My Father.

 

It's based on conversations

Davis had with her father

as he battled throat cancer

near the end of his life.

 

He described his start

in vaudeville at 3 years old

where he was billed

as an adult midget.

 

"He didn't have

the traditional family life,"

Davis tells NPR's

Celeste Headlee.

 

"He was always

working, working, working,

and trying to become famous."

 

She says that even after making it,

"he was scared that it could

be taken away at any minute."

 

Sammy Davis Jr.

was frank about the racial prejudice

that he suffered both

during his army service

and his time in show business.

 

It also shadowed his family life.

 

He married

Swede May Britt Wilkens in 1960

— a time when interracial marriage

was forbidden by law in 31 states.

 

They both converted to Judaism.

 

As his daughter grew up,

she remembers "there [were] times

that a swastika was painted somewhere

or the N-word was written on a car."

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/08/
310700493/rat-packs-sammy-davis-jr-lives-on-through-daughters-stories

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/05/08/
310700493/rat-packs-sammy-davis-jr-lives-on-through-daughters-stories

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1967

 

Racial tensions in Cambridge, Maryland

 

 

The small town of Cambridge, Md.,

went up in flames (...) this summer.

 

A speech

by black activist H. Rap Brown

helped incite unrest there.

 

But the town's problems

were rooted in a painful history

of racial discrimination.

 

(...)

 

In the summer of 1967,

the racial tensions

that had been simmering for years

boiled over in a paroxysm of violence

across the country.

 

While there had been riots

in African-American

neighborhoods before

— most notably

in the Watts section

of Los Angeles in 1965 —

the long, hot summer of 1967

saw fire-bombings, looting

and confrontations with police

in more than 150 cities and towns,

from Hartford to Tampa

and Cincinnati to Buffalo.

 

The worst of the unrest

was in Detroit and Newark, N.J.

— big cities

where African-Americans

set fires and looted businesses

in their own neighborhoods,

traded gunfire with police

and otherwise

vented their frustration

at the slow pace of social change

three years after passage

of the Civil Rights Act.

 

Less well-remembered

are the many small cities

and rural towns

that were swept up

in the strife,

places like Plainfield, N.J.,

and Cambridge, Md.

 

Cambridge,

90 miles

from the nation's capital,

quickly drew the attention

of federal authorities

at the highest level.

 

It became a place

where small-town life,

small-town attitudes

and small-town troubles

intersected

with national politics.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=12420016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=12420016 -
Updated August 1, 2007     Published July 29, 2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1967

 

Race riots engulf Detroit and Milwaukee,

after similar disturbances

in Los Angeles, Newark and Chicago

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1966,

Martin Luther King Jr.

traveled to Chicago

with a mission

to expand

the Civil Rights Movement

from the South to the North.

 

King led

what became known

as the Chicago Freedom Movement,

focusing on racial

discrimination in housing

as well as discriminatory practices

by employers.

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/14/
481794431/the-chicago-freedom-movement-then-and-now

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/18/
481456509/when-king-came-to-chicago-see-the-rare-images-of-his-campaign-in-color

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/14/
481794431/the-chicago-freedom-movement-then-and-now

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Watts riots, LA    15 March 1966 / August 11-16, 1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1965

 

The Negro Family:

The Case For National Action,

also known as the Moynihan Report,

named after future U.S. Senator

Daniel Patrick Moynihan

- released March 1965

 

http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/webid-meynihan.htm

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/29/
opinion/29Patterson.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Queen killing        Fayette, Miss.        Aug. 8, 1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In August 1965,

the civil rights movement

was changing the country.

 

Just two days

before Queen was shot,

President Lyndon Johnson

signed the Voting Rights Act

into law.

 

Still, in Jefferson County,

where Fayette is located,

blacks outnumbered whites

3 to 1.

 

But only one black person

was registered to vote,

according to a report

by the U.S. Justice Department.

http://www.npr.org/2013/05/03/
172594513/justice-in-the-segregated-south-a-new-look-at-an-old-killing

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2013/05/03/
172594513/justice-in-the-segregated-south-a-new-look-at-an-old-killing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 14, 1965

 

Jackson, Miss.

 

demonstratation

against a special legislative meeting

called by the governor

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/13/
opinion/remembering-a-moment-of-terror-in-mississippi.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/13/
opinion/remembering-a-moment-of-terror-in-mississippi.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

 

Racial killings

 

Civil rights activist

Jimmy Lee Jackson (1938-1965)

 

 

On the night

of 18 February 1965,

an Alabama state trooper

shot Jimmie Lee Jackson

in the stomach

as he tried

to protect his mother

from being beaten

at Mack’s Café.

 

Jackson, along with several

other African Americans,

had taken refuge there

from troopers breaking up

a night march

protesting the arrest

of James Orange,

a field secretary

for the Southern Christian

Leadership Conference (SCLC)

in Marion, Alabama.

 

Jackson died

from his wounds

eight days later.

 

Speaking at his funeral,

King called Jackson,

“a martyred hero of a holy crusade

for freedom and human dignity”

(King, 3 March 1965).

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_jackson_jimmie_lee_19381965/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/
encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_jackson_jimmie_lee_19381965/

http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-2011

 

 

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/05/09/
national/main2779979.shtml

 

http://www.annistonstar.com/opinion/2005/
as-insight-0306-jflemingcol-5c09o1640.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1965

 

Nazi Picketing White House Arrival Of Martin Luther King


 

 

 

Nazi Picketing White House Arrival Of Martin Luther King

Date taken: 1965

 

Photographer: Francis Miller

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Voting Rights Act    6 August 1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alabama March from Selma to Montgomery / "Bloody Sunday"    7 March 1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 21, 1965

 

Malcolm X is shot dead in Harlem

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 July 1964

 

Civil Rights Act of 1964

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 A demonstrator clashed with a policeman

during a civil rights protest in Nashville in 1964.

 

Credit Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

 

Waiting for a Perfect Protest?

SEPT. 1, 2017        NYT

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/01/
opinion/civil-rights-protest-resistance.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Clifford Vaughs, SNCC photographer,

is arrested by the National Guard.” 1964.

 

The Menil Collection, Houston,

gift of Edmund Carpenter and Adelaide de Menil.

 

Danny Lyon/Magnum Photos

 

Houston’s Young Curators Look at Culture and Environment

By Jonathan Blaustein        NYT        May. 17, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/
menil-root-shift-houstons-young-curators-look-at-culture-and-environment/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Freedom Summer        1964

 

 

Although the Student Nonviolent

Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

had labored for civil rights

in rural Mississippi since 1961,

the organization found that intense

and often violent resistance

by segregationists

in rural areas of Mississippi

would not allow for the kind

of direct action campaigns

that been successful in urban areas

such as Montgomery and Birmingham.

 

The 1964 Freedom Summer project

was designed to draw the nation’s attention

to the violent oppression experienced

by Mississippi blacks who attempted

to exercise their constitutional rights,

and to develop a grassroots

freedom movement

that could be sustained long after

student activists left Mississippi.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_freedom_summer_1964/

 

 

 

(the) SNC

(popularly pronounced snick)

[ Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee ]

was sending hundreds

of black and white volunteers

to the South to teach, set up clinics

and register disenfranchised

black Southerners.

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/11/16/us/
stokely-carmichael-rights-leader-who-coined-black-power-dies-at-57.html

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_freedom_summer_1964/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1998/11/16/us/
stokely-carmichael-rights-leader-who-coined-black-power-dies-at-57.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nation of Islam        Black separatist movement        Elijah Muhammad

 

 

Muhammad,

the Nation of Islam leader,

preached that integration

and intermarriage were wrong

and that white people were devils.

 

It was an idea

Ali defended

in a 1971 TV interview.

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/04/
171025748/boxer-muhammad-ali-the-greatest-of-all-time-dies-at-74

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/06/04/
171025748/boxer-muhammad-ali-the-greatest-of-all-time-dies-at-74

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White supremacist violence

during the civil rights era

 

 

Former Ku Klux Klansman

James Ford Seale

[ 1934 or 1935 – 2011 ]

was convicted

on federal kidnapping charges

more than 40 years

after the abduction,

torture and drowning

of two black teenagers

near the Mississippi-

Louisiana border

in 1964

 

[ ... ]

 

Mr. Moore, a sawmill worker,

and Mr. Dee, a college student,

were 19 when they disappeared

on May 2, 1964,

last seen hitchhiking on a highway

near Meadville, Miss.

 

Two months later,

on July 12,

a fisherman spotted

Mr. Moore’s body

in a Mississippi River backwater

called the Old River.

 

Mr. Dee was found

the next day.

 

[ ... ]

 

According to F.B.I. reports,

the Klan believed

that Mr. Moore and Mr. Dee

were Black Muslims

plotting an armed uprising.

 

The two were taken deep into

the nearby Homochitto

National Forest,

where they were tied to trees

and whipped.

 

They were then driven

across the state line to Louisiana,

where they were tied to an engine block

and thrown into the river with tape

over their mouths.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/05/us/05seale.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/05/us/05seale.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/11/race.usa

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/25/us/25klan.html

http://www.clarionledger.com/apps/pbcs.dll/gallery
?Site=D0&Date=20070124&Category=NEWS&ArtNo=701240802&Ref=PH

http://coldcases.org/cases/henry-dee-and-charles-moore-case

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


March 1964

 

Racial killings        Jacksonville, Fla

 

Johnnie Mae Chappell is shot dead

 

 

On the evening

of March 23, 1964,

Chappell, a mother of 10,

had walked to buy ice cream

for her children in Jacksonville, Fla.

 

When she got home,

she realized she’d dropped

her pocketbook.

 

With the help of friends,

she retraced her steps

along New Kings Road.

 

A carload of white men drove by

with a gun on the front seat.

 

One of them had earlier declared,

“Let’s get a n—–.”

 

J.W. Rich picked up the gun

and fired out the window,

hitting Chappell.

 

“I’ve been shot,”

Chappell cried out

to those around her.

 

She died on the way

to the hospital.

http://blogs.clarionledger.com/jmitchell/tag/johnnie-mae-chappell/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/us/24rights.html

http://blogs.clarionledger.com/jmitchell/tag/johnnie-mae-chappell/

http://www.sptimes.com/News/040500/State/Remembering_Mama.shtml

http://www.bardofthesouth.com/the-murder-of-johnnie-mae-chappell-a-forgotten-civil-rights-story/

http://www.sptimes.com/News/040500/State/Remembering_Mama.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964

 

Racial killings

 

 

Frank Morris,

a black shopkeeper,

is burnt to death in Louisiana

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/nov/30/
ku-klux-klan-linked-murder 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/us/
24rights.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 10, 1964

 

 

Martin Luther King's

Acceptance Speech,

on the occasion of the award

of the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo

 

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-acceptance.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1014.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

President Lyndon Baines Johnson    1908-1973

 

36th President of the United States    1963-1969

 

 

President Lyndon Johnson

enacts the Civil Rights Bill

in the United States,

officially ending segregation

in the South        July 2 1964

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_johnson_lyndon_baines_1908_1973/

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/04/opinion/04rich.html

http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-11-17-lbj-tapes_x.htm

http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/lj36.html

http://www.archives.gov/research/civil-rights.html

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/15/fyi/main2359504.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/2/newsid_3787000/3787809.stm

http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=97

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/04/11/
301820334/lbj-carried-cotulla-with-him-in-civil-rights-fight

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/30/
opinion/sunday/dignity-is-a-constitutional-principle.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/us/
politics/robert-l-hardesty-speechwriter-for-johnson-dies-at-82.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/26/
sunday-review/at-gettysburg-johnson-marked-memorial-day-and-the-future.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1964/jul/03/usa.fromthearchive

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10816FD39581B7A93C6A9178CD85F408685F9

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0F1EF93B5F147A93C1A9178CD85F408685F9

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00E11F93B5F147A93C1A9178CD85F408685F9

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0910FA3B5B1B728DDDA00994DE405B848AF1D3

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10C13FA3B5B1B728DDDA00994DE405B848AF1D3

http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30B15F9345E147A93C3A8178DD85F408685F9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 21, 1964

 

civil rights workers

James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner

are murdered by Ku Klux Klan members

in Philadelphia, Mississippi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 January 1964

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973)

meets with Civil Rights leaders

 

Martin Luther King, Jr.  (1929-1968)

 

Whitney Young (1921-1971)

 

James Farmer (1920-1999)

 

 

 

 

President Lyndon B. Johnson

meets with Civil Rights leaders Martin Luther King, Jr., Whitney Young, James Farmer

L to R: Martin Luther King, Jr., President Lyndon B. Johnson, Whitney Young, James Farmer

Date 18 January 1964 (1964-01-18)

 

Source: Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum.

Image Serial Number: W425-21.

http://photolab.lbjlib.utexas.edu/detail.asp?id=9853

 

Author Yoichi R. Okamoto

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lyndon_Johnson_meeting_with_civil_rights_leaders.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American_Civil_Rights_Movement_(1955%E2%80%931968)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Racial killings         Birmingham, Alabama        Sep. 15, 1963

 

 

 

“One of the four girls murdered by a bomb

in the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama.”

1963.

 

The Menil Collection, Houston,

gift of Edmund Carpenter and Adelaide de Menil.

Danny Lyon/Magnum Photos

 

Houston’s Young Curators Look at Culture and Environment

By Jonathan Blaustein        NYT        May. 17, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/
menil-root-shift-houstons-young-curators-look-at-culture-and-environment/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On 15 September 1963,

the Ku Klux Klan

planted dynamite

in the basement

of the 16th Street Baptist church

in Birmingham, Alabama,

a church that previously

had been the headquarters

for Martin Luther King’s

anti-segregationist marches.

 

The bombing

killed four girls

getting ready

for Sunday service

– Carol Denise McNair, 11,

and Addie Mae Collins,

Cynthia Wesley

and Carole Robertson,

all 14.

 

Within hours of the bombing,

across the city,

two African American boys,

Virgil Ware, 13,

and James Johnny Robinson, 16,

were murdered by two white men

returning from a segregation rally.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/oct/09/
dawoud-bey-the-birmingham-project-photo-series

 

 

 

Four young girls

attending Sunday school

are killed in the bombing

of the Sixteenth Street

Baptist Church

 

Only one man,

Robert E. Chambliss,

a member

of the Ku Klux Klan,

(was) convicted, in 1977.

 

(a) new investigation

led to the conviction

of two other Klansmen,

Thomas Blanton Jr.

and Bobby Frank Cherry.

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/13/us/13woods.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0915.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/oct/09/
dawoud-bey-the-birmingham-project-photo-series

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/08/03/
488511801/a-legacy-of-pain-birmingham-church-bomber-is-denied-parole

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/14/us/
eugene-c-patterson-editor-and-civil-rights-crusader-dies-at-89.html

http://www.poynter.org/2013/
a-flower-for-the-graves/4761/ 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/13/us/
13woods.html

 

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/15/
fyi/main2359504.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 28, 1963

 

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

Martin Luther King Jr. > "I have a dream"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23 June 1963

 

Martin Luther King

Speech at the Great March on Detroit

 

 

Two months

before the March on Washington,

King stood before a throng

of 25,000 people at Cobo Hall in Detroit

to expound upon making

“the American Dream a reality”.

 

King repeatedly exclaimed,

“I have a dream this afternoon”.

 

He articulated the words

of the prophets Amos and Isaiah,

declaring that

“justice will roll down like waters,

and righteousness like a mighty stream,”

for “every valley shall be exalted,

and every hill and mountain

shall be made low”.

 

As he had done numerous times

in the previous two years,

King concluded his message

imagining the day

“when all of God’s children,

black men and white men,

Jews and Gentiles,

Protestants and Catholics,

will be able to join hands

and sing with the Negroes

in the spiritual of old:

Free at last! Free at last!

Thank God Almighty,

we are free at last!”.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/
documentsentry/doc_speech_at_the_great_march_on_detroit/

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
doc_speech_at_the_great_march_on_detroit/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 12, 1963

 

NAACP leader Medgar Evers

is murdered in Jackson, Mississippi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 June 1963

 

Kennedy’s civil rights speech

 

 

An epochal moment

for civil rights in a single day

 

three seminal events

– a standoff with Alabama's governor,

a presidential speech

and the murder of Medgar Evers –

left an indelible mark

on American history (...)

 

In the early morning of 11 June 1963,

Attorney General Robert Kennedy

examined maps of the University

of Alabama's Tuscaloosa campus

as his three young children

played by his feet.

 

Within 18 hours,

his brother, the president,

had given an impromptu

national address on civil rights,

the Alabama governor

had confronted the federal authorities

on national television and blinked,

and one of the movement's

most prominent leaders

had been gunned down

outside his home.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/11/civil-rights-anniversary-11-june-1963

 

 

 

 

June 11, 1963,

may not be a widely

recognized date these days,

but it might have been

the single most important day

in civil rights history.

 

That morning,

Gov. George Wallace,

in an effort to block the integration

of the University of Alabama,

made his futile

“stand at the schoolhouse door.”

 

That evening,

Boston N.A.A.C.P. leaders

engaged in their first public confrontation

with Louise Day Hicks,

the chairwoman

of the Boston School Committee,

over de facto

public school segregation,

beginning a decade-long struggle

that would boil over

into spectacular violence

during the early 1970s.

 

And just after midnight

in Jackson, Miss.,

a white segregationist

murdered

the civil rights leader

Medgar Evers.

 

But the most important event

was one that almost didn’t happen:

a hastily arranged speech

that evening by

President John F. Kennedy.

 

Kennedy had dabbled

with the idea of going on TV

should the Alabama crisis

drag out,

so when it ended,

his staff assumed

the plan was off.

 

But that afternoon

he surprised them

by calling the three networks

and personally requesting airtime

at 8 p.m.

 

He told his speechwriter

Theodore Sorensen

to start drafting the text,

but shortly before he went on air

the president was still editing it.

 

The president

had been routinely criticized

by black leaders

for being timid on civil rights,

and no one knew just what to expect

when the cameras started filming.

 

Kennedy began slowly

and in a matter-of-fact manner,

with an announcement

that the National Guard

had peacefully enrolled

two black students

at the University of Alabama

over Wallace’s vociferously

racist objections.

 

But he quickly spun that news

into a plea for national unity

behind what he, for the first time,

called a “moral issue.”

 

It seems obvious today

that civil rights

should be spoken of

in universal terms,

but at the time

many white Americans

still saw it

as a regional,

largely political question.

 

And yet here

was the leader of the country,

asking “every American,

regardless of where he lives,”

to “stop and examine

his conscience.”

 

Then he went further.

 

Speaking during the centennial

of the Emancipation Proclamation

— an anniversary

he had assiduously

avoided commemorating,

earlier that year —

Kennedy eloquently

linked the fate

of African-American citizenship

to the larger question

of national identity and freedom.

 

America,

“for all its hopes

and all its boasts,”

observed Kennedy,

“will not be fully free

until all its citizens

are free.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/11/opinion/kennedys-civil-rights-triumph.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/11/
opinion/kennedys-civil-rights-triumph.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/11/
civil-rights-anniversary-11-june-1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 1963

 

Mary Hamilton, The Woman Who Put The 'Miss' In Court

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civil rights protests

in Alabama

hit a crescendo

in the spring of 1963.

 

In Gadsden,

a factory town

northeast of Birmingham,

police arrested Hamilton

and other demonstrators.

 

At a hearing that June,

the court referred to her

as "Mary."

 

"And she just would not

answer the judge

until he called her

'Miss Hamilton.'

 

And he refused.

So he found her

in contempt of court,"

Michaels says.

 

So Mary Hamilton

was thrown in jail and fined $50.

 

The NAACP took the case

that eventually appealed

to the U.S. Supreme Court,

which ruled the following year

in Hamilton's favor.

 

In other words,

the ruling decided

that everyone in court

deserves titles of courtesy,

regardless of race or ethnicity.

 

Michaels says Hamilton

was immensely proud

of the case.

 

"I mean, a Supreme Court case,

you know, decided for you.

Are you kidding?

This is a big deal," she says.

 

It's a big deal for a person,

but it's a footnote

in the history books.

 

And when it comes

to civil rights history,

it's the names of men such as

Martin Luther King Jr.

or Ralph Abernathy

that are mostly remembered.

 

Women don't get much billing

beyond Rosa Parks and a few others.

 

Historian Tara White

researches women

in the civil rights movement.

 

She says part of the reason

is that in that time period,

women just weren't

in prominent roles.

 

Journalists compounded that

by gravitating to male leaders.

 

But White says without women,

there would have been no movement.

 

"The majority of the folks

who were doing

the day-to-day work

were women.

 

The majority of the people

who were participating in protest marches

and those kinds of things were women,"

White says.

 

White says Hamilton

wasn't just bumping up

against racial attitudes.

 

Her behavior in court

was not what the South

expected of a lady.

 

"Lower class, loose women

call attention to themselves.

Real ladies don't do that,"

White says of the stereotype.

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/07/12/
198012536/summer-of-1963-miss-mary-hamilton

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/11/30/
567177501/when-miss-meant-so-much-more-how-one-woman-fought-alabama-and-won

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/07/12/
198012536/summer-of-1963-miss-mary-hamilton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In spring 1963,

African American civil rights

activists in Alabama

started the Birmingham campaign,

a series of sit-ins,

boycotts and marches

against segregation laws.

 

The peaceful demonstrations

were met with violence, teargas

and police dogs.

 

The events were a turning point

in the civil rights movement,

making front-page news

around the world.

 

The Observer dispatched

photographer Colin Jones

to cover the story

and capture the activism

centred around

the 16th Street Baptist church.

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2018/may/12/
unseen-photographs-of-civil-rights-conflict-in-birmingham-alabama-1963

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2018/may/12/
unseen-photographs-of-civil-rights-conflict-in-birmingham-alabama-1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White supremacist city commissioner of public safety,

Theophilus Eugene ‘Bull’ Connor.

 

On 3 May, the day after the demonstrations began,

Connor ordered the use of high-pressure fire hoses

and police attack dogs on the young protesters.

 

The resulting images helped

swing opinion in favour of civil rights legislation.

Connor remained unrepentant for the rest of his days

 

 

Unseen photographs of civil rights conflict

in Birmingham, Alabama, 1963

 

In spring 1963,

African American civil rights activists in Alabama

started the Birmingham campaign,

a series of sit-ins, boycotts and marches

against segregation laws.

 

The peaceful demonstrations

were met with violence, teargas and police dogs.

 

The events were a turning point in the civil rights movement,

making front-page news around the world.

 

The Observer dispatched photographer Colin Jones

to cover the story and capture the activism

centred around the 16th Street Baptist church.

 

Many of these images,

discovered in the Observer’s picture archive,

have never before been published.

 

G        Sat 12 May 2018        13.34 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/gallery/2018/may/12/unseen-photographs-of-civil-rights-conflict-in-birmingham-alabama-1963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A civil rights demonstrator being attacked by a police dog

in Birmingham, Ala., in 1963.

 

Bill Hudson/Associated Press

 

The Art of the Protest        NYT        NOV. 21, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/21/
opinion/the-art-of-the-protest.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Birmingham, Alabama. 1963

African American protesters taunt a white police officer

during a civil rights demonstration.

 

Credit: 1963 Charles Moore/Black Star

http://rising.blackstar.com/charles-moore-1931-2010.html/demonstators-taunt-a-policeman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 30, 1963

 

Remarks of Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson

 

Memorial Day, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

 

 

On Memorial Day in 1963,

Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson

gave a speech in Gettysburg, Pa.,

that foreshadowed profound changes

that would be achieved in only 13 months

 

(...)

 

“One hundred years ago,

the slave was freed,”

Johnson said at the cemetery

in a ceremony marking

the 100th anniversary

of the Battle of Gettysburg.

 

“One hundred years later,

the Negro remains in bondage

to the color of his skin.”

 

With those two sentences,

Johnson accomplished two things.

 

He answered King’s

Letter From Birmingham Jail.”

[ April 16, 1963 ]

 

And he signaled

where the later Johnson

administration might lead,

which was to the legislation

now known

as the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/26/
sunday-review/at-gettysburg-johnson-marked-memorial-day-and-the-future.html

 

 

http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/speeches.hom/630530.asp

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/26/
sunday-review/at-gettysburg-johnson-marked-memorial-day-and-the-future.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On February 9 1963,

William Zantzinger,

a rich young farmer,

struck Hattie Carroll,

a black barmaid,

with his cane.

 

She died that night;

he got six months.

 

Her story lives on

in Bob Dylan's

brilliant protest song

- but where is Zantzinger now?

 

And did

The Lonesome Death of Hattie Carroll

really change anything?

http://www.theguardian.com/music/2005/feb/25/bobdylan

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/music/2005/feb/25/
bobdylan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 1962

 

Cpl. Roman Ducksworth Jr.

is killed in Taylorsville, Miss.

 

 

On April 9, 1962,

Cpl. Roman Ducksworth, Jr.,

a military police officer,

was killed

by Police Officer

William Kelly.

 

Ducksworth

was traveling to Mississippi

on an interstate bus

from Forth Ritchie, Maryland

to visit his wife

who was expecting

their sixth child.

 

There are two different accounts

about the events leading up

to Ducksworth’s death.

 

The NAACP took on the case,

reporting that Kelly shot Ducksworth

after he refused Officer Kelly’s order

to move to the back of the bus.

 

Ducksworth insisted

that he had a right to sit

where he chose on the bus.

 

Ducksworth’s brother

gave a different account

of the events.

 

According to

Ducksworth’s brother,

when the bus arrived

in Taylorsville, Mississippi,

Ducksworth’s hometown,

Kelly came aboard the bus

and awoke Ducksworth

by hitting him.

 

Officer Kelly

ordered Ducksworth off the bus

to beat him.

 

Officer Kelly then shot

Ducksworth in the heart.

 

According to this account,

Kelly may have mistaken

Ducksworth for a “freedom rider

because the bus traveled

on the same roads

as the Freedom Riders,

who were hated in the area

for testing bus desegregation laws.

http://nuweb9.neu.edu/civilrights/roman-duckworth-jr/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/24/us/
24rights.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diane White Clatto (born Dianne Elizabeth Johnson)    1938-2015

 

 

 

 Diane White Clatto, in 1967, giving the weather report on KSD-TV.

 

Credit St. Louis Post-Dispatch

 

Diane White Clatto, Weathercaster Who Broke a Color Barrier, Dies at 76

By SAM ROBERTS        NYT        MAY 7, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/08/
business/media/diane-white-clatto-weathercaster-who-broke-a-color-barrier-dies-at-76.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dianne Elizabeth Johnson

(was) the daughter

of Milton and Nettie Johnson

and a descendant

of a Civil War general’s

slave mistress.

 

She was among

the first black students

to enroll at the University

of Missouri at Columbia

and graduated in 1956

with a degree

in psychiatric social work.

 

(...)

 

Twelve years before Al Roker

started as a weather anchor

for a CBS affiliate in Syracuse,

Diane White Clatto made

broadcasting history in St. Louis.

 

In 1962,

according to industry colleagues,

she became the first full-time

black television weathercaster

in the country.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/08/
business/media/diane-white-clatto-weathercaster-who-broke-a-color-barrier-dies-at-76.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/08/
business/media/diane-white-clatto-weathercaster-who-broke-a-color-barrier-dies-at-76.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Freedom riders        1961

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boynton v. Virginia        1960

 

 

U.S. Supreme Court

Boynton v. Virginia, 364 U.S. 454 (1960)

Boynton v. Virginia

Decided December 5, 1960

CERTIORARI

TO THE SUPREME COURT OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA

 

Syllabus

 

For refusing to leave

the section reserved for white people

in a restaurant in a bus terminal,

petitioner,

a Negro interstate bus passenger,

was convicted in Virginia courts

of violating a state statute

making it a misdemeanor

for any person "without authority of law"

to remain upon the premises of another

after having been forbidden to do so.

 

On appeal,

he contended that his conviction

violated the Interstate Commerce Act

and the Equal Protection, Due Process

and Commerce Clauses

of the Federal Constitution;

but his conviction was sustained

by the State Supreme Court.

 

On petition for certiorari to this Court,

he raised only the constitutional questions.

http://supreme.justia.com/us/364/454/case.html

 

 

http://supreme.justia.com/us/364/454/case.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1960

 

LIFE and Civil Rights: Anatomy of a Protest, Virginia

 

 

LIFE.com presents

a gallery of photos

— many of which never ran

in LIFE magazine —

from a series of protests and sit-ins

in Petersburg, Virgina, in May 1960,

and from a broader-themed

planning conference

sponsored by Martin Luther King Jr.

and the Southern Christian leadership Council

at Atlanta University earlier that month.

 

The pictures,

by LIFE’s Howard Sochurek

— a Princeton grad, Neiman Fellow

at Harvard and WWII Army vet —

capture one small

but significant exemplar

of the sit-in phenomenon,

as well as some

of the unusual training methods

that potential sitters-in endured

before taking to the streets

and to the seats.

 

In notes sent to LIFE’s

editors in New York

from the magazine’s

Washington, DC, bureau

in May 1960,

the sit-in movement’s

activities in Virginia

were dubbed

the “Second Siege of Petersburg”

— a tongue-in-cheek reference

to the famous siege

of the town and nearby Richmond

between June 1864 and April 1865

during the Civil War.

http://life.time.com/history/civil-rights-photos-from-sit-ins-and-protest-training-sessions-1960/#1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A view of African-American integrationists attending a meeting.

 

Location: Petersburg, VA, US

Date taken: 1960

 

Photographer: Howard Sochurek

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/60d7b207414d6513.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://life.time.com/history/
civil-rights-photos-from-sit-ins-and-protest-training-sessions-1960/#1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“We Shall Overcome”        freedom anthem        early 1960s

 

 

 

The folk singer Guy Carawan (1927-2015)

and the Rev. Wyatt T. Walker

led a group of civil rights protesters

singing “We Shall Overcome”

at Virginia State University in 1960.

 

Eve Arnold/Magnum Photos

 

Birth of a Freedom Anthem

By ETHAN J. KYTLE and BLAIN ROBERTS        NYT        MARCH 14, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/opinion/sunday/birth-of-a-freedom-anthem.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/08/
us/guy-carawan-dies-at-87-taught-a-generation-to-overcome-in-song.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/
opinion/sunday/birth-of-a-freedom-anthem.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February and March 1959

 

 

Dr. Martin Luther King

and his wife, Coretta Scott King,

travel throughout India

 

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=99480326

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/02/17/
AR2009021703040.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Little Rock Nine, Arkansas - late 1950s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

School desegregation - 1950s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 17, 1957

 

 

Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom        Washington, DC

 

Give Us the Ballot

Address at the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom

 

 

On 17 May 1957,

nearly 25,000 demonstrators gathered

at the Lincoln Memorial

in Washington, D.C.,

for a Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom,

featuring three hours

of spirituals, songs, and speeches

that urged the federal government

to fulfill the three-year-old Brown

v. Board of Education

decision.

 

The last speech of the day

was reserved for Martin Luther King’s

‘‘Give Us the Ballot'' oration,

which captured public attention

and placed him in the national spotlight

as a major leader of the civil rights movement.

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_prayer_pilgrimage_for_freedom_1957/

 

 


 

 

[ Martin Luther King ]

Prayer Pilgrimage

 

Date taken: 1957

 

Photographer: Paul Schutzer

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=61d08c0f68bb9bb8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

[ Martin Luther King ]

Prayer Pilgrimage

 

Date taken: 1957

 

Photographer: Paul Schutzer

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=07a8dcf061d28528

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prayer Pilgrimage

 

Date taken: 1957

 

Photographer: Paul Schutzer

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=1af2f534de61149c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/
enc_prayer_pilgrimage_for_freedom_1957/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
doc_give_us_the_ballot_address_at_the_prayer_pilgrimage_for_freedom/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/primarydocuments/Vol4/17-May-1957_GiveUsTheBallot.pdf

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html

http://www.mlkonline.net/ballot.html

 

 

http://www.cbsnews.com/elements/2008/03/31/
in_depth_us/timeline3982827_0_content.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1956

 

Browder v. Gayle, 352 U.S. 903

 

 

Basing its decision

on Brown v. Board of Education,

the Supreme Court says

the Montgomery bus segregation rule

violates the constitution.

 

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

- and the bus system's segregation,

end (on) Dec. 21, 1956

 

 

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/15/fyi/main2359504.shtml

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/chronologyentry/1956_11_131/

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_browder_v_gayle/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montgomery, Alabama        382-day Montgomery Bus Boycott        1955-1956


 

 

Montgomery Bus Boycott

 

Photographer: Grey Villet

Undated

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=f39dd2741830a2c0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Montgomery buses,

the first four rows

were reserved for whites.

 

The rear was for blacks,

who made up

more than 75 percent

of the bus system's riders.

 

Blacks could sit

in the middle rows

until those seats

were needed by whites.

 

Then blacks had to move

to seats in the rear,

stand or,

if there was no room,

leave the bus.

 

Even getting on presented hurdles:

If whites were already sitting in the front,

blacks could board to pay the fare

but then had to disembark

and re-enter through the rear door.

 

The boycott lasted 381 days,

and in that period many blacks

were harassed and arrested

on flimsy excuses.

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/25/world/americas/25iht-obit.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/american-civil-rights-movement-
(1955-1968)/rosa-parks-and-the-montgomery-bus-boycott.html

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/
encyclopedia/enc_montgomery_bus_boycott_1955_1956/

http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/about_king/
encyclopedia/montgomerybusboycott.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/11/12/
455670897/60-years-after-the-boycott-progress-stalls-for-montgomery-buses

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/28/us/
thelma-glass-organizer-of-alabama-bus-protests-dies-at-96.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/26/us/
26carr.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/25/
world/americas/25iht-obit.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eyesontheprize/story/02_bus.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dec. 1, 1955

 

Rosa Parks is arrested

in Montgomery, Alabama,

for refusing to relinquish

her seat to a white man

and move to the "negro" section

near the back of the city bus

 

 

http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/encyclopedia/documentsentry/
doc_arrest_report_for_rosa_parks/

 

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/15/
fyi/main2359504.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 28, 1955

 

 

Racial killings

 

Emmett Louis "Bobo" Till    July 25, 1941 - August 28, 1955

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Racial killing

 

Lamar Smith    1892 - August 13, 1955

 

 

Lamar Smith,

a 63 year old farmer

and World War II veteran

was a voting rights activist

and a member

of the Regional Counsel

of Negro Leadership.

 

On August 2,

he had voted in the primary

and helped get others out to vote.

 

There was a run-off primary

scheduled for August 23,

and, on August 13,

Smith

was at the courthouse seeking

to assist black voters

to fill out absentee ballots

so they could vote

in the run-off election.

 

He was shot to death

in the front of the courthouse

in Brookhaven, Lincoln County,

at about 10 am.

 

(...)

 

Three men were arrested

in connection

with the Smith murder.

 

On September 13, 1955,

an all white Brookhaven grand jury

failed to return any indictments.

 

The District Attorney

reported that the Sheriff,

Carnie E. Smith,

refused to make

an immediate arrest

“although he knew

everything I know.”

 

The District Attorney

further reported

that the sheriff told him

he saw Noah Smith,

one of the accused,

“leave the scene

with blood all over him.

It was his duty

to take that man into custody

regardless of who he was,

but he did not do it.”

http://nuweb9.neu.edu/civilrights/lamar-smith/

 

 

http://nuweb9.neu.edu/civilrights/lamar-smith/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamar_Smith_%28activist%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 17, 1954

 

School desegregation

 

 

Brown

v.

Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

 

U.S. Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren

delivers the unanimous ruling

in the landmark civil rights case

 

SUPREME COURT

OF THE UNITED STATES 347 U.S. 483

Argued December 9, 1952

Reargued December 8, 1953

Decided May 17, 1954

APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

FOR THE DISTRICT OF KANSAS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html

http://www.nationalcenter.org/brown.html

http://www.nps.gov/brvb/index.htm

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0347_0483_ZS.html

http://www.npr.org/news/specials/brown50/

http://www.pbs.org/jefferson/enlight/brown.htm

http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1982/3/82.03.06.x.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-brown.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-segregation.html

http://www.supremecourthistory.org/02_history/subs_history/02_c13.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/brown/brown-aftermath.html

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brown-v-board/

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/brown-case-order/

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/davis-case/

http://digilib.gmu.edu:8080/xmlui/bitstream/1920/2448/2/mann_44_10_02B.pdf

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0319.html

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/990517onthisday_big.htm

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/08/20/
544735978/racial-issues-have-often-been-a-test-for-u-s-presidents-with-conflicted-feelings

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/us/
harry-briggs-jr-a-catalyst-for-brown-v-board-of-education-dies-at-75.html

 

www.nytimes.com/2014/05/17/us/
mrs-obama-cites-view-of-growing-segregation.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/weekinreview/10liptak.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harry Briggs Jr.        1941-2016

 

 

 

 From left,

Linda Brown Smith, Harry Briggs Jr.,

Ethel Louise Belton Brown and Spottswood Bolling Jr.

at a news conference in 1964.

 

Mr. Briggs’s parents originated the lawsuit

that put an end to public school segregation.

 

Credit Al Ravenna/New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection,

via Library of Congress

 

Harry Briggs Jr., a Catalyst for Brown v. Board of Education, Dies at 75

By SAM ROBERTS        NYT        AUG. 17, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/us/
harry-briggs-jr-a-catalyst-for-brown-v-board-of-education-dies-at-75.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harry Briggs Jr. ('s) parents

originated the pivotal lawsuit

that struck down

public school segregation in 1954,

but whose name was relegated by fate

to a forgotten legal footnote

 

(...)

 

Mr. Briggs’s parents

were furious

that 8-year-old Harry

and his fellow black students

in Clarendon County, S.C.,

were forced to walk as far

as 10 miles to attend classes

while whites were bused

at public expense

to their own segregated school.

 

With Harry Briggs Sr.

listed alphabetically

as the lead plaintiff,

the local chapter of the N.A.A.C.P.

filed suit in 1949 against the school district

in a case argued by Thurgood Marshall,

who would become the first black justice

of the United States Supreme Court.

 

When it reached the Supreme Court,

Briggs v. Elliott was merged

with four similar cases

and became known collectively

as Brown

v.

Board of Education of Topeka, Kan.

 

The N.A.A.C.P. lawyers

argued that segregation itself,

and the concept

of “separate but equal” schools

for blacks and whites,

violated the 14th Amendment’s

“equal protection” guarantee.

 

Why did Brown

— the Rev. Oliver L. Brown,

who stood in for his daughter Linda,

a third grader, on the legal papers —

instead of Briggs

wind up being immortalized

as a benchmark

in civil rights jurisprudence?

 

Historians have attributed

the naming convention

to a scheduling quirk

involving the five lawsuits,

although there has been

some speculation

that Tom C. Clark,

a Supreme Court justice from Texas,

gave Brown prominence,

figuring that advancing a case from Kansas,

instead of one from South Carolina,

would make it appear less

like the court was singling out the South.

 

Reversing the court’s

1896 decision in Plessy v. Ferguson,

the justices ruled unanimously on May 14, 1954,

that “in the field of public education the doctrine

of ‘separate, but equal’ has no place”

because “separate educational facilities

are inherently unequal.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/us/
harry-briggs-jr-a-catalyst-for-brown-v-board-of-education-dies-at-75.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/18/
us/harry-briggs-jr-a-catalyst-for-brown-v-board-of-education-dies-at-75.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Corley Wallace Jr.        1919-1998

 


 

 

Time Covers - The 60S

Time cover: 09-27-1963 of Gov. George Wallace.

 

Date taken: September 27, 1963

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.archives.state.al.us/govs_list/g_wallac.html

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/daily/sept98/wallace.htm

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/wallace/

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1294680

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=4675

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/11/
civil-rights-anniversary-11-june-1963

 

http://www.cnn.com/US/9809/14/wallace.obit/

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/daily/sept98/
wallace.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl Francis Lloyd        1928-2015

 

Earl Lloyd (...) became

the first black player

to appear in an N.B.A. game

when he took the court

for the Washington Capitols

in October 1950,

three and a half years

after Jackie Robinson

broke modern major league

baseball’s color barrier

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/28/sports/basketball/earl-lloyd-nbas-first-black-player-dies-at-86.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/28/
sports/basketball/earl-lloyd-nbas-first-black-player-dies-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A man viewing a large sign

announcing a restrictive policy at Sunset Gardens,

a housing development limited to whites.

Los Angeles. September 1950.

 

Irving C. Smith,

via Southern California Library for Social Studies and Research

 

Photographing Civil Rights, Up North and Beyond Dixie

By Maurice Berger        NYT        Oct. 18, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/10/18/
photographing-civil-rights-north-beyond-south-dixie/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More African-American men,

women and children

were hanged, burned

and dismembered per capita

in Mississippi

between the Civil War

and World War II

than in any other Southern state.

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/25/
opinion/confederate-memorial-mississippi-lynchings.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/25/
opinion/confederate-memorial-mississippi-lynchings.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 16, 1944

 

Morgan v. Virginia

 

 

In the spring of 1946,

Irene Morgan, a black woman,

boarded a bus in Virginia

to go to Baltimore, Maryland.

 

She was ordered

to sit in the back of the bus,

as Virginia state law required.

 

She objected,

saying that since the bus

was an interstate bus,

the Virginia law did not apply.

 

Morgan was arrested

and fined ten dollars.

 

Thurgood Marshall

and the NAACP

took on the case.

 

They argued that

since an 1877

Supreme Court decision

ruled that it was illegal

for a state to forbid segregation,

then it was likewise illegal

for a state to require it.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_morgan.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_morgan.html

http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/naacp/worldwarii/ExhibitObjects/MorganvVirginia1946.aspx

http://www.vahistorical.org/collections-and-resources/
virginia-history-explorer/civil-rights-movement-virginia

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/13/us/
13kirkaldy.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wartime race riots between blacks and whites        Detroit, MI, US        June 1943


 

 

African American men rounded up

after wartime race riots between blacks and whites

which swept the city and required the use of Army troops

and martial law to quell.

 

Location: Detroit, MI, US

Date taken: June 20, 1943

 

Photographer: Gordon Coster

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eleanor/peopleevents/pande10.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A flag flying outside the N.A.A.C.P. offices on Fifth Avenue,

announcing that another lynching had taken place

in America. New York. 1936.

 

Photographer Unknown,

via Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

 

Photographing Civil Rights, Up North and Beyond Dixie

By Maurice Berger        NYT        Oct. 18, 2016

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/10/18/
photographing-civil-rights-north-beyond-south-dixie/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Route 66’s legacy of racial segregation

 

The Negro Motorist Green Book,

published 1936-1964,

was more than a guide book;

 

it was a lifesaver in the racist world

of southern and western US states,

featuring motels and businesses

that extended their services

to black travellers

before the civil rights movement

helped bring about change

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/27/
green-book-south-west-usa-route-66-civil-rights

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2015/feb/27/
green-book-south-west-usa-route-66-civil-rights

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Scottsboro Boys        Alabama 1930s

 

 ATLANTA —

(In 2013) More than 80 years

after they were falsely accused

and wrongly convicted in the rapes

of a pair of white women

in north Alabama,

three black men received

posthumous pardons on Thursday,

essentially absolving the last

of the “Scottsboro Boys”

of criminal misconduct

and closing one

of the most notorious chapters

of the South’s racial history.

 

The Alabama Board

of Pardons and Paroles

voted unanimously

during a hearing

in Montgomery

to issue the pardons

to Haywood Patterson,

Charles Weems

and Andy Wright,

all of whom were

repeatedly convicted

of the rapes in the 1930s.

 

“The Scottsboro Boys

have finally received justice,”

Gov. Robert J. Bentley

said in a statement.

 

Thursday’s vote

brought to an end to a case

that yielded two landmark

Supreme Court opinions

— one about the inclusion

of blacks on juries

and another about the need

for adequate legal representation at trial —

but continued to hang over Alabama

as an enduring mark of its tainted past.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/us/
with-last-3-pardons-alabama-hopes-to-put-infamous-scottsboro-boys-case-to-rest.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/scottsboro/index.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/us/
with-last-3-pardons-alabama-hopes-to-put-
infamous-scottsboro-boys-case-to-rest.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/21/
scottsboro-nine-boys-posthumous-pardons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1924,

the Virginia legislature

passed the Racial Integrity Act,

which outlawed interracial marriage,

in part by reclassifying American Indians

as “colored.”

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1921

 

massive riot in Tulsa, Okla.

 

 

A white mob rampaged

through a wealthy

black business district

in Tulsa, Okla., in 1921,

in a spate of violence

that destroyed

more than 1,200 homes

and left up to 300 people dead.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
us/mass-graves-tulsa-race-massacre.html

 

 

Police are still investigating (in 2012)

whether the weekend shooting spree

in Tulsa, Okla., was racially motivated.

 

A massive riot there in 1921

left about three dozen people dead.

http://www.npr.org/2012/04/10/150335245/history-of-tulsas-race-riot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/23/
obituaries/olivia-hooker-dead.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/04/
us/mass-graves-tulsa-race-massacre.html

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2018/05/31/
615546965/meet-the-last-surviving-witness-to-the-tulsa-race-riot-of-1921

 

http://www.npr.org/2012/04/10/
150335245/history-of-tulsas-race-riot

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/
us/20tulsa.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Houston Riot of 1917,

or Camp Logan Riot,

was a mutiny

by 156 African American soldiers

of the Third Battalion

of the all-black

Twenty-fourth United States

Infantry Regiment.

 

It occupied

most of one night,

and resulted in the deaths

of four soldiers

and sixteen civilians.

 

The rioting soldiers

were tried

at three courts-martial.

 

A total of nineteen

would be executed,

and forty-one

were given life sentences.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houston_Riot_%281917%29

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houston_Riot_%281917%29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

circa 1915 - 1970s

 

The great migration

 

 

black Southerners

(...) fled to cities

in the North and West

during the Great Migration.

 

That mass exodus

of African-Americans

began (circa 1915),

and lasted until the 1970s.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2015/04/10/398806751/
painting-the-epic-drama-of-the-great-migration-the-work-of-jacob-lawrence

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2015/04/10/
398806751/painting-the-epic-drama-of-the-great-migration-the-work-of-jacob-lawrence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1896

 

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537

"separate but equal"

 

 

In 1892

Homer Plessy challenged

a 1890 law by the Louisiana

General Assembly

which required white

and nonwhite passengers

to ride in separate

railway carriages.

 

Plessy,

a light-skinned man,

argued that the law

was null and void

because race could not always

be determined by appearances.

 

Plessy was arrested

for violating the statute

and the case was tried

before the Louisiana

Supreme Court.

 

The court upheld the law and,

in 1896 Plessy petitioned

for the United States Supreme Court

for a writ of error which would overturn

the state court's ruling.

 

Justice Brown

for the majority opinion, however,

ruled that the statute did not violate

the Fourteenth Amendment

to the U.S. Constitution

and that separate accommodations

could be required as long

as they were "equal."

 

Justice Harlan

wrote a dissenting opinion

in which he argued that

any arbitrary separation

of citizens based on race

could never be constitutional

and would only lead

to increased racial tension

in the United States.

http://history.ncsu.edu/projects/cwnc/items/show/366

 

 

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0163_0537_ZS.html

http://history.ncsu.edu/projects/cwnc/items/show/366

http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/pubs/A5/wolff.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may18.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may18.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Civil Rights Era

in the U.S. News & World Report

Photographs Collection

 

Selected Images

from the Collections

of the Library of Congress

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/084_civil.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

 

Photographs of Signs Enforcing Racial Discrimination:

Documentation by Farm Security Administration-Office

of War Information Photographers
 

 

 

 

Memphis, Tennessee. September 1943.

 

Esther Bubley, photographer.

"People waiting for a bus at the Greyhound bus terminal."

 

[Sign: "White Waiting Room."]

Location: E-5153

Reproduction Number: LC-USW3-37973-E

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/085_disc.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

USA > 20th century > 1940s-1970s > Civil rights era

 

 

USA > 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century

Slavery, Racism, Civil war, Abraham Lincoln

 

 

USA > 18th / 19th century

 

 

USA > 19th century > Emancipation Proclamation - 1863

 

 

United Kingdom > Slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations, racism, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

 

 

 

Anglonautes > Arts > Photography > Photographers > 20th century > USA

 

Gordon Parks (USA, 1912-2006)

 

Grey Villet (1927-2000)