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History > 17th-20th century > English America, America, USA

 

Slavery, Racism, Lynchings > Timeline in pictures - Warning: graphic

 

 

Negro expulsion from railway car, Philadelphia.

Artist unknown.

Wood engraving,

 

in Illustrated London News,

September 27, 1856.

(detail)

Library of Congress

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/aap/aapseg.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosewood massacre

 

On New Year’s

Day 1923

a white woman

was beaten

and residents

of Sumner, Florida,

claimed

her assailant

was black

– which sparked

race riots

where the casualties

were mostly black

and hate wiped out

a prosperous town

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jan/03/
rosewood-florida-massacre-racial-violence-reparations

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jan/03/
rosewood-florida-massacre-racial-violence-reparations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

warning: graphic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A crowd surrounds

two African American men

hanging from nooses on a pole.

 

Photograph:

Library of Congress/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images

 

Photograph:

Chicago History Museum/Getty Images

 

Ida B Wells:

the unsung heroine of the civil rights movement

The pioneering African American reporter

counted, investigated and reported

lynchings in America as no one had done before

G

Fri 27 Apr 2018        07.00 BST

Last modified on Fri 27 Apr 2018        07.02 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/27/
ida-b-wells-civil-rights-movement-reporter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

African American youth

tortured and burned to death by mob.

 

Location: Waco, TX, US

Date taken: 1916

 

Photographer: Charles H. Phillips

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

George Meadows, "murderer & rapist,"

lynched on scene of his last crime.

 

L. Horgan, Jr. (dates unknown). Photograph,

c. 1889.

 

LC-USZ62-31911

Library of Congress

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/aap/aapmob.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lynching in America



In the report,

Lynching in America:

Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror,

EJI documented

more than

4400 lynchings

of black people

in the United States

between

1877 and 1950.

 

EJI identified

800 more lynchings

than had previously

been recognized.

 

Racial terror lynchings

were violent and public

acts of torture

that traumatized

black people

throughout

the country

and were largely

tolerated by

state and federal

officials.

 

Unlike the hangings

of white people

and outlaws

in communities

where there were

no functioning

criminal justice system,

racial terror lynchings

in the American South

were acts of violence

at the core

of a systematic

campaign of terror

perpetuated

in furtherance

of an unjust

social order.

 

These lynchings

were terrorism.

 

The lynching era

left thousands

dead;

it significantly

marginalized

black people

in the country's

political,

economic,

and social systems;

and it fueled

a massive migration

of black refugees

out of the South,

permanently

reshaping

the demographics

of America.

 

In addition,

lynching

-- and other forms

of racial terrorism --

inflicted

deep traumatic

and psychological

wounds

on survivors,

witnesses,

family members,

and the entire

African American

community.

https://eji.org/national-lynching-memorial

 

 

https://eji.org/national-lynching-memorial

https://lynchinginamerica.eji.org/report-landing

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/27/
ida-b-wells-civil-rights-movement-reporter

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/27/
ida-b-wells-barnett-national-negro-conference-chicago-speech

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jusqu'aux années 1960,

plus de quatre mille personnes

ont été lynchées,

un Noir par semaine

en quelque quatre-vingts ans.

Francis Cornu

"Le Monde Télévision-Radio-DVD-Vidéo",

Le Monde Télévision

 7.9.2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TITLE: [Iron mask, collar, leg shackles and spurs used to restrict slaves]

REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-31864 (b&w film copy neg.)

MEDIUM: 1 print : woodcut.

CREATED/PUBLISHED: New York : Samuel Wood, 1807.

 

NOTES: Illus. in: The penitential tyrant / Thomas Branagan.

New-York: Printed by Samuel Wood, no. 362, Pearl-street, 1807.

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Rare Book and Special Collections Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3a32403

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a32403
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/i?pp/ils:@field(NUMBER+@band(cph+3a32403)):displayType=1:m856sd=cph:m856sf=3a32403

TIFF > JPEG by Anglonautes
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?pp/ils:@FIELD(NUMBER(3a32403))
http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TITLE: To be sold, on board the ship Bance Island,

... negroes, just arrived from the Windward & Rice Coast

SUMMARY: Photograph of newspaper advertisement from the 1780s(?)

for the sale of slaves at Ashley Ferry outside of Charleston, South Carolina.

MEDIUM: 1 photographic print.

CREATED/PUBLISHED: [between 1940 and 1960]

 

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3a52072 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a52072
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/i?pp/ils:@field(NUMBER+@band(cph+3a52072)):displayType=1:m856sd=cph:m856sf=3a52072
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?pp/ils:@FIELD(TITLE(bance))
http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TITLE: ["Auction & Negro Sales," Whitehall Street]

REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-cwpb-03351 (digital file from original neg. of left half)

LC-DIG-cwpb-03350 (digital file from original neg. of right half)

LC-B8171-3608 (b&w film copy neg.)

SUMMARY: Photograph of the War in the West.

These photographs are of Sherman in Atlanta, September-November, 1864.

After three and a half months of incessant maneuvering and much hard fighting,

Sherman forced Hood to abandon the munitions center of the Confederacy.

Sherman remained there,

resting his war-worn men and accumulating supplies,

for nearly two and a half months.

 

During the occupation, George N. Barnard,

official photographer of the Chief Engineer's Office,

made the best documentary record of the war in the West;

but much of what he photographed was destroyed in the fire that spread

from the military facilities blown up at Sherman's departure on November 15.

MEDIUM: 1 negative (2 plates) : glass, stereograph, wet collodion.

CREATED/PUBLISHED: [1864
]

CREATOR: Barnard, George N., 1819-1902, photographer.

REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA
DIGITAL ID: (digital file from original neg. of left half) cwpb 03350 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.03350 
(digital file from original neg. of right half) cwpb 03351 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.03351 
(digital file from b&w film copy neg.) ppmsc 00058 
(digital file from intermediary roll copy film) cwp 4a39949
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/i?pp/ils:@field(NUMBER+@band(ppmsc+00058)):displayType=1:m856sd=ppmsc:m856sf=00058

TIFF > JPEG > Anglonautes

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/082_slave.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early civil rights movement        Ida B Wells        1862-1931

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Booker Taliaferro Washington        1856-1915

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/ed/2015/03/05/
388443431/the-legacy-of-booker-t-washington-revisited

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abolitionists        Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross)        1822-1913

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abolitionists        Frederick Douglass        1818-1895

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wendell Phillips        1811-1884

 

one of the nation’s

most prominent

antislavery leaders

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/06/
the-abolitionists-epiphany/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abolitionists        Sojourner Truth (Born Isabella Baumfree)        c 1797-1883

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1881

 

Tennessee passes

the first of its "Jim Crow" laws,

segregating the state railroad.

 

Other states follow the lead

and legalize segregation

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1874.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abolitionists

 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow    1807-1882

 

 

Longfellow,

a passionately

private man,

was,

just as passionately

and privately,

an abolitionist.

 

His best friend

was Charles Sumner,

for whom he wrote,

in 1842,

a slim volume called

“Poems on Slavery.”

 

Sumner, a brash

and aggressive politician,

delivered stirring speeches

attacking slave owners;

 

Longfellow,

a gentler soul,

wrote

verses mourning

the plight of slaves,

poems “so mild,”

he wrote,

“that even

a slaveholder

might read them

without losing

his appetite

for breakfast.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/opinion/19Lepore.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/
opinion/19Lepore.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abolitionists

 

Charles Sumner        1811-1874

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Sumner

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/
opinion/19Lepore.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1871

 

The Ku Klux Klan Act

is passed, giving

the federal government

the right to mete out

punishment

where civil rights laws

are not upheld

and to use military force

against anti-civil rights

conspiracies

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1871.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/grant-kkk/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1870

 

The Fifteenth Amendment

extends the right to vote

to former male slaves

 

Section. 1.

The right of citizens

of the United States to vote

shall not be denied

or abridged

by the United States

or by any State

on account of race, color,

or previous condition

of servitude.

 

Section. 2.

The Congress shall have power

to enforce this article

by appropriate legislation.
 

 

https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/15thamendment.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1869

 

Tennessee

is the first

of many Southern states

to establish an all white,

Democratic "Redeemer"

government

sympathetic to the cause

of the former Confederacy

and against racial equality

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1869.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contrabands, or escaped slaves, on Mr Toller’s Farm,

1862-68

 

Photograph: Alexander Gardner

 

Early American photography – in pictures

G

Friday 2 March 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/gallery/2018/mar/02/
early-american-photography-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1866

 

The Ku Klux Klan

is founded in Tennessee

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1866.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1866

 

Two African Americans

sit in the Massachusetts

Legislature.

 

It is the first time

black representatives

have participated

in this branch

of American government

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1866.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Memphis massacre        May 1866

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In May 1866,

just a year

after the Civil War ended,

Memphis erupted

in a three-day

spasm of racial violence

that saw whites

rampage through the city's

black neighborhoods.

 

By the time the fires

consuming black churches

and schools were put out,

forty-six freed people

had been murdered.

 

Congress,

furious at this

and other evidence

of white resistance

in the conquered South,

launched

what is now called

Radical Reconstruction,

policies

to ensure the freedom

of the region's

four million blacks

―and one of the most

remarkable experiments

in American history.

http://www.amazon.com/Massacre-Memphis-Shook-Nation-After/dp/0809067978

 

 

 

46 black people

were dead,

many others

were beaten or raped,

and black churches,

schools and homes

were burned

to the ground.

 

The mob attack wound up

helping to shape the course

of Reconstruction-era politics

and speed the passage

of the Constitution's

14th Amendment

— guaranteeing citizenship

to recently freed slaves.

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2016/05/02/
476450908/in-memphis-a-divide-over-how-to-remember-a-massacre-150-years-later

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2016/05/02/
476450908/in-memphis-a-divide-over-how-to-remember-a-massacre-150-years-later

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American Slavery        British Library        pre-1866 imprints

 

 

http://www.bl.uk/pdf/slavery.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abraham Lincoln    February 12, 1809 - April 15, 1865
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early 1865

was the season

when millions

were freed

from slavery,

as Yankee armies

crisscrossed

the Deep South

and unlocked

the gates

of a thousand

plantations.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/opinion/sunday/slaverys-enduring-resonance.html 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/15/
opinion/sunday/slaverys-enduring-resonance.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1865

 

The thirteenth amendment

to the U.S. Constitution

abolishes slavery

throughout the country

 

 

ON Jan. 31, 1865,

Congress passed

the 13th Amendment,

banning slavery

in America.

 

It was

an achievement

that abolitionists

had spent decades

fighting for

— and one for which

their movement

has been lauded

ever since.

 

But before

abolitionism succeeded,

it failed.

 

As a pre-Civil War

movement,

it was a flop.

 

Antislavery

congressmen

were able

to push through

their amendment

because of the absence

of the pro-slavery South,

and the complicated

politics

of the Civil War.

 

Abolitionism’s

surprise victory

has misled generations

about how change

gets made.

 

(...)

 

It’s hard to accept

just how unpopular

abolitionism was

before the Civil War.

 

The abolitionist

Liberty Party

never won a majority

in a single county,

anywhere in America,

in any presidential race.

 

(...)

 

In 1860

the premier

antislavery

newspaper,

The Liberator,

had a circulation

of under 3,000,

in a nation

of 31 million.

 

Even among Northerners

who wanted to stop

the spread of slavery,

the idea of banning

it altogether

seemed fanatical.

 

On the eve

of the Civil War,

America’s greatest sage,

Ralph Waldo Emerson,

predicted that slavery

might end one day,

but “we shall not live

to see it.”

 

In a deeply

racist society,

where most

white Americans,

South and North,

valued sectional unity

above equal rights,

“abolitionist”

was usually

a dirty word.

 

One man

who campaigned

for Abraham Lincoln

in 1860

complained:

“I have bee

denounced

as impudent,

foppish,

immature,

and worse than all,

an Abolitionist.”

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/30/was-abolitionism-a-failure/

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1865.html

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/13thamendment.html

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/01/30/was-abolitionism-a-failure/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1863

 

Lincoln issues

the Emancipation

Proclamation,

freeing all slaves

in areas of rebellion

 

Lincoln puts forth

a reconstruction plan

offering amnesty

to white Southerners

who take loyalty oaths

and accept

the abolition

of slavery.

 

State government

can be formed

in those states

where at least

10 percent of voters

comply with

these terms.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1863.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1863.html

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/21/freedom-and-restraint/

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals_iv/
sections/preliminary_emancipation_proclamation.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solomon Northup    1807 or 1808 – c. 1863

 

 

 

 

12 YEARS A SLAVE - Official Trailer (HD)

 

12 YEARS A SLAVE

is based on an incredible true story

of one man's fight for survival and freedom.

 

In the pre-Civil War United States,

Solomon Northup (Chiwetel Ejiofor),

a free black man from upstate New York,

is abducted and sold into slavery.

 

Facing cruelty (personified by a malevolent slave owner,

portrayed by Michael Fassbender) as well as unexpected kindnesses,

Solomon struggles not only to stay alive, but to retain his dignity.

 

In the twelfth year of his unforgettable odyssey,

Solomon's chance meeting with a Canadian abolitionist (Brad Pitt)

forever alters his life.

 

Starring Chiwetel Ejiofor, Michael Fassbender, Benedict Cumberbatch, Paul Dano,

Paul Giamatti, Lupita Nyong'o, Sarah Paulson, Brad Pitt, and Alfre Woodard.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z02Ie8wKKRg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Twelve Years a Slave'

 

Solomon Northup (...)

had been

a free black man

in upstate New York.

 

A husband and father,

he was a literate,

working man,

who also made money

as a fiddler.

 

But in 1841,

after being lured

to Washington, D.C.,

with the promise

of several days'

work fiddling

with the circus,

he was kidnapped

into slavery.

 

Over the next 12 years

before finally

winning his freedom,

he became

the property of a series

of different

plantation owners

— one who was especially

cruel and brutal.

http://www.npr.org/2013/10/24/240288057/12-years-a-slave-was-a-film-that-no-one-was-making

 

 

 

Solomon Northup

was a free black man,

kidnapped from his home

in New York

and sold into slavery

on a Louisiana

cotton plantation.

 

Eventually,

Solomon was rescued

from captivity.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/family/docs9.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/family/docs9.html

http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Solomon_Northup.html 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/
12-years-a-slave-trek-from-slave-to-screen/

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2014/03/04/
285764057/12-years-a-slave-leads-to-correction-of-161-year-old-story

http://www.npr.org/2014/02/18/
279076803/hard-to-watch-try-editing-12-years-a-slave

http://www.npr.org/2014/01/16/
262946971/12-years-a-slave-inspires-true-conversations-about-slavery

http://www.npr.org/2014/01/14/
262165884/discovering-grief-and-freedom-in-a-familys-history-of-slavery

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/jan/10/
12-years-slave-uncle-toms-cabin

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-25589598

http://www.npr.org/2013/12/23/
256607303/12-years-gets-northrups-story-right-but-context-may-be-off

http://www.npr.org/blogs/therecord/2013/11/12/
244851884/12-years-a-slave-is-this-years-best-film-about-music

http://www.npr.org/2013/10/24/
240491318/historian-says-12-years-is-a-story-the-nation-must-remember

http://www.npr.org/2013/10/24/
240288057/12-years-a-slave-was-a-film-that-no-one-was-making

http://www.npr.org/blogs/codeswitch/2013/10/19/
231520610/12-years-records-enslavement-but-how-does-the-story-end

http://www.npr.org/2013/10/18/
235486193/for-a-free-spirit-a-grim-12-years-in-chains

http://www.npr.org/2013/10/17/
235486707/12-years-a-slave-160-years-later-a-memoir-becomes-a-movie

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antique photographs

show the history of race

in black and white

 

From a white man

in 'blackface'

to a black Union soldier

and an am-dram society

dressed as a lynch mob,

Mirror of Race's collection

reveals a forgotten world

of US race relations

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2014/mar/28/
antique-photographs-history-race-black-white-us-america

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2014/mar/28/
antique-photographs-history-race-black-white-us-america

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/mar/28/
mirror-race-america-slavery-19th-century-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1862

 

Congress abolishes slavery

in Washington, D.C., and the territories

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1862.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1861

 

A Map of American Slavery

 

One of the most important

maps of the Civil War

was also one

of the most visually striking:

 

the United States Coast

Survey’s  map

of the slaveholding states,

which clearly illustrates

the varying concentrations

of slaves across the South.

 

Abraham Lincoln

loved the map

and consulted it

often;

 

it even appears

in a famous 1864 painting

of the president

and his cabinet.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/12/10/opinion/20101210_Disunion_SlaveryMap.html

 

 

 

 

 

Disunion

 

A Map of American Slavery

 

One of the most important maps of the Civil War

was also one of the most visually striking:

the United States Coast Survey’s

map of the slaveholding states,

which clearly illustrates

the varying concentrations of slaves

across the South.

 

Abraham Lincoln

loved the map and consulted it often;

it even appears in a famous 1864 painting

of the president and his cabinet.

 

Published: December 9, 2010

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/12/10/opinion/20101210_Disunion_SlaveryMap.html

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/opinion/FULLFRAMEmap.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/12/10/
opinion/20101210_Disunion_SlaveryMap.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abolitionists        John Brown        1800-1859

 

On October 16, 1859,

John Brown

led 21 men

on a raid

of the federal arsenal

at Harpers Ferry,

Virginia.

 

His plan

to arm slaves

with the weapons

he and his men

seized

from the arsenal

was thwarted

by local farmers,

militiamen,

and Marines led

by Robert E. Lee.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1550.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1550.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart3b.html

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/02/09/
in-camp-reading-les-miserables/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/28/
arts/design/28brown.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1857

 

Dred Scott v. Sanford

 

The U.S. Supreme Court ruling

in Dred Scott v. Sanford

denies citizenship

to all slaves, ex-slaves,

and descendants of slaves

and denies Congress

the right to prohibit

slavery

in the territories

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1857.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1857.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/08/18/
544407092/maryland-state-house-removes-statue-of-judge-who-wrote-dred-scott-decision
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart3b.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Compromise of 1850

admits

California to the Union

as a free state,

allows the slave states

of New Mexico and Utah

to be decided

by popular sovereignty,

and bans slave trade

in D.C.

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1850.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Black Abolitionists

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/02/
26/388993874/how-black-abolitionists-changed-a-nation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1848

 

Anti-slavery groups

organize

the Free Soil Party,

a group opposed

to the westward

expansion of slavery

from which

the Republican Party

will later be born

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1848.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1842

 

In the case of Prigg

v. Pennsylvania,

the U.S. Supreme Court

rules that

the 1793 Fugitive Slave law

is constitutional,

while state personal liberty laws

make unconstitutional demands

on slave owners.

 

Enforcement

of the Fugitive Slave law

is declared

the federal government's

responsibility,

not the states'

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1842.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1837

 

New York City

hosts the first National

Anti-Slavery Society Convention

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1837.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1831

 

Nat Turner,

an enslaved

Baptist preacher

believing himself

divinely inspired,

leads a violent rebellion

in Southampton,

Virginia.

 

At least 57 whites

are killed

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1831.html

 

 

http://international.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart1.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1829

 

In Boston,

Massachusetts,

David Walker

publishes

his widely read

vociferous

condemnation

of slavery,

AN APPEAL

TO THE COLORED CITIZENS

OF THE WORLD

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1829.html

 

 

http://international.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart1.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Denmark Vesey        1767-1822

 

black abolitionis

who was executed in 1822

for leading a failed slave rebellion

(Charleston, S.C.)

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/26/opinion/abolitionist-or-terrorist.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/26/
opinion/abolitionist-or-terrorist.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1820

 

Missouri Compromise

 

In an effort

to preserve

the balance of power

in Congress

between

slave and free states,

the Missouri Compromise

was passed in 1820

admitting Missouri

as a slave state

and Maine

as a free state.

 

Furthermore,

with the exception

of Missouri,

this law prohibited

slavery

in the Louisiana Territory

north of the 36° 30´

latitude line.

 

In 1854,

the Missouri Compromise

was repealed

by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

 

Three years later

the Missouri Compromise

was declared

unconstitutional

by the Supreme Court

in the Dred Scott decision,

which ruled that Congress

did not have the authority

to prohibit slavery

in the territories.

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Missouri.html

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Missouri.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1820.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h511.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1817

 

The American Colonization Society

is founded to help free blacks

resettle in Africa

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1817.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1811

 

(...) in January of 1811,

a group

of enslaved people

on a plantation

on the outskirts

of New Orleans

rose up,

armed themselves

and began

a long march

toward the city.

 

Hundreds

would join them

along the way.

 

Their goal:

to free every slave

they found

and then seize

the Crescent City.

 

The rebellion

came to be known

as the German Coast

Uprising

and it's believed

to be the largest

slave rebellion

in United States history.

https://www.npr.org/2019/11/09/µ
777810796/hundreds-march-in-reenactment-of-a-historic-but-long-forgotten-slave-rebellion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/11/09/µ
777810796/hundreds-march-in-reenactment-of-a-historic-but-long-forgotten-slave-rebellion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1808

 

The U.S. bans

international slave trading

 

on January 1st, 1808,

the U.S. officially banned

the importation of slaves.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=17988106 - January 10, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3h92.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/07/18/
423803204/remembering-new-orleans-overlooked-ties-to-slavery

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=17988106 - January 10, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1803

 

The U.S. purchases

the Louisiana Territory

(the area that later became

Louisiana, Missouri,

Arkansas, and Florida)

from the French

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1803.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fugitive Slave Act of 1793

 

Although

Article IV, Section 2

of the United States

Constitution

guaranteed

the right to repossess

any "person held to service or labor"

(a euphemism for slaves),

it did not set up

a mechanism

for executing the law.

 

On February 12, 1793,

the Second Congress

passed

"An act respecting

fugitives from justice,

and persons escaping

from the service

of their masters,"

that authorized

the arrest or seizure

of fugitives

and empowered

any magistrate

of a county, city or town"

to rule on the matter.

 

The act

further established

a fine of $500

against any person

who aided a fugitive.

 

The act

was no doubt

a response

to the proliferation

of anti-slavery societies

and to the emergence

of the Underground Railroad.

 

Like the Constitution itself,

this act

does not include

a single mention

of the words

"slave"

or "slavery."

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2h62.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2h62.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1793

 

Eli Whitney

patents the cotton gin,

making

cotton production

more profitable.

 

The market value

of slaves

increases

as a result

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1793.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1793.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1788

 

The U.S. Constitution

is officially adopted

by the new nation

when New Hampshire

becomes the ninth state

to ratify it.

 

The document includes

a fugitive slave clause

and the "three-fifths"

clause

by which each slave

is considered

three-fifths of a person

for the purposes

of congressional

representation

and tax apportionment

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1788.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1788.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1787

 

The Northwest Ordinance

forbids slavery,

except as

criminal punishment,

in the Northwest Territory

(later Ohio, Indiana, Illinois,

Michigan, and Wisconsin).

 

Residents

of the territory

are required

to return

fugitive slaves

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1787.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pennsylvania’s

Gradual Abolition Act of 1780

 

The act began

dismantling slavery,

eventually releasing

people from bondage

after their 28th birthdays.

 

Under the law,

any slave

who entered

Pennsylvania

with an owner

and lived in the state

for longer

than six months

would be set free

automatically.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/opinion/george-washington-slave-catcher.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
opinion/george-washington-slave-catcher.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1739

 

Slaves in Stono,

South Carolina,

rebel,

sacking and burning

an armory

and killing whites.

 

The colonial militia

puts an end

to the rebellion

before slaves

are able

to reach freedom

in Florida

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1739.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1781

 

Mum Bett

and another

Massachusetts slave

successfully sue

their master

for freedom

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1781.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1776

 

In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,

members of the Continental Congress

sign the Declaration of Independence

 

 

https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-history

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1773

 

The first separate

black church

in America

is founded

in South Carolina

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1773.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1731

 

The Spanish

reverse

a 1730 decision

and declare

that slaves fleeing

to Florida

from Carolina

will not be sold

or returned

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1731.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1712

 

An alleged

slave revolt

in New York City

leads to violent

outbreaks.

 

Nine whites

are killed

and eighteen slaves

are executed

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1712.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1705

 

Virginia Slave Code

 

 

The Virginia Slave Code

codifies slave status,

declaring

all non-Christian servants

entering the colony

to be slaves.

 

It defines all slaves

as real estate,

acquits masters

who kill slaves

during punishment,

forbids slaves

and free colored peoples

from physically assaulting

white persons,

and denies slaves

the right to bear arms

or move abroad

without written permission.

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1705.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1694

 

Rice cultivation

is introduced into Carolina.

 

Slave importation

increases dramatically

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1694.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1671

 

Bacon's Rebellion

 

 

In Virginia,

black slaves

and black and white

indentured servants

band together

to participate

in Bacon's Rebellion

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1676.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1662

 

Virginia enacts

a law of hereditary slavery

meaning that a child born

to an enslaved mother

inherits her slave status

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1662.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1641

 

Massachusetts

is the first colony

to legalize slavery

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1641.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1619

 

At Jamestown,

Virginia,

approximately

20 captive Africans

are sold

into slavery

in the British

North American

colonies

https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/
slavery/timeline/1619.html

 

 

https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1619.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the first enslaved Africans

arrived in English North America

in 1619

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/23/
753642877/it-was-400-years-ago-that-the-first-enslaved-africans-arrive-in-north-america

 

 

In 1619,

a ship with 20 captives

landed at Virginia,

ushering in

the era of slavery

in what would become

the United States

 

(...)

 

By the early

17th century

the transatlantic

slave trade

– the biggest forced

migration of people

in world history –

was already well

under way

in the Caribbean

and Latin America.

 

In 1619

it came

to the English colony

of Virginia.

 

The San Juan Bautista,

a Spanish ship

transporting

enslaved Africans,

was bound for Mexico

when it was attacked

by the White Lion

and another privateer,

the Treasurer,

and forced to surrender

its African prisoners.

 

The White Lion

continued on

to land

at Point Comfort.

 

John Rolfe,

a colonist,

reported

that its cargo was

“not anything

but 20 and odd Negroes,

which the Governor

and Cape Merchant

bought for victualls”.

 

They were given names

by Portuguese

missionaries:

Antony, Isabela,

William, Angela,

Anthony, Frances,

Margaret, Anthony,

John, Edward,

Anthony and others,

according to research

by the Hampton

History Museum.

 

The captain

of the White Lion,

John Jope,

traded the captives

to Virginians

in return for food

and supplies.

 

They were taken

into servitude

in nearby homes

and plantations,

their skills

as farmers and artisans

critical

in the daily struggle

to survive.

 

Slavery in America

was born.

 

(...)

 

It would be another century

until the formation

of the United States.

 

By 1725,

some 42,200 enslaved Africans

had been transported

to the Chesapeake;

 

by 1775,

the total was 127,200.

 

Thomas Jefferson,

the author

of the declaration

of independence,

which contains the words

“all men are created equal”,

was a Virginia slave owner

and, by 1860,

the US was home

to about 3.9 million

enslaved African Americans.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/13/
us-slavery-400-years-virginia-point-comfort

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/08/23/7
53642877/it-was-400-years-ago-that-the-first-enslaved-africans-arrive-in-north-america

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/13/
us-slavery-400-years-virginia-point-comfort

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/08/14/
magazine/1619-america-slavery.html
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History / Historical documents

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century > America, USA

Slavery, Racism, Civil war, Abraham Lincoln

 

 

20th century > 1920s-1970s > Civil rights era

 

 

19th century > USA > Emancipation Proclamation - 1863

 

 

United Kingdom > Slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

USA > slavery, racism > lynchings

 

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations, racism, civil rights,

apartheid

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

The Guardian > Slavery

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/13/
us-slavery-400-years-virginia-point-comfort