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History > 20th century > Cold War / холодная война > USSR / СССР, Poland


Dissidents / диссиденты




Time Covers - The 70S

TIME cover 02-25-1974

Soviet dissident writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn.


Date taken: February 25, 1974


Photographer: Chris Bennett

Life Images
















Poland        Zbigniew Romaszewski        1940-2014


Physicist Who Resisted Poland’s Communists


In the anxious months

after Poland’s

Communist government

declared martial law

in December 1981,

leaders of Solidarity,

the workers’ movement

that the government

was seeking to silence,

were forced into hiding.


Even as they eluded arrest,

they did not want

to lose contact

with the movement’s

millions of supporters

across the country.


Zbigniew Romaszewski

could have observed these events

from a safe distance.


He was a physicist,

not a laborer.


But he had already spent years

putting himself at risk

fighting Communism

at the ground level.


He played an early role

in a seminal workers’ rights group

founded in the 1970s,

known as KOR

(the name was a Polish acronym

for the Workers’ Defense Committee),

which helped establish

the Solidarity movement.


In 1979,

he represented KOR

in meetings in Moscow

with the Soviet dissident

Andrei Sakharov,

a year before Sakharov

was forced into exile.


In 1979 and 1980,

he helped start the Polish branch

of the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights

and wrote a widely disseminated report

critical of the Communist government.


















Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov / Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов        1921-1989



Andrei Sakharov

was one of Russia's

top nuclear physicists.




In 1979,

when the Soviet Union intervened

in the civil war in Afghanistan,

Sakharov spoke out strongly

against this action.


In January, 1980,

he was arrested on the street,

informed that by a decree

of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

he had been deprived

of the title of Hero of Socialist Labour

and all other awards and honours,

and was put on a special flight to exile

in Gorky (now called Nizhni Novgorod),

a city which at that time

was closed to foreigners.





















14 February 1974


Russian author charged with treason



The Soviet authorities

formally charge Russian writer

Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008)

with treason one day

after expelling him from the country.
























9 March 1967


Stalin's daughter defects to the West



The daughter

of the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin

requests political asylum

at the United States Embassy in India.














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Cold War

The global superpower stand-off

that brought the world to the brink of destruction.