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History > 18th - 19th century > America, USA > Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

Rear Admiral Dewey's flagship "Olympia."

Lithograph by Kurz & Allison, 1898.

Digital ID: pga 01940 Source: digital file from original print

Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-pga-01940 (digital file from original print) ,

LC-USZ62-5336 (b&w film copy neg.) , LC-USZ62-28011 (b&w film copy neg.)

Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/i?pp/PPALL:@field(NUMBER+@band(cph+3a08644))

Pictorial Americana

Selected Images from the Collections of the Library of Congress

SPANISH AMERICAN WAR AND PHILIPPINE INSURRECTION

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paSpanAmer.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Klondike Gold Rush        1896-1899

 

 

 

Klondikers ascending to the summit of Chilkoot Pass, Alaska. 1898.

 

University of Washington Libraries,

Special Collections

 

The Age of Gold and Daguerreotypes

NYT

Jan. 23, 2018

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2018/01/23/
the-age-of-gold-rush-and-daguerreotypes/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Klondike Gold Rush

was a migration

by an estimated 100,000 prospectors

to the Klondike region of the Yukon

in north-western Canada

between 1896 and 1899.

 

Gold was discovered there

by local miners

on August 16, 1896,

and, when news reached

Seattle and San Francisco

the following year,

it triggered

a stampede of prospectors.

 

Some became wealthy,

but the majority went in vain.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klondike_Gold_Rush

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klondike_Gold_Rush

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spanish-American war        1898

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Promises.JPG
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish-American_War

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/crucible/

http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/

http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/trask.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/sawhtml/sawhome.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paSpanAmer.html

http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/epo/spanexhib/index.html

http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/spanish-american-war-1.html?template=print

http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/spanish-american-war-2.html

http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/spanish-american-war-marines-1.html

http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/1998/spring/spanish-american-war-marines-2.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb15.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Edison

 

Kinetoscope / Phonograph       August 31, 1897

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/aug31.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edmvhm.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edhome.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laura Ingalls Wilder

 

A Journey from South Dakota to Missouri        1894

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Votes for women

 

 

Susan Brownell Anthony    1820-1906

 

 champion

of the women's movement in the U.S.

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2018/03/08/
591633331/on-the-road-to-womens-rights-susan-b-anthony-stomached-plenty-of-bad-food

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Votes for Women

 

The Struggle for Women's Suffrage

 

Selected Images

From the Collections

of the Library of Congress

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/076_vfw.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Huddled Masses Yearning to Breathe Free"

 

Ellis Island  / Immigration / Immigrants        ca. 1880-1920

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/kbyu/ancestors/records/immigration/extra2.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/070_immi.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan01.html

http://www.nps.gov/stli/serv02.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Statue of Liberty        June 19, 1885

 

 

 

http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/sheetmusic/a/a20/a2069/
"L-I-B-E-R-T-Y,"

 

words and music by Ted S. Barron, 1916.

Historic American Sheet Music,1850-1920

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A landmark

at the entrance

to New York Harbor

since 1886,

the Statue of Liberty

is a national

and international symbol

with multiple meanings.

 

Intended

as a sign of friendship

between

the United States

and France

and as a monument

to political liberty

in both nations,

it has come to represent

a broader vision

of freedom

and democracy

and the promise

of a better life

for the millions

of immigrants

who passed by her

as they entered

the country.

 

Although

the French proposed

the statue as a gift

to the United States,

the project became

a joint effort

of the two countries,

with France

responsible for the statue

and the Americans

for its pedestal and base.

 

The French

commissioned

sculptor

Frederic Auguste Bartholdi

to create the statue,

and he hoped to complete it

for the US centennial in 1876

in recognition

of France's assistance

in winning

the Revolutionary War.

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/statueofliberty.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun19.html

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/statueofliberty.html

http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/statueofliberty/timeline/

http://www.nps.gov/stli/historyculture/joseph-pulitzer.htm

http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/gilded/jb_gilded_liberty_1.html

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/web10/features/bio/B02.html

http://www.nps.gov/stli/historyculture/auguste-bartholdi.htm

 

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/07/07/
how-photography-helped-build-the-statue-of-liberty/

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/nov/22/
featuresreviews.guardianreview33 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First skyscrapers

 

 

Sketch For A Skyscraper, 1923

 

Executed by Michael Goodman

(J.R. Miller & T.L. Pflueger Architects)

graphite, charcoal on paper        14 x 8"

http://www.wirtzgallery.com/exhibitions/2003/2003_06/arch/arch_2003_frame.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supreme Court decision

 

Fong Yue Ting v. United States        1893

 

 

The Supreme court ruling

held that the government’s power

to deport foreigners,

whether here legally or not,

was as “absolute and unqualified”

as the power to exclude them

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/30/nyregion/30chinese.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/30/nyregion/
30chinese.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Exclusion Act        May 6, 1882

 

The first significant law

restricting immigration

into the United States

is passed by Congress

and signed by President

Chester A. Arthur

 

(...)

 

The Chinese Exclusion Act

was the first major law

restricting immigration

to the United States.

 

It was enacted

in response

to economic fears,

especially

on the West Coast,

where native-born Americans

attributed unemployment

and declining wages

to Chinese workers

whom they also viewed

as racially inferior.

 

The Chinese Exclusion Act,

signed into law on May 6, 1882,

by President Chester A. Arthur,

effectively halted

Chinese immigration

for ten years

and prohibited Chinese

from becoming US citizens.

 

Through the Geary Act of 1892,

the law was extended

for another ten years

before becoming permanent

in 1902.

 

After the Gold Rush of 1849,

the Chinese were drawn

to the West Coast

as a center

of economic opportunity

where, for example,

they helped build

the first transcontinental railroad

by working on the Central Pacific

from 1864 to 1869.

 

The Chinese Exclusion Act

foreshadowed

the immigration-restriction

acts of the 1920s,

culminating

in the National Origins

Act of 1929,

which capped

overall immigration

to the United States

at 150,000 per year

and barred

Asian immigration.

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/exclusion.html

 

 

https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=old&doc=47  

https://library.harvard.edu/collections/immigration-united-states-1789-1930

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/03/
opinion/sunday/anti-immigrant-hatred-1920s.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/06/16/
532697303/how-american-unions-tried-to-wage-a-war-against-chinese-restaurants-in-the-u-s

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/05/05/
527091890/the-135-year-bridge-between-the-chinese-exclusion-act-and-a-proposed-travel-ban

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2014/04/24/
306457412/long-lost-wreck-off-san-francisco-recalls-anti-chinese-history

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/30/nyregion/
30chinese.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1876

 

The Battle of the Little Bighorn

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Little_Bighorn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1872

 

Mining law

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/21/
opinion/21tue3.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1872

 

Woman suffrage

 

Victoria Claflin Woodhull

- the first woman to run for president

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/
story/story.php?storyId=95579577
- October 13, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1872

 

Woman suffrage

 

Susan B. Anthony at the Voting Polls

 

 

https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1870

 

The Fifteenth Amendment

extends the right to vote

to former male slaves

 

"The right of citizens

of the United States to vote

shall not be denied or abridged

by the United States

or by any state

on account of race, color,

or previous condition

of servitude."

 

In 1870

the 15th Amendment

was ratified,

which provided specifically

that the right to vote

shall not be denied

or abridged

on the basis of race, color

or previous condition

of servitude.

 

This superseded state laws

that had directly prohibited

black voting.

 

Congress then enacted

the Enforcement Act of 1870,

which contained

criminal penalties

for interference

with the right to vote,

and the Force Act of 1871,

which provided

for federal election

oversight

http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/vot/intro/intro_a.php

 

 

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_13.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/15thamendment.html

https://www.justice.gov/crt/introduction-federal-voting-rights-laws 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On Dec. 25, 1861,

America almost went to war with Britain

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/24/
a-fateful-christmas-meeting/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The American West        Railroads

 

The history of immigration

and emigration in the United States

is closely linked

to the history of railroads.

 

Immigrants were not only

integral to the construction

of the transcontinental railroads

that facilitated western expansion,

but they also used the railroad

to migrate west and to form

new immigrant settlements

in western states and territories.

 

Work on the first

transcontinental railroad

began after President Abraham Lincoln

approved the Pacific Railway Act of 1862,

a landmark law that authorized

the federal government

to financially back the construction

of a transcontinental railroad.

 

Due to the American Civil War,

work was delayed for several years.

 

By 1866, however,

the great race was on

between

the Central Pacific Railroad,

which was charged

with laying track

eastward from Sacramento,

and the Union Pacific Railroad,

which started laying track

westward from Omaha,

to see which railroad company

could lay the most

miles of railroad track

before the two railroad lines

joined up.

 

Because the federal government

subsidized at least $16,000

for each mile of railroad laid

as well as generous land grants

along the track, each company

had a strong financial incentive

to lay track as quickly as possible.

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/railroads.html

 

 

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/railroads.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/gallery/2018/
mar/02/early-american-photography-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Locomotive and passengers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,

near Oakland, Maryland, about 1860.

 

Photograph: Unknown

 

Early American photography – in pictures

G

Fri 2 Mar 2018        07.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/gallery/2018/mar/02/
early-american-photography-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The American West        Photographs        1860-1920

 

Over 30,000 photographs,

drawn from the holdings of the Western History

and Genealogy Department at Denver Public Library

 

 

 

 

The Continental Summit, Denver
Northwestern & Pacific Railroad
,

Louis Charles McClure, photographer,

between 1904 and 1913.

History of the American West, 1860-1920    http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct20.html

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hawp:@field(NUMBER+@band(codhawp+00071617

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/codhtml/hawphome.html

http://digital.nypl.org/surveyors/

http://www.nypl.org/west/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Homesteaders poster

 

Millions of acres. Iowa and Nebraska.

Land for sale on 10 years credit

by the Burlington & Missouri River R. R. Co.

at 6 per ct interest and low prices ...

Buffalo. N. Y. Commercial advertiser printing house

[1872].

http://memory.loc.gov/
cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbpe&fileName=rbpe13/rbpe134/13401300/rbpe13401300page.db&recNum=0

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/rbpe:@field(DOCID+@lit(rbpe13401300

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/rbpehtml/pehome.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A wagon train of American homesteaders

moves westward across the open plains,

circa 1885.

 

American Stock/Getty Images

 

Fewer Americans Choose to Move to New Pastures

NYT

MAY 24, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/25/
business/economy/fewer-workers-choose-to-move-to-new-pastures.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

African American Odyssey

The African American mosaic

 

 

Daniel A. P. Murray Pamphlet Collection

Black Ohio from 1850 to 1920

 

 

Time Line of African American History    1852-1880

 

 

Lynching and Race Riots in the United State    1880-1950

 

 

jazz

 

 

 

A Terrible Blot on American Civilization.3424 Lynchings in 33 Years [detail], 1922. An American Time Capsule

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=rbpe&fileName=rbpe20/rbpe208/20803600/rbpe20803600
page.db&recNum=0&itemLink=r?ammem/rbpebib:@field(NUMBER+@band(rbpe+20803600))&linkText=0

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr07.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/intro.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aap/aaphome.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/ohshtml/aaeohome.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aap/timeline.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct11.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr07.html

http://www.pbs.org/jazz/classroom/jazzfreedom.htm

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/essays/february00/rosenblatt_2-17.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/till/peopleevents/e_lynch.html

http://teachersinstitute.yale.edu/curriculum/units/1979/2/79.02.04.x.html 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aap/aapmob.html

http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/05/10/lynching.exhibit/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When Anti-Immigration

Meant Keeping Out Black Pioneers

 

In the 1850s,

Midwestern states

used harsh laws

to deny

free African-Americans

wealth and property.

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/20/
opinion/sunday/anti-immigration-laws-black-pioneers.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/20/
opinion/sunday/anti-immigration-laws-black-pioneers.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andrew Johnson        1808-1875

 

17th president of the United States    1865-1869

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/andrew-johnson

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/02/25/
697896407/high-crimes-and-misdemeanors

 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1229.html

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0224.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1865/05/05/
news/letter-from-andrew-johnson-samuel-hanson-cox-dd-lld.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scandinavian Immigration        late 19th century

 

 

 

 

Liv Ullmann on THE EMIGRANTS/THE NEW LAND        Criterion        5 February 2016

 

THE EMIGRANTS and THE NEW LAND,

the incredible pair of films

made by Swedish director Jan Troell in the early 1970s,

remain two of the most authentic and powerful cinema portrayals

of the mid-nineteenth-century wave of emigration

from Europe to the United States.

 

For our release of these films,

we were fortunate to have the chance to speak with Ullmann,

who recounted her experience making the film.

 

In the clip below,

watch the actor reflect on Troell’s filmmaking genius,

as revealed in one the film’s most poignant scenes.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQ4UvOczjnw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Immigration to the US

from the Scandinavian

countries

of Sweden, Norway,

Denmark, and Finland

increased dramatically

in the late 19th century,

due to mounting

economic pressures

and overpopulation.

 

In the late 1860s,

for example,

Sweden was struck

by crop failures

and famines

that stimulated

massive emigration.

 

High unemployment

and a lack of open land

for new farms

caused increasing numbers

of Norwegians and Danes

to emigrate to the US.

 

The Homestead Act of 1862,

which gave free land

to settlers

who developed it

for at least five years,

was a particular magnet

for Norwegians, Danes,

and Swedes.

 

Facing internal

political instability

as well as persecution

by the Russian government,

Finns in large numbers

began to emigrate to the US

at the beginning

of the 20th century.

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/scandinavian.html

 

 

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/scandinavian.html

 

https://www.criterion.com/boxsets/1165-the-emigrants-the-new-land  *****

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transcontinental railroad completion        May 10, 1869

 

 

 

East and West Shaking Hands at Laying of Last Rail, 1869

 

Western Union offered coverage direct from the scene,

the first major news event carried ‘live’ from coast-to-coast.

 

Telegraph wires were attached

to one of the ceremonial spikes

and as it was gently tapped with a silver maul,

the ‘strokes’ were heard across the country

 

Photograph: Andrew J Russell/courtesy Union Pacific Railroad Museum

 

The transcontinental railroad at 150 – in pictures

East and West Shaking Hands at Laying of Last Rail, 1869.

 

In a new travelling exhibition,

the significance of the transcontinental railroad,

finished in 1869,

will be celebrated in a series of images

capturing its arduous construction

through to its triumphant completion.

 

The Race to Promontory:

The Transcontinental Railroad and the American West exhibition

is now at the Utah Museum of Fine Arts in Salt Lake City

G

Wed 6 Feb 2019        07.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/feb/06/
the-transcontinental-railroad-at-150-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2019/feb/06/
the-transcontinental-railroad-at-150-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1, 1862

 

The Pacific Railway Act

 

 

signed into law

by President

Abraham Lincoln

on July 1, 1862.

 

This act provided

Federal government

support for the building

of the first

transcontinental railroad,

which was completed

on May 10, 1869.

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/PacificRail.html

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/PacificRail.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1855

 

Benjamin Silliman's

"Report on Rock Oil,

or Petroleum,

from Venango County,

Pennsylvania"

indicates the wide range

of useful products

that could be made

from petroleum.

 

Silliman's report

lends credence

to the idea

that oil could be

a profitable commodity.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/extremeoil/history/1850.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/extremeoil/history/1850.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 31, 1854

 

The Treaty of Kanagawa

 

Setting the Stage

for Japanese-American

Relations

 

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/featured_documents/treaty_of_kanagawa/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civil War and Reconstruction        1850-1877

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/civilwar.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Chinese in California        1850-1925

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2017/07/13/
536822541/the-forgotten-chinese-who-built-sonoma-s-wineries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1848

 

Seneca Falls Convention in New York

 

one of the nation’s

first organized events

for women’s rights.

 

Back then,

about 300 people

gathered

for the two day

convention

in upstate New York

and more than

100 women and men

signed the manifesto,

declaring it time

for women

to claim

their rights

in society.

 

One,

albeit low down

on the list,

was the right

to vote.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/02/09/
nyregion/declaration-of-sentiments-and-resolution-feminism.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/02/09/
nyregion/declaration-of-sentiments-and-resolution-feminism.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

California Gold Rush        1848-1858

 

 

 

Unidentified prospectors, circa 1860

 

Lebart continues:

‘I once read a letter written by Samuel Morse

after he visited Louis Daguerre in March 1839,

in which he described the work of his French colleagues

as perfected Rembrandts’

 

Go for gold! Vintage portraits of California prospectors – in pictures

G

Fri 16 Feb 2018        07.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/feb/16/
gold-stars-portraits-of-california-gold-rush-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The great California

gold rush

began on January 24, 1848,

when James W. Marshall

discovered a gold nugget

in the American River

while constructing a sawmill

for John Sutter,

a Sacramento

agriculturalist.

 

News of Marshall’s discovery

brought

thousands of immigrants

to California from elsewhere

in the United States

and from other countries.

 

The large influx

of "'49ers,"

as the gold prospectors

were known,

caused

California's population

to increase dramatically.

 

In San Francisco,

for example,

the population grew

from 1,000 in 1848

to over 20,000 by 1850.

 

California's overall

population growth

was so swift

that it was incorporated

into the Union

as the 31st state in 1850

—just two years

after the United States

had acquired it

from Mexico

under the Treaty

of Guadalupe-Hidalgo,

which ended

the Mexican-American War.

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/goldrush.html

 

 

 

An estimated

300,000 people

flocked to California

between 1848 and 1854,

hoping to find their fortune

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/feb/16/
gold-stars-portraits-of-california-gold-rush-in-pictures

 

 

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/goldrush.html 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/goldrush/

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paGold.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cbhtml/

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2018/feb/16/
gold-stars-portraits-of-california-gold-rush-in-pictures

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2018/01/23/
the-age-of-gold-rush-and-daguerreotypes/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early California History

 

Discovery of Gold        1847-1848

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cbhtml/cbgold.html

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/women/women.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cbhtml/cbhome.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jan24.html

 

 

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2018/01/23/
the-age-of-gold-rush-and-daguerreotypes/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The United States and California        1846-1847

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cbhtml/cbstates.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cbhtml/cbintro.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 24, 1844

 

Samuel F. B. Morse

dispatches the first

 telegraphic message

over an experimental line

from Washington, D.C.,

to Baltimore

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may24.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1843

 

John C. Frémont

 

Exploring Expedition

to the Rocky Mountains

 

https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=22 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irish emigrants

 

The Story of Irish Immigration to America

during the 19th century

 

Ireland’s

1845 Potato Blight

 

Anti-immigrant

and anti-Catholic sentiments

 

Racial tensions

 

 

"Potato crop fails in Ireland

sparking the Potato Famine

that kills one million

and prompts almost 500,000

to immigrate to America

in the next five years."

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/immig/irish8.html

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/irish2.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/immig/irish8.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emergence of advertising in America        1850-1920

 

https://repository.duke.edu/dc/eaa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manifest Destiny  / John L. O'Sullivan       1840's

 

".... the right

of our manifest destiny

to over spread and to possess

the whole of the continent

which Providence has given us

for the development

of the great experiment of liberty

and federaltive development

of self government

entrusted to us.

 

It is right

such as that of the tree

to the space of air

and the earth suitable

for the full expansion

of its principle

and destiny of growth."

(Brinkley 352)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Armstrong Custer    1839-1876

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Armstrong_Custer

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/custer.htm

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun25.html

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/native_american4.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm041.html

http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/970310/custer.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Texas’ war for independence from Mexico > The Alamo

 

Texans or Texians,

according to some sources,

began fighting for independence

from Mexico in 1835.

 

By December

the small Texas army

had captured

the important crossroads town

of San Antonio de Bexar

and seized the garrison

known as the Alamo.

 

Mexican General

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

recaptured the town

on March 6, 1836,

after a thirteen-day siege;

the Mexican army suffered

an estimated 600 casualties.

 

Of the official list

of 189 Texan defenders,

all were killed.

 

(...)

 

The defense of the Alamo

is well-known for those

who fought for Texas.

 

David Crockett,

James (Jim) Bowie,

and William Barret Travis

were among those remembered

by the "Remember the Alamo"

reported to be yelled at the victory

at San Jacinto.

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar06.html

 

 

http://www.history.com/topics/alamo

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar06.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andrew Jackson    1767-1845

 

Seventh President of the United States    1829-1837

 

 

The quintessential self-made man,

Andrew Jackson,

the son of poor Irish immigrants,

rose from his humble background

to become a national military icon

and the 7th President

of the United States.

 

During his terms as president,

Jackson confronted

some of the defining issues

facing a nascent nation

still searching for its identity.

 

By moving beyond

the politics and ideologies

set in place by the Founding Fathers,

Andrew Jackson became

one of the most striking,

polarizing,

and influential figures

in American history.

http://www.pbs.org/kcet/andrewjackson/alife/

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/presidents-jackson/

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/two/removal.htm

http://www.pbs.org/kcet/andrewjackson/

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/20/us/
politics/donald-trump-andrew-jackson.htm

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/06/arts/
robert-v-remini-andrew-jackson-biographer-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Quincy Adams        1767-1848

 

Sixth President of the United States        1825-1829

 

 

In foreign affairs

Adams demonstrated

a true genius,

favoring a measured policy

that eschewed

foreign entanglements

and missionary zeal

but advocated

a strong military

to protect

the fledgling nation

from the predations

of European powers.

 

As secretary of state

under President James Monroe,

he deftly negotiated

a treaty with Spain

that ceded Florida

to the United States

and relinquished to America

any lingering Spanish claims

to lands north of latitude

42 degrees.

 

In exchange,

Spain got

clear title to Texas

and lands south

of the 42-degree boundary.

 

This accomplishment,

he confessed to his diary,

induced in him a rare feeling

of “involuntary exultation.”

 

He also conceived

the audacious

diplomatic warning

that became known

as the Monroe Doctrine.

 

In domestic matters

he fully embraced

the philosophy

that became the bedrock

of Henry Clay’s Whig Party

— a strong central government

dedicated

to federal public works

like roads, canals and dams;

 

a national bank

to serve as repository

for federal monies;

 

sale of federal lands

in the West and South

at high prices

to pay for

the federal government’s

expansive programs;

 

tariff levels designed

to protect domestic

manufacturers;

 

a governmental commitment

to the “moral, political

and intellectual improvement”

of American citizens.

 

He also became

one of the country’s

most formidable

moral critics of slavery

— “the acutest, the astutest,

the archest enemy

of Southern slavery

that ever existed,”

as one fierce opponent

described him.

 

Ralph Waldo Emerson

speculated

that he “must have sulfuric acid

in his tea.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/04/books/review/john-quincy-adams-by-fred-kaplan.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/04/books/review/
john-quincy-adams-by-fred-kaplan.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The North American Indian by Edward S. Curtis

 

one of the most significant

and controversial representations

of traditional American Indian culture

ever produced.

 

Issued in a limited edition

from 1907-1930

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ienhtml/curthome.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American Indians of the Pacific Northwest

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/pacific/

http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American Natives / Indians

 

Destroying the Native American Cultures

 

The national atlas

of the United States of America - Indian tribes, Cultures

 

Indian reservations

 

History of the American West        1860-1920

 

 

 

 

Bureal [i.e. Burial] of the dead

at the battlefield of Wounded Knee S.D.

 

copyrighted Jan 1st 1891, N.W.

Photo Co Chadron Neb.

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hawp:@field(NUMBER%2B@band(codhawp%2B10031292))

http://photoswest.org/cgi-bin/imager?10031292%2BX-31292

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"When European settlers arrived

on the North American continent

at the end of the fifteenth century,

they encountered

diverse Native American cultures

—as many as 900,000 inhabitants

with over 300 different languages.

 

These people,

whose ancestors crossed

the land bridge from Asia

in what may be considered

the first North American

immigration,

were virtually destroyed

by the subsequent immigration

that created the United States."

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/immig/native_american.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/native1.gif 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kno-Shr, Kansas Chief (1853)

a daguerreotype by John H. Fitzgibbon.

 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

 

Met Museum Acquires Gilman Trove of Photos

By Randy Kennedy, Published: March 17, 2005

 

The Gilman Paper Company Collection

is widely considered

to be the most important

private photography collection

in the world.

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/03/17/arts/design/17gilm.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nmai.si.edu/ 

http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/statutes/native/namenu.htm

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/immig/native_american.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/immig/native_american2.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwss-ilc.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/codhtml/hawphome.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/wauhtml/aipnhome.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NARA        Indians/Native Americans

 

http://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/native-americans.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Railroad maps of the United States        1828-1900

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/rrhtml/rrhome.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Madison    1751-1836

 

Fourth president of the United States    1809-1817

 

 

Madison was the rarest

of American politicians:

 

He understood the nitty-gritty

of democratic government

and was skillful

in engineering legislation

through the most

difficult circumstances,

yet always tried to make sense

of what he was doing;

he wrote some of the most incisive

essays on politics that we have.

 

Not only was he

the major architect

of the Constitution,

but he was also one

of the strongest proponents

in American history of the rights

of conscience and religious liberty,

as well as the co-author

of “The Federalist Papers,”

surely the most significant

work of political theory

in American history.

 

(...)

 

He worked

with Gov. Thomas Jefferson

for several months in 1779,

and, Madison said,

“an intimacy took place”

that began a lifelong friendship

between the two Virginians.

 

It became

the most important

political friendship

in American history.

 

The two men

shared a liberal passion

not just for toleration

but for full religious freedom.

 

In the mid-1780s

Madison shepherded

through the Virginia legislature

Jefferson’s famous bill

neutralizing the state

in religious matters.

 

From this success

he went on to engineer the calling

of the Constitutional Convention in 1787

and the writing of the Virginia Plan

that scuttled the Articles of Confederation

and became the working model

for the new federal Constitution.

 

The Confederation

had been a league

of 13 independent states

held together by a treaty

not much different

from those undergirding

the European Union today.

 

Madison’s

1787 Constitution

created a very different kind

of national government,

not a union of states

but a real government

that operated directly

on individuals.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/04/books/review/james-madison-by-lynne-cheney.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/03/28/
521804754/a-woman-reconnects-with-her-ancestors-slave-past-at-james-madison-s-estate

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/04/
books/review/james-madison-by-lynne-cheney.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Capitol        1826

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/us.capitol/s0.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The War of 1812

 

For two

and a half years,

Americans

fought against

the British,

Canadian colonists,

and native nations.

 

In the years to come,

the War of 1812

would be celebrated

in some places

and essentially forgotten

in others.

 

But it is a war

worth remembering

—a struggle that threatened

the existence of Canada,

then divided

the United States

so deeply that the nation

almost broke apart.

 

Some of its battles

and heroes

became legendary,

yet its blunders

and cowards

were just as prominent.

http://www.pbs.org/wned/war-of-1812/

 

 

 

The War of 1812 enflamed

Andrew Jackson's

life-long hatred of the British

and rekindled his dreams

of military glory.

 

Though he had already

achieved much,

it was his military successes

in the next five years

that captured

the imagination of the nation

and put him on the path

to the presidency.

http://www.pbs.org/kcet/andrewjackson/alife/war_hero.html

 

 

 

Mohawk people,

from one of the six

American Indian nations

in the Iroquois Confederacy,

have hunted, fished and lived

by the St. Lawrence River

for hundreds of years.

 

But after the War of 1812,

their sovereign territory

known as Akwesasne

was bisected in two

when the United States

and Great Britain

drew a line on a map,

creating today's

northern border

between New York state

and Canada.

http://www.npr.org/2017/10/28/
560436303/at-u-s-canada-border-reservation-mohawks-say-they-face-discrimination

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wned/war-of-1812/

http://www.pbs.org/kcet/andrewjackson/alife/war_hero.html

http://www.pbs.org/wned/war-of-1812/

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/1812/

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/war_1812.html

https://blogs.loc.gov/teachers/2012/05/picturing-the-war-of-1812/ 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm225.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun18.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/20/
opinion/sunday/anti-immigration-laws-black-pioneers.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/10/28/
560436303/at-u-s-canada-border-reservation-mohawks-say-they-face-discrimination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The American West (1750 onwards)        The Frontier

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award99/icuhtml/fawhome.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/lewisandclark/lewisandclark.html

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/start/keywords/frontier.html

http://www.academicinfo.net/westfrontwestward.html

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/links/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexis de Tocqueville        1805-1859

 

Democracy in America

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexis_de_Tocqueville

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Jefferson    1743-1827

 

3rd President of the United States    1801-1809

 

 

In national lore,

no Revolutionary leader

except George Washington

looms larger than Jefferson.

 

''People seem to think

that if not for Jefferson,

we would not

be created equal

and we wouldn't have

inalienable rights,''

said Pauline Maier,

a historian

at the Massachusetts

Institute of Technology.

 

But the Declaration

was hardly Jefferson's

solitary work.

 

He drafted it

as part of a five-man

committee.

 

John Adams

and Benjamin Franklin

edited his version,

and the Continental Congress

substantially revised

the document

(to Jefferson's irritation),

excising a fierce

condemnation of slavery.

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/29/
weekinreview/the-nation-debunking-america-s-enduring-myths.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/jeffwest.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/mtjhtml/timeline/timeline.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/mtjhtml/timeline/timeline.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/mtjhtml/

http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/creatingtheus/
DeclarationofIndependence/RevolutionoftheMind/ExhibitObjects/PursuitofHappiness.aspx

https://founders.archives.gov/ 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=1

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/04/
opinion/editorials/monticello-sally-hemings-black-family.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2017/06/28/
534765046/smithsonian-exhibit-explores-religious-diversitys-role-in-u-s-history

http://www.npr.org/2017/02/20/
516292305/monticello-restoration-project-puts-an-increased-focus-on-jeffersons-slaves

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/04/
483757766/the-declaration-of-independence-240-years-later

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/04/
opinion/what-did-lincoln-really-think-of-jefferson.html

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/may/02/
thomas-jefferson-monticello-slaves-quarters

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/08/
upshot/the-near-death-and-revival-of-monticello.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/09/
opinion/sunday/the-uninhibited-press-50-years-later.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/29/
weekinreview/the-nation-debunking-america-s-enduring-myths.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Paine        1737-1809

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm028.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/jefffed.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lewis and Clarke expedition / American Indians        1804-1806

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/lewisandclark/lewisandclark.html  

https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/lewisandclark/indians.htm 

http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/

http://www.pbs.org/lewisandclark/archive/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander Hamilton    1755 or 1757-1804

 

This Founding Father

came to America alone

at age 15.

 

He fought at Washington's

side in the Revolution,

helped ensure

the ratification of the Constitution,

and saved the fledgling United States

from financial ruin.

 

He died in a tragic duel

with his political rival,

Aaron Burr.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/duel/peopleevents/pande06.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/duel/peopleevents/pande06.html

http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/alexander-hamilton

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1803

 

The Louisiana Purchase

 

The Louisiana Purchase

is considered the greatest

real estate deal in history.

 

The United States

purchased the Louisiana Territory

from France at a price of $15 million,

or approximately four cents an acre.

 

The ratification

of the Louisiana Purchase treaty

by the Senate on October 20, 1803,

doubled the size of the United States

and opened up the continent

to its westward expansion.

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Louisiana.html 

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Louisiana.html  

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/louisiana_res.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/louisiana5.html

http://www.louisiane.culture.fr/fr/index2.html    

http://www.lapurchase.org/history.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 15, 1791

 

The new United States of America

adopts the Bill of Rights,

the first ten amendments

to the U.S. Constitution

 

 

Freedom of speech,

freedom of the press,

freedom of assembly,

the right to a fair and speedy trial

–the ringing phrases

that inventory some of Americans'

most treasured personal freedoms–

were not initially part

of the U.S. Constitution.

 

At the Constitutional Convention,

the proposal to include a bill of rights

was considered and defeated.

 

The Bill of Rights

was added to the Constitution

as the first ten amendments

on December 15, 1791.

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_7.html

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/dec15.html

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_7.html

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_founding_fathers.html

http://myloc.gov/exhibitions/creatingtheus/Pages/default.aspx

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/billofrights.html

http://www.archives.gov/national_archives_experience/charters/bill_of_rights.html

http://www.archives.gov/national_archives_experience/charters/declaration.html

http://www.archives.gov/national_archives_experience/charters/constitution.html

http://www.archives.gov/national_archives_
experience/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benjamin Franklin    1706-1790

 

Born in Boston

on January 17, 1706,

young Franklin struck out

on his own in 1723,

eventually finding

employment

as a journeyman printer

in Philadelphia.

 

Franklin's newspaper

The Pennsylvania Gazette,

his Poor Richard's Almanack,

and work

as an inventor and scientist

propelled him

to the front ranks

of Philadelphia society

and made him

a well-known figure

throughout

the American provinces

and England.

 

In 1757,

at age fifty-one Franklin

began his career as a diplomat

and statesman in London

where he essentially remained

until the outbreak

of the American Revolution.

 

When Franklin returned

to Philadelphia in 1775,

he served as a delegate

to the Continental Congress,

where he was instrumental

in drafting

the Declaration of Independence

and the Articles of Confederation.

 

Because

of his international experience,

Franklin was chosen

as one the first ministers

to France.

 

In Paris

Franklin reached

his peak of fame,

becoming the focal point

for a cultural Franklin-mania

among the French

intellectual elite.

 

Franklin ultimately

helped negotiate

a cessation of hostilities

and a peace treaty

that officially ended

the Revolutionary War.

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/franklin-intro.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/benfranklin/

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/franklin-scientist.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/franklin-printer.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/franklin-newrepublic.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/franklin-home.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/franklin/loc.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/franklin/autobiography.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/09/us/
claude-anne-lopez-expert-on-franklin-dies-at-92.html

 

http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1967/jan/26/
franklin-unbuttoned/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Timeline        1789-1930

 

Key Dates and Landmarks

in United States Immigration History

 

 

https://library.harvard.edu/collections/
immigration-united-states-1789-1930

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 29, 1789

 

An Act for the Establishment of Troops

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep29.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eleven years after

the Declaration

of Independence

announced the birth

of the United States,

the survival

of the young country

seemed in doubt.

 

The War for Independence

had been won,

but economic depression,

social unrest,

interstate rivalries,

and foreign intrigue

appeared

to be unraveling

the fragile confederation.

 

In early 1787,

Congress called for

a special convention

of all the states

to revise

the Articles

of Confederation.

 

On September 17, 1787,

after four months

of secret meetings,

the delegates

to the Constitutional

Convention

emerged

from their Philadelphia

meeting room

with an entirely new

plan of government

–the U.S. Constitution–

that they hoped

would ensure the survival

of the experiment

they had launched

in 1776.

 

They proposed

a strong central government

made up of three branches:

 

legislative,

executive,

and judicial;

 

each would be

perpetually restrained

by a sophisticated set

of checks and balances.

 

They reached compromises

on the issue of slavery

that left its final resolution

to future generations.

 

As for ratification,

they devised a procedure

that maximized the odds:

the Constitution

would be enacted

when it was ratified by nine,

not thirteen, states.

 

The Framers knew

they had not created

a perfect plan,

but it could be revised.

 

The Constitution

has been amended

twenty-seven times

and stands today

as the longest-lasting

written constitution

in the world.

 

On September 17, 1787,

two days

after the final vote,

the delegates signed

the engrossed parchment

shown in the Rotunda's

centerpiece case.

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_6.html

 

 

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_6.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Federal Convention

convened

in the State House

(Independence Hall)

in Philadelphia

on May 14, 1787,

to revise

the Articles

of Confederation.

 

Because the delegations

from only two states

were at first present,

the members adjourned

from day to day

until a quorum of seven states

was obtained on May 25.

 

Through discussion and debate

it became clear by mid-June that,

rather than amend

the existing Articles,

the Convention would draft

an entirely new frame

of government.

 

All through the summer,

in closed sessions,

the delegates debated,

and redrafted the articles

of the new Constitution.

 

Among the chief points at issue

were how much power to allow

the central government,

how many representatives

in Congress

to allow each state,

and how these representatives

should be elected--directly

by the people

or by the state legislators.

 

The work of many minds,

the Constitution

stands as a model

of cooperative statesmanship

and the art of compromise.

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html

 

 

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Founding Fathers

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention

 

 

On February 21, 1787,

the Continental Congress

resolved that:

 

...it is expedient

that on the second Monday

in May next

a Convention of delegates

who shall have been appointed

by the several States

be held at Philladelphia

for the sole and express purpose

of revising the Articles

of Confederation...

 

The original states,

except Rhode Island,

collectively appointed

70 individuals

to the Constitutional Convention,

but a number did not accept

or could not attend.

 

Those who did not attend

included Richard Henry Lee,

Patrick Henry,

Thomas Jefferson,

John Adams,

Samuel Adams

and, John Hancock.

 

In all, 55 delegates attended

the Constitutional Convention

sessions,

but only 39 actually signed

the Constitution.

 

The delegates ranged in age

from Jonathan Dayton, aged 26,

to Benjamin Franklin, aged 81,

who was so infirm

that he had to be carried

to sessions in a sedan chair.

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_founding_fathers.html

 

 

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_founding_fathers.html

 

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_2.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The United States Dollar        July 6, 1785

 

http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_dollar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Adams        Audience with King George III        1785

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=19

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/george_iii_king.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Religion and the American Revolution

 

http://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel03.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Bull and Uncle Sam

 

Four centuries

of British-American relations

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virginia's colonial legislature

- the first to adopt a Bill of Rights        1776

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Declaration_of_Rights

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gen. George Washington

 

A Threat of Bioterrorism        1775

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930

 

is a web-based collection

of historical materials

from Harvard's libraries,

archives, and museums

that documents

voluntary immigration

to the United States

from the signing of the Constitution

to the onset of the Great Depression.

 

Concentrating heavily

on the 19th century,

Immigration to the US

includes over 400,000 pages

from more than 2,200 books,

pamphlets, and serials,

over 9,600 pages

from manuscript

and archival collections,

and more than

7,800 photographs.

 

By incorporating

diaries, biographies,

and other writings

capturing

diverse experiences,

the collected material

provides a window

into the lives

of ordinary immigrants.

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/

 

 

http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Washington    1732-1799

 

First President of the United States        1789-1797

 

 

In 1789,

Washington

became

the first president

of the United States,

a planter president

who used

and sanctioned

black slavery.

 

Washington

needed slave labor

to maintain his wealth,

his lifestyle

and his reputation.

 

As he aged,

Washington

flirted with attempts

to extricate himself

from the murderous

institution

— “to get quit of Negroes,”

as he famously wrote

in 1778.

 

But he never did.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
opinion/george-washington-slave-catcher.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/georgewashington/

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwhome.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwtime.html

http://founders.archives.gov/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/sceptred_isle/page/124.shtml?question=124

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/01/09/
682924810/the-first-conspiracy-details-foiled-hickey-plot-to-assassinate-george-washington

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2018/02/04/
582468315/why-schools-fail-to-teach-slaverys-hard-history

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/19/
books/review/scars-of-independence-americas-violent-birth-holger-hoock.html

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/27/
books/review/3-books-tell-the-legacies-of-legends.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/10/16/
496770465/records-descendants-help-weave-stories-of-george-washingtons-slaves

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/
opinion/george-washington-slave-catcher.html
 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/03/
science/03george.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Constitution of the United States        Drafts        1787        Full text

 

http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/newnatn/usconst/draft.html

http://myloc.gov/exhibitions/creatingtheus/Pages/default.aspx

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Pledge of Allegiance        1892

 

 

"Old Glory"        June 14, 1777

 

 

"I pledge allegiance

to the Flag

of the United States of America,

and to the Republic

for which it stands,

one Nation under God,

indivisible,

with liberty and justice

for all."

 

 

"Resolved,

that the Flag

of the thirteen United States

shall be thirteen stripes,

alternate red and white;

that the Union

be thirteen stars,

white on a blue field,

representing

a new constellation."

June 14, 1777,
in Journals of the Continental Congress.
A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation, 1774-1875

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun14.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/dec28.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep13.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep13.html#starspangled

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/tri005.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

History of the American Flag

 

On June 14, 1777,

the Continental Congress

passed an act

establishing an official flag

for the new nation.

 

The resolution stated:

“Resolved,

that the flag

of the United States

be thirteen stripes,

alternate red and white;

that the union

be thirteen stars,

white in a blue field,

representing

a new constellation."

http://www.pbs.org/a-capitol-fourth/history/old-glory/

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/a-capitol-fourth/history/old-glory/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Declaring independence    1776-1777

 

The Battle of Trenton / The Declaration of Independence    1776

 

 

Drafted by

Thomas Jefferson

between June 11

and June 28, 1776,

the Declaration

of Independence

is at once the nation's

most cherished

symbol of liberty

and Jefferson's

most enduring

monument.

 

Here,

in exalted

and unforgettable

phrases,

Jefferson

expressed

the convictions

in the minds and hearts

of the American people.

 

The political philosophy

of the Declaration

was not new;

its ideals

of individual liberty

had already

been expressed

by John Locke

and the Continental

philosophers.

 

What Jefferson did

was to summarize

this philosophy

in "self-evident truths"

and set forth

a list of grievances

against the King

in order to justify

before the world

the breaking of ties

between the colonies

and the mother country.

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration.html 

 

 

 

"When in the course

of human events,

it becomes necessary

for one people

to dissolve

the political bands

which have connected

them with another,

and to assume

the Powers of the earth,

the separate and equal station

to which

the Laws of Nature

and of Nature's God

entitle them,

a decent respect

to the opinions of mankind

requires

that they should

declare the causes

which impel them

to the separation.

 

We hold these truths

to be self-evident,

that all men

are created equal,

that they are endowed

by their Creator

with certain unalienable rights,

that among these

are Life, Liberty,

and the pursuit of Happiness.

 

That to secure these rights,

Governments

are instituted among Men,

deriving their just powers

from the consent

of the governed.

 

That whenever

any Form of Government

becomes destructive

of these ends,

it is the Right of the People

to alter or to abolish it,

and to institute

new Government,

laying its foundation

on such principles

and organizing its powers

in such form,

as to them shall seem

most likely to effect

their Safety and Happiness. "

http://www.usembassy.de/usa/etexts/democrac/1.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/jefferson/jeffdec.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/declara/declara1.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/declara/declara2.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr12.html

http://myloc.gov/Exhibitions/creatingtheus/
DeclarationofIndependence/RevolutionoftheMind/ExhibitObjects/PursuitofHappiness.aspx

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paRevol.html

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration.html

http://myloc.gov/exhibitions/creatingtheus/Pages/default.aspx

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_signers_gallery.html

http://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/independence-day-us-july-4

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/07/04/
483757766/the-declaration-of-independence-240-years-later

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/04/
opinion/04widmer.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/24/
books/24kaku.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The American War of Independence

 

The American Revolution    1775–1783

 

The Minutemen

Independence Day

George Washington

 

 

The American War

for Independence

established a nation

based on

a revolutionary idea:

self-rule

and the inalienable rights

of all its citizens.

 

It was a war

for the people,

establishing the rights

of rich and poor,

high born and low.

 

It was a war

of the people,

fought by old and young,

black and white,

men and women.

 

From Lexington

and Concord

to Yorktown,

from Valley Forge

to the swamps

of the Carolinas,

it demanded

that America's citizens

sacrifice

and see themselves

as citizens of a country,

not a colony.

 

After the Treaty of Paris

ended the war

and permanently threw off

the shackles of colonialism,

the new nation

wrote a constitution

that would embody

its lofty ideals.

 

The United States struggled

to distribute powers between

its three branches of government,

to write just laws,

to collect taxes,

to defend itself,

and to balance

a strong centralized

government

with individual liberty

and the rights of states.

 

Immigrants

continued to stream in,

and the nation expanded;

 

with the stroke of a pen,

Thomas Jefferson

made the Louisiana Purchase

and doubled

the size of the nation,

ensuring

"an empire for liberty."

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/web02/index.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/web02/index.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul04.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul13.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gwhtml/gwtimear.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/empire/rebels_redcoats_02.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/sceptred_isle/page/124.shtml?question=124

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/jul/05/september11.usa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boston Tea Party        1773

 

To teach

the rebellious colonists

a lesson

and to show them

who was boss,

George III

sent soldiers to America

and imposed new taxes,

including a tax on tea

- The Tea Tax.

 

So in 1773,

in Boston, Massachusetts,

some people decided

to show King George

what they thought

of that tax.

 

They disguised

themselves as Indians,

climbed on a ship

in Boston harbor,

and threw a whole load

of good English tea

into the ocean

 

(...)

 

Americans called it

the Boston Tea Party,

but the British called it

an outrage.

 

King George was furious.

 

So, in what became known

as the "Intolerable Acts,"

he and Parliament closed down

the Massachusetts legislature

and shut the port of Boston,

throwing half the citizens

out of work.

 

Unable to fish,

people worried

that they might starve.

 

But now the other colonies,

which had never paid

much attention to one another,

started to feel sorry for Boston

and angry with the king.

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/web01/segment3b.html

 

 

 

 

On Dec. 16, 1773,

the Sons of Liberty

in Boston,

disguised as Mohawks,

stole aboard

three British ships

and tipped 342 chests

of good East India Co. tea

into the harbor

to protest England's

unjust taxation policy.

 

This dumping

of tea leaves

was the spark

that accelerated

the Revolutionary War,

culminating

in the rout of the redcoats

and the triumph

of red, white and blue.

 

(...)

 

The Boston Tea Party

was not called

by that elegant name

till the 1830s.

 

Initially,

it was known simply as

"the Destruction of the Tea

in Boston."

http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/12/15/
459686854/rebel-brew-what-the-boston-tea-party-and-the-mad-hatter-had-in-common

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/historyofus/web01/segment3b.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/12/15/
459686854/rebel-brew-what-the-boston-tea-party-and-the-mad-hatter-had-in-common

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boston Massacre        March 5, 1770

 

A fight between

soldiers and ropemakers

on Friday, March 2, 1770

ignited

a series of confrontations

that led

to the Boston Massacre

the following Monday.

 

Crispus Attucks,

a mulatto sailor,

ropemaker,

and runaway

and the first to be killed,

was one

of a number of seaman

and dock workers present.

 

In his legal defense

of the soldiers,

future president

John Adams

called Attucks the leader

of "such a rabble of Negroes, &c.

as they can collect together."

 

In his closing argument,

he emphasized the roles

of Attucks

and "a Carr from Ireland"

in an attempt

to play on anti-black

and anti-Irish sentiment.

 

The middle

and upper class patriots

who orchestrated

the large-scale

anti-British actions,

and who wrote many

of the more than 400 pamphlets

that circulated prior to the war

-- among them Samuel Adams

and James Otis --

had often decried the fighting

and destruction of property

by mob action.

 

Yet the outrage

generated

by the Boston Massacre

provided

the patriot propagandists

with an unparalleled

opportunity

to unite the colonists

in common cause.

 

Where before

they had attempted

to distance themselves

from the behavior

of the laboring classes,

they now attempted

to shape it.

 

The men

who John Adams

described

as "the most obscure

and inconsiderable

that could have been found

upon the continent"

were suddenly recast

as sympathetic figures,

as noble men,

as fathers and sons.

 

As many as ten thousand

of Boston's

sixteen thousand citizens

marched

in the funeral procession

to Faneuil Hall,

that included

"a long train of carriages

belonging to the principal gentry

in the town."

 

In the years that followed,

the anniversary

of the Boston Massacre

was observed

in a solemn public ceremony

designed to stir

revolutionary fervor

and promote

popular support

for independence.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2p25.html

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar05.html

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008661777/

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2p25.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/19/
books/review/scars-of-independence-americas-violent-birth-holger-hoock.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Général de La Fayette        1757-1834

 

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_du_Motier_de_La_Fayette

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau    1712-1778

 

Du Contrat social ou Principes du droit politique    1762

 

 

http://abu.cnam.fr/cgi-bin/go?contrat1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George III

 

King of Great Britain    1738-1820    r. 1760-1820   

 

 

George III

was the third

Hanoverian king

of Great Britain.

 

During his reign,

Britain lost

its American colonies

but emerged

as a leading power

in Europe.

 

He suffered

from recurrent

fits of madness

and after 1810,

his son acted

as regent.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/george_iii_king.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/george_iii_king.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/george_iii_poisoned_well_01.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/3889903.stm

http://memory.loc.gov/learn///features/timeline/amrev/shots/address.html

http://memory.loc.gov/learn//features/timeline/amrev/shots/responds.html

http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/
presentations/timeline/amrev/shots/address.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/19/
books/review/scars-of-independence-americas-violent-birth-holger-hoock.html
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The American Revolution

and Its Era:

 

Maps and Charts

of North America

and the West Indies        1750-1789

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/armhtml/armhome.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The James Madison Papers        1723-1836

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/madison_papers/

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/madison_papers/mjmtime1.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/madison_papers/mjmciphers.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Religion in Eighteenth-Century America

 

The Emergence of American Evangelism

 

 

http://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel02.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

French Louisiana / Louis XIV

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/bnf/bnf0005.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

America Journey through Slavery

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American Slavery        British Library        Pre-1866 imprints

 

http://www.bl.uk/pdf/slavery.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1, 1692

 

Salem Witch Trials

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/mar01.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

America as a Religious Refuge:

The Seventeenth Century

 

Religion

and the Founding

of the American Republic

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thanksgiving        Mayflower Compact        1620 > October 11, 1782

 

http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/amerdoc/mayflower.htm 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/thanks/thanks.html

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm125.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

17th - 18th - 19th century > America, USA > timeline in pictures

 

 

17th - 19th century > America, USA > Slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related

 

Correspondence and Other Writings

of Six Major Shapers of the United States:

 

George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams (and family),

Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison.

 

Over 119,000 searchable documents, fully annotated,

from the authoritative Founding Fathers Papers projects.

https://founders.archives.gov/