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History > 19th century > USA > Civil War > Timeline in pictures    1861-1865

 

 

 

Unidentified soldier in Union uniform and forage cap

with portraits of Lincoln, Johnson,

and an unidentified boy in a book-shaped locket with pages

Date Created/Published: [between 1861 and 1865]

Medium:

2 photographs in 1 case : gem tintype, hand-colored ; 2.3 x 2.1 cm (case)

2 photographic prints in 1 case ; 2.3 x 2.1 cm (case)

Summary:

Locket has tintype portraits of soldier and child

and photographic print portraits of Johnson and Lincoln

on separate pages.

 

Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/item/2010650790/

Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Unidentified sergeant and corporal in Union uniforms

in front of painted backdrop showing camp scene]

Digital ID: (digital file from original item) ppmsca 32648

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.32648

Reproduction Number:

LC-DIG-ppmsca-32648 (digital file from original item)

Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs

Repository:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/item/2012646973/resource/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Unidentified soldier in Union great coat]

Digital ID: (digital file from original item) ppmsca 31658

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.31658

Reproduction Number:

LC-DIG-ppmsca-31658 (digital file from original item)

Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/item/2011648527/resource/

Repository:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Unidentified soldier in Union first lieutenant's uniform

next to unidentified woman in dress]

Digital ID: (digital file from original item, tonality adjusted) ppmsca 37525

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.37525

Reproduction Number:

LC-DIG-ppmsca-37525 (digital file from original item, tonality adjusted)

LC-DIG-ppmsca-27525 (digital file from original item)

Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/item/2010650865/resource/

Repository:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reconstruction

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/06/18/
733429424/the-accident-of-color-looks-at-the-failure-of-reconstruction

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/27/
obituaries/willie-lee-rose-historian-of-reconstruction-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the Supreme Court

gave the ultimate

death knell

to Reconstruction civil rights

in 1883

by striking down

the Civil Rights Acts

of 1866 and of 1875

https://www.npr.org/2019/06/18/
733429424/the-accident-of-color-looks-at-the-failure-of-reconstruction

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/06/18/
733429424/the-accident-of-color-looks-at-the-failure-of-reconstruction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

post-civil war 'neo slavery'

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=89051115 - March 25, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By some estimates,

disease, exposure and combat

took the lives of 750,000 troops

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/10/
us/politics/civil-wars-lessons-resound-150-years-later.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How the Civil War Changed the World

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/05/19/
how-the-civil-war-changed-the-world/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Armor Bingham    1815-1900

 

He took the lead

in framing

the 14th Amendment

of the Constitution,

and he authored

its guarantee

that no state shall

“deny to any person

within its jurisdiction

the equal protection

of the laws.”

 

More than any man

except Abraham Lincoln,

John Bingham

was responsible

for establishing

what the Civil War

meant for America’s

future.

 

(...)

 

The Civil War

transformed Bingham

from a dissenter

into a legislator.

 

In the 37th Congress,

from 1861 to 1863,

he was instrumental

in drafting bills

to support the war effort,

including the muster

of the state militias,

the admission

of West Virginia

and the suspension

of habeas corpus.

 

He made

an impassioned plea

for the successful abolition

of slavery

in the District of Columbia,

commenting that the legislation

“illustrates the great principle

that this day shakes the throne

of every despot upon the globe,

and that is, whether man

was made for government

or government made for man.”

 

(...)

 

Most significantly,

Bingham drafted

the crucial language

of that 14th Amendment.

 

It is Bingham

who is responsible

for the words:

 

“No state shall make or enforce

any law which shall abridge

the privileges or immunities

of citizens of the United States;

 

nor shall any state deprive

any person of life, liberty,

or property,

without due process of law;

 

nor deny to any person

within its jurisdiction

the equal protection

of the laws.”

 

This sentence

would be the legal basis

for the Supreme Court’s

subsequent decisions

desegregating

the public schools,

securing

equality for women,

and creating the right

to sexual privacy.

 

Bingham also said

that his text

would also extend

all of the protections

of the Bill of Rights

to the actions

of state governments,

which is largely,

though not completely,

the law today.

https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/17/
the-father-of-the-14th-amendment/ 

 

 

https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/17/
the-father-of-the-14th-amendment/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Tecumseh Sherman    1820-1891

 

 

 

 Sherman, Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh;

half-length, seated.

 

111-B-1769.

Federal Army Officers

Pictures of the Civil War

Select Audiovisual Records

National Archives and Records Administration

Washington, DC 20408

http://www.archives.gov/research/military/civil-war/photos/images/civil-war-176.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sherman fought

at the First Battle of Bull Run,

Virginia,

in which Union troops

were beaten badly

by the Confederate Army.

 

Sent to Kentucky

to command troops there,

he did poorly.

 

His numerous requests

for reinforcements

and his generally

nervous behavior

caused some newspapers

to describe him as insane.

 

But with the support

of a new commander,

Ulysses S. Grant,

Sherman

found confidence.

 

The two forged a bond

during the appalling

battle of Shiloh.

 

After the Confederates

attacked the unprepared

Union troops,

Sherman and Grant

struggled furiously

to prevent

a panicked retreat

and drive off

the Confederate force.

 

Sherman,

who was wounded

in the hand

and had two horses

shot out from under him,

performed admirably.

 

From that point on,

the men would work together

for Union victory.

 

At Vicksburg, Mississippi,

Sherman helped win Grant

one of the greatest victories

of the war, breaking

the Confederates' grip

on the Mississippi River.

 

When Grant

was appointed

commander

of the entire Union Army

and went east

to Washington,

he left Sherman

as commander

of the three armies

of the Mississippi

military division.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/grant-sherman/

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/grant-sherman/

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/05/27/shermans-march-on-washington/

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/11/13/who-burned-atlanta/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Caleb Bingham    1811-1879

 

 

Bingham made his fame

largely through painting images

describing American civil virtues;

 

his most famous paintings

include a series

on American electioneering

completed before the Civil War

– “Stump Speaking,”

“The County Election”

and “The Verdict of the People” –

which capture

the essence of democracy

in the first half of the 19th century.

 

Although some commentators

have seen a critique

of Jacksonian democracy

in Bingham’s

depiction of drunken voters,

the art historian Nancy Rash

argued that the election series

embodied Bingham’s

commitment to democracy

as the supreme expression

of the people’s will.

 

Even his frontier scenes,

such as “The Jolly Flatboatman”

and “Fur Traders

Descending the Missouri,”

which depict life

on the Western rivers,

reflect his Whig Party

political views.

 

(...)

 

Bingham was also

a zealous Unionist.

 

Although his family

had owned slaves

in Virginia and Missouri,

he considered slavery

doomed.

 

But he had no love

for the abolitionists either,

whom he considered

as dangerous

to the Union

as the Southern fire-eaters.

 

His election paintings

are dominated by whites

and show African-Americans

only on the periphery,

working or serving drinks

to the voters.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/06/an-artists-revenge/

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/06/an-artists-revenge/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1870

 

The Fifteenth Amendment

extends the right to vote

to former male slaves

 

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_13.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1865

 

Ratification

of the Thirteenth Amendment

to the U.S. Constitution

 

Slavery is officially abolished

in all areas of the United States

 

 

Section 1.

Neither slavery

nor involuntary servitude,

except as a punishment for crime

whereof the party

shall have been duly convicted,

shall exist within the United States,

or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

 

Section 2.

Congress shall have power

to enforce this article

by appropriate legislation.

 

 

http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/13thamendment.html

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_11.html

http://www.historicaldocuments.com/13thAmendment.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Close to 180,000 black men

served in the Union Army

by war’s end.

 

Most of them were slaves

who had fled

from the Confederate states.

 

Three-fourths

of all black Northern men

volunteered,

virtually everyone

who was eligible.

 

But they were segregated in units

initially led by white officers

and were often assigned

the most arduous jobs

and the most dangerous

combat roles.

 

To add insult to injury,

they were denied equal pay.

 

This imposed a double burden

to fight against enemy forces

and to protest against

the “friendly fire”

of racial prejudice.

 

These inequities kept at least

some men from joining the Army,

but more often than not,

they eagerly enrolled

with a strong commitment

to serve their country

and rescue their people

from bondage.

 

(...)

 

Confederates

identified black soldiers

as slave insurrectionists,

regardless

of their antebellum status.

 

They released

their wrath on captives

in the form

of summary executions

and re-enslavement,

as if they had engaged

in high treason

against the Southern

nation-state.

 

This was a clear violation

of the Lieber Code of conduct in war,

which mandated humane treatment

of prisoners of war

regardless of race.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/a-mothers-letter-to-lincoln/

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/a-mothers-letter-to-lincoln/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On April 27, 1865,

the steamboat Sultana

exploded and sank

while traveling

up the Mississippi River,

killing an estimated

1,800 people.

 

The event remains

the worst maritime disaster

in U.S. history

(the sinking of the Titanic

killed 1,512 people).

 

Yet few know the story

of the Sultana's demise,

or the ensuing rescue effort

that included

Confederate soldiers

saving Union soldiers

they might have shot

just weeks earlier.

http://www.npr.org/2015/04/27/402515205/the-shipwreck-that-led-confederate-veterans-to-risk-all-for-union-lives

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/04/27/
402515205/the-shipwreck-that-led-confederate-veterans-to-risk-all-for-union-lives

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 9, 1865

 

Confederate general Robert Edward Lee surrenders

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr09.html

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/robert-e-lee 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 9, 1865

 

The Battle of Appomattox Court House

 

 

The Battle of Appomattox Court House,

fought on the morning of April 9, 1865,

was one of the last battles

of the American Civil War.

 

 

It was the final engagement

of Confederate Army general

Robert E. Lee's

Army of Northern Virginia

before it surrendered

to the Union Army

under Lt. Gen.

Ulysses S. Grant.

 

Lee, having abandoned

the Confederate capital

of Richmond, Virginia,

after the ten-month

Siege of Petersburg,

retreated west,

hoping to join his army

with the Confederate forces

in North Carolina.

 

Union forces

pursued and cut off

the Confederate retreat

at the village

of Appomattox Court House.

 

Lee launched an attack

to break through

the Union force to his front,

assuming the Union force

consisted entirely of cavalry.

 

When he realized

that the cavalry

was backed up

by two corps

of Union infantry,

he had no choice

but to surrender.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Appomattox_Court_House

 

 

 

 

ON April 9, 1865

— Palm Sunday —

Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant

and Gen. Robert E. Lee

negotiated their famous

“Gentlemen’s Agreement”

of surrender.

 

In the ensuing celebration,

a relieved Grant told his men,

“The war is over.”

 

But Grant soon discovered

he was wrong.

 

Not only did fighting

continue

in pockets for weeks,

but in other ways

the United States

extended the war

for more than five years

after Appomattox.

 

Using its war powers

to create freedom

and civil rights in the South,

the federal government

fought against

a white Southern insurgency

that relied

on murder and intimidation

to undo the gains of the war.

 

(...)

 

Grant himself recognized

that he had celebrated

the war’s end far too soon.

 

Even as he met Lee,

Grant

rejected the rebel general’s

plea for “peace”

and insisted

that only politicians,

not officers,

could end the war.

 

Then Grant skipped the fabled

laying-down-of-arms ceremony

to plan the Army’s

occupation of the South.

 

To enforce its might

over a largely rural population,

the Army marched

across the South after Appomattox,

occupying more than 750 towns

and proclaiming emancipation

by military order.

 

This little-known occupation

by tens of thousands

of federal troops

remade the South in ways

that Washington proclamations alone

could not.

 

And yet as late as 1869,

President Grant’s

attorney general argued

that some rebel states

remained in the “grasp of war.”

 

When white Georgia politicians

expelled every black member

of the State Legislature

and began a murderous

campaign of intimidation,

Congress and Grant

extended military rule there

until 1871.

 

Meanwhile,

Southern soldiers

continued to fight

as insurgents,

terrorizing blacks

across the region.

 

One congressman estimated

that 50,000 African-Americans

were murdered

by white Southerners

in the first quarter-century

after emancipation.

 

“It is a fatal mistake,

nay a wicked misery

to talk of peace

or the institutions of peace,”

a federal attorney wrote

almost two years

after Appomattox.

 

“We are

in the very vortex of war.”

 

Against this insurgency,

even President Andrew Johnson,

an opponent of Reconstruction,

continued the state of war

for a year after Appomattox.

 

When Johnson

tried to end the war

in the summer of 1866,

Congress seized control

of his war powers;

 

from 1867 to 1870,

generals in the South

 regulated state officials

and oversaw voter registration,

ensuring that freedmen

could claim the franchise

they had lobbied for.

 

With the guidance

of military overseers,

new biracial governments

transformed

the Constitution itself,

passing the 13th, 14th

and 15th Amendments.

 

The military occupation

created pockets of stability

and moments of order.

 

Excluded from politics

before the war,

black men won

more than 1,500 office

during Reconstruction.

 

By 1880,

20 percent of black families

owned farms.

 

But the occupation

that helped

support these gains

could not be sustained.

 

Anxious politicians

reduced the Army’s size

even as they assigned it

more tasks.

 

After Grant used the military

to put down the Ku Klux Klan

in the Carolinas in 1871,

Congress and the public

lost the will to pay

the human and financial costs

of Reconstruction.

 

Once

white Southern Democrats

overthrew Reconstruction

between the 1870s and 1890s,

they utilized

the Appomattox myth

to erase the connection

between the popular,

neatly concluded Civil War

and the continuing

battles of Reconstruction.

 

By the 20th century,

history textbooks

and popular films

like “The Birth of a Nation”

made the Civil War

an honorable conflict

among white Americans,

and Reconstruction

a corrupt racial tyranny

of black over white

(a judgment

since overturned

by historians

like W. E. B. DuBois

and Eric Foner).

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/12/opinion/sunday/the-dangerous-myth-of-appomattox.html

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Appomattox_Court_House

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/04/12/
398838458/discovery-gives-new-ending-to-a-death-at-the-civil-wars-close

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/12/opinion/sunday/the-dangerous-myth-of-appomattox.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/10/us/politics/civil-wars-lessons-resound-150-years-later.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/10/arts/design/
review-personal-correspondents-photography-and-letter-writing-in-civil-war-brooklyn.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Union general Ulysses S. Grant    1822-1885

 

Eighteenth President of the United States    1869-1877


 

 

 

TITLE: Pres. U.S. Grant

MEDIUM: 1 negative : glass, wet collodion.

CREATED/PUBLISHED: [between 1870 and 1880]

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?pp/PPALL:@field(NUMBER+@band(cwpbh+03890))

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpbh.03890

 

Digital ID: cwpbh 03890

Source: digital file from original neg.

Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpbh-03890 (digital file from original neg.)

Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

TIFF > JPEG by Anglonautes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/grant/index.html

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/06/02/the-crossroads-at-cold-harbor/

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/12/19/general-grants-infamous-order/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/17/arts/design/17hist.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abraham Lincoln        1809 - April 15, 1865

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 2, 1865

 

Ulysses S. Grant's army

attack Confederate lines

at Petersburg, Virginia

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr02.html

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/cwar:
@FIELD%28SUBJ+@band%28+Petersburg++Va.+++History++Siege,+1864+1865.+%29%29

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Petersburg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1865

 

Grant's Siege of Richmond

 

 

 

[Richmond, Va. Street in the burned district].

CREATED/PUBLISHED 1865.
 

 

SUMMARY

Photograph of the main eastern theater of war, fallen Richmond,

April-June 1865.

Forms part of Selected Civil War photographs, 1861-1865

(Library of Congress)

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/cwar:@field%28NUMBER+@band%28cwp+4a39841%29%29

DIGITAL ID

(digital file from original neg. of left half) cwpb 02673

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.02673

(digital file from original neg. of right half) cwpb 02672

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.02672 

(digital file from intermediary roll copy film) cwp 4a39841

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shortly before noon

on April 3, 1865,

a telegraph operator on duty

at the War Department

in Washington, D.C.,

received an electrifying message

over the wires.

 

“Here is the first message for you

in four years from Richmond,”

it read.

 

Leaping up from his seat,

the operator ran

to an open window

and cried out,

“Richmond has fallen!”

 

The news spread swiftly,

and, as one observer

later remembered,

“Almost by magic,

the streets were crowded

with hosts of people,

talking, laughing, hurrahing,

and shouting in the fullness

of their joy.”

 

Fewer people

were more relieved

at the news

than President

Abraham Lincoln.

 

The crushing strains

of wartime leadership

had left him exhausted

and despondent.

 

With the end of the war

in sight,

and Lincoln decided

to celebrate the moment

with a tour of the rebel capital

the following day, April 4.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/07/lincolns-triumphant-visit-to-richmond/

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Petersburg

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr02.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1864.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1865.html

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/v?ammem/cwar:0453-0529:T21

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/07/lincolns-triumphant-visit-to-richmond/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Federal Maj. Gen. George Armstrong Custer        1839-1876

 

 

 

George Armstrong Custer        1839-1876

Edited picture - Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:G_a_custer.jpg

 

original picture - NARA

http://www.archives.gov/research/military/civil-war/photos/images/civil-war-163.jpg

http://www.archives.gov/research/military/civil-war/photos/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Custer's Last Stand        The Wild West        BBC Documentary        9 March 2019

 

 

 

 

Custer's Last Stand | The Wild West | BBC Documentary        9 March 2019

 

In June 1876,

366 men of Custer's men

attacked a Sioux Indian village of 2,000 braves.

 

Two thirds of the soldiers were killed

but the latest historical research shows that,

against all the odds,

Custer was close

to pulling off a remarkable victory.

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=YPjTFXpAZ_g

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/a_c/custer.htm

http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/970310/custer.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun25.html

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=YPjTFXpAZ_g
- BBC - 9 March 2019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andrew Johnson    1808-1875

 

Seventeenth President of the United States    1865-1869

 

Impeachment Trial


 

 

 

Andrew Johnson

half-length portrait, facing left

Source: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a53290

Date: circa 1855 and 1865

Author: Mathew Brady

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Andrew_johnson2.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Johnson

Primary source

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/dec29.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/lwcg-imp.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/dec29.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sept. 2, 1864

 

Capture of Atlanta

by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman

 

 

At 7 a.m.

on Nov. 16, 1864,

Maj. Gen.

William T. Sherman

accompanied

the last corps

of his Union army

as it left Atlanta

to begin a virtually

uncontested

“March to the Sea,”

which would end

in Savannah

five weeks later.

 

Three miles

outside the city,

he stopped

for a final look back.

 

“Behind us

lay Atlanta

smoldering

and in ruins,

the black smoke

rising high in the air

and hanging like a pall

over the ruined city,”

he recalled.

 

Presently

a nearby

infantry band

struck up

John Brown’s

anthem.

 

“Never … have I heard

the chorus of

‘Glory! Glory! Hallelujah!’

done with more spirit.”

 

The men were proud

of what they had done.

 

A little over

six months earlier,

Sherman and his men

had started a campaign

that culminated

in the capture of Atlanta

on Sept. 2,

a victory

that probably clinched

President Abraham Lincoln’s

re-election.

 

But their most recent

accomplishments

were the destruction

and civilian depopulation

of Atlanta and other

North Georgia towns.

 

Under Sherman’s orders,

by the end of September

nearly all of

Atlanta’s residents

had been forcibly removed,

although most had

no place to go.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/11/13/who-burned-atlanta/

 

 

https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/11/13/
who-burned-atlanta/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Battle near Mrs Allsop’s pine forest        19 May 1864

 

 

 

A dead Confederate soldier,

after the battle of the  19 May

near Mrs Allsop’s pine forest,

Virginia, 1864.

 

Photograph: Timothy H. O'Sullivan

 

Early American photography – in pictures

G

Friday 2 March 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/gallery/2018/mar/02/
early-american-photography-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 5-7, 1864

 

The Battle of the Wilderness

 

 

First battle

of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's

1864 Virginia Overland Campaign

against Gen. Robert E. Lee

and the Confederate Army

of Northern Virginia

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Wilderness

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1864.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paCw1864.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By late spring 1864,

Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant

was relentlessly

pursuing his advance

on the Confederate capital

at Richmond, Va.

 

With his recent

appointment

as commander

of the Union armies,

Grant had brought

a new approach to the war

– one of absolute

and brutal attrition.

 

Knowing

that he could replace

as many men as he lost,

even as the rebel army

suffered from a desperate

shortage of manpower,

he had bulldozed

his way across Virginia

in what was named

the Overland Campaign,

throwing tens

of thousands of men

against

the Confederate wall.

 

At the end of May,

after the bloody

but inconclusive

confrontations

of the Wilderness

and Spotsylvania,

the two armies

came together

at an obscure crossroads

just a few miles

outside Richmond.

 

Described

as nothing more

than “a wide spot

in a lonely, dusty road,”

it had been named

Cold Harbor –

after a run-down shelter

that supposedly

offered travelers

a place to sleep

but no hot meals.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/06/02/the-crossroads-at-cold-harbor/

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/06/02/the-crossroads-at-cold-harbor/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Fort Pillow Massacre

in Tennessee

on April 12, 1864,

in which some

300 African-American soldiers

were killed,

was one of the most

controversial events

of the American Civil War

(1861-65).

 

Though most

of the Union garrison surrendered,

and thus should have been taken

as prisoners of war,

the soldiers were killed.

 

The Confederate refusal

to treat these troops

as traditional prisoners of war

infuriated the North,

and led to the Union’s refusal

to participate

in prisoner exchanges.

https://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/
fort-pillow-massacre

 

 

https://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/
fort-pillow-massacre

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/07/14/
741629271/tennessee-governor-faces-backlash-for-honoring-confederate-general-and-kkk-leade

 

https://www.nytimes.com/1864/05/03/
archives/the-fort-pillow-massacre.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Military innovations of the Civil War

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/06/20/
620394034/civil-war-battlefield-limb-pit-reveals-work-of-combat-surgeons

 

https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/21/
the-rise-of-the-infernal-machines/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Civil War

saw a surprising

number of experiments

with chemical

and biological warfare.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/03/25/dead-cattle-and-greek-fire/

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/03/25/
dead-cattle-and-greek-fire/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1863

 

New York riots

 

 

The deadly riots

of July 1863

were about race,

class and politics

— not just the draft.

 

(...)

 

The draft

was the immediate cause

of the trouble.

 

As the war went badly

for the North

in the spring of 1863,

Union leaders worried

that few of the initially

optimistic volunteers

would re-enlist

when their terms were up

in 1864.

 

So Congress

established

America’s

first conscription system

(the Confederacy

already had one).

 

Enrolling officers

entered all men

between 20 and 35 years old,

and unmarried men up to 45,

in a lottery.

 

Those drafted

could join the Army,

find a substitute

or pay $300.

 

Congress

hoped this fee would prevent

a bidding war for substitutes,

but it was far beyond the means

of the average American worker.

 

 Forcing men into combat

represented

the greatest demand

the federal government

had ever put on its citizens,

and it did not sit well

with New York’s

immigrant laborers.

 

They were largely

against the war

and predominantly

Democratic,

and they chafed under

a Republican-controlled

White House,

Congress,

mayor’s office and,

perhaps worst of all,

local police force.

 

White supremacists

fanned existing hatred,

blaming African-Americans

for conscription.

 

Street-corner demagogues

shouted:

 

“There would have been no draft

but for the war

— there would have been no war

but for slavery,

the slaves were black, ergo,

all blacks are responsible

for the war.”

 

New York’s black community,

centered in Greenwich Village,

became a scapegoat

for growing anger

at Washington.

 

Working conditions

provided the riots’

final cause.

 

New York

was rapidly maturing

into an industrial behemoth.

 

From Lower Manhattan

to Midtown,

the island

was an unbroken cluster

of homes and businesses.

 

Farther north

the grid was only

partly filled.

 

Here and there

factories and tenements

popped up,

like pimples on the forehead

of the adolescent city.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/opinion/sunday/when-the-civil-war-came-to-new-york.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/18/nyregion/
remembering-a-vile-civil-war-act-on-fifth-avenue.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/
opinion/sunday/when-the-civil-war-came-to-new-york.html

http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2013/07/12/
opinion/12disunion-Draftriots.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1-3, 1863

 

One of the bloodiest battles

of the Civil War

was fought in Gettysburg,

Pennsylvania,

on July 1-3, 1863

 

 

General Robert E. Lee

came face to face

with a Union army

led by General George Meade.

 

On July 3,

Lee sent three divisions,

about 15,000 men in all,

against the Union.

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm095.html

 

 

 

 

Gettysburg - the battle

that many historians cite

as a key turning point

in the US civil war,

which left 50,000 Union

and Confederate soldiers dead

on Pennsylvania farmland.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2013/jul/01/
civil-war-gettysburg-anniversary-pictures#/?picture=411883178&index=0 

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm095.html

http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map12.html

http://video.pbs.org/video/1832543409/

http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/gettysburg_address.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/04/
insider/the-times-at-gettysburg-july-1863-a-reporters-civil-war-heartbreak.html

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/28/
us/politics/medal-of-honor-for-a-civil-war-hero-150-years-in-the-grave.html

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/17/lincolns-sound-bite-have-faith-in-democracy/

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/18/opinion/lincoln-at-gettysburg-long-ago.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/07/gettysburg-address-copy-display-library-congress

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/jul/02/gettysburg-civil-war-maine-little-round-top

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/02/who-won-the-civil-war

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/category/disunion/

https://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2013/jul/01/
civil-war-gettysburg-anniversary-pictures

http://www.cbsnews.com/2300-201_162-10017349.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 30 - May 6, 1863

 

Battle of Chancellorsville

 

 

more than 133,000

Union soldiers

squared off

against more than

60,000 Confederates

in the Battle

of Chancellorsville.

 

Though the battle swung

back and forth

for several days,

it ended with a decisive

Southern victory.

 

And yet the war

ground on,

for another two years.

 

The war only ended

when the devastation

spilled off the battlefield,

as Sherman and his army

took the conflict

to the farmland and cities

of the South.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/03/winning-the-field-but-not-the-war/

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/03/winning-the-field-but-not-the-war/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 April 1863

 

Union raid

cuts Mississippi telegraph wires

 

 

Colonel Benjamin Grierson’s

Union troops bring destruction

to Central Mississippi

as part of a two-week raid

along the entire

length of the state.

 

This action

was a diversion

in General Ulysses S. Grant’s

campaign to capture

Vicksburg, Mississippi,

the last remaining

Confederate stronghold

on the Mississippi River.

 

Grant had his army

on the western shore

of the river,

but he was planning

to cross the mighty river

south of Vicksburg,

and move

against Vicksburg

from the west.

 

Grierson’s orders

were to destroy

enemy supplies,

telegraph lines,

and railroads

in Mississippi.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/union-raid-cuts-mississippi-telegraph-wires

 

 

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/union-raid-cuts-mississippi-telegraph-wires

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How the former slaves

along the South Carolina coast

celebrated Emancipation Day, 1863.

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/12/31/the-grove-of-gladness/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 17, 1862

 

Antietam battle

 

Sharpsburg, western Maryland

 

 

In the bloodiest war

in American history,

the battle of Antietam

stands out

as the bloodiest single day.

 

At the end of the battle,

2,108 Union soldiers

were confirmed dead,

and another 10,293

were missing.

 

By comparison,

on the bloodiest

single day

of World War II,

D-Day,

the US forces

lost only half

as many men.

 

(In total,

Union and Confederate

losses

were over nine times

the number lost

on June 6, 1944.)

 

Though

Confederate losses

were slightly less;

only 10,318 men,

Commanding General

Robert E. Lee

lost a quarter of his army.

 

More importantly,

Lee was repelled

in an attempt to invade the North,

and hopefully gain recognition

of the Confederate government

by European powers.

 

When the battle was finished,

nearly twice as many men

had died in one single day

at Sharpsburg

as had fallen

in the War of 1812,

the Mexican War,

and the Spanish-American War

combined.

http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/classroom/lesson_antietam.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/battle-of-antietam

http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/classroom/lesson_antietam.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map7.html

http://blogs.loc.gov/picturethis/2012/09/antietam-can-one-picture-tell-the-story/

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/sep17.html

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2002713085/

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/24/the-dead-of-antietam/

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/17/americas-bloodiest-day/

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/18/the-most-desperate-battle-ever-fought/

http://www.npr.org/2012/09/17/161248814/antietam-a-savage-day-in-american-history

http://www.npr.org/2012/09/17/161167847/re-tracing-the-steps-of-a-civil-war-photographer

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1862/10/20/news/brady-s-photographs-pictures-of-the-dead-at-antietam.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27 June 1862        Battles of Gaines’ Mill and Cold Harbor

 

 

 

A burial party, Cold Harbor, Virginia, April 1865.

 

This gruesome scene shows black men

burying the decomposed remains of fallen Union soldiers

from the June 1864 battles of Gaines’ Mill and Cold Harbor.

 

All Photographs: Courtesy of the Getty Museum

 

Photograph: Alexander Gardner & John Reekie

 

Early American photography – in pictures

G

Friday 2 March 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/gallery/2018/mar/02/
early-american-photography-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Battle of Gaines's Mill,

sometimes known

as the First Battle of Cold Harbor

or the Battle of Chickahominy River,

took place on June 27, 1862,

in Hanover County, Virginia,

as the third

of the Seven Days Battles

(Peninsula Campaign)

of the American Civil War.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Gaines%27s_Mill

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Gaines%27s_Mill

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 6 and April 7, 1862

 

The Battle of Shiloh,

also known as

the Battle

of Pittsburg Landing

 

 

The Battle of Shiloh

began at sunrise

on April 6, 1862

— the Sabbath —

as 45,000

Confederate soldiers

swooped down on

an unsuspecting

Union army

encamped

at Pittsburg Landing,

a nondescript

hog-and-cotton

steamboat dock

on the Tennessee River.

 

What followed

were two

of the bloodiest days

of the Civil War,

leaving 24,000 men

on both sides

dead, dying

and wounded.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/06/why-shiloh-matters/

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Shiloh

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paCw1862.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/grant-general/

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/grant-sherman/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1862

 

Sinking of the USS Cumberland

 

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1862

 

John Boston        An Escape from Slavery

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederates and Native Americans

 

 

White civilization,

as the Confederate

vice president,

Alexander Stephens, said,

depended on the subjection

of black people.

 

He might have added

“and the erasure of Indians,”

but his audience

didn’t need to hear that;

they had already done it.

 

(...)

 

In Indian Territory

(now Oklahoma),

the Cherokee

tried to remain neutral,

but Confederates

threatened

to foment insurrection

if they didn’t join

the cause.

 

Members of the Creek Nation

who tried to flee to Kansas

were chased down.

 

Those who made it

out of Confederate territory

were left to starve

by Union troops.

 

Meanwhile,

in Minnesota,

the Union

furthered the quest

for Manifest Destiny

by executing

Indian resisters.

 

In Arizona

and New Mexico,

the Union Army forced

Indian men,

women and children

to march 400 miles

to an internment camp.

 

The Confederacy’s

commitment to slavery

and the Union’s

commitment to expansion

were different versions

of the same story

of imperialism.

 

Tribes who remained

east of the Mississippi

approached the war

with ambivalence.

 

Eastern Band Cherokees

formed a Confederate Army regiment,

but a small group of Lumbee men

led a multiracial gang of outlaws

to violently resist

Confederate assaults.

 

Known as the Lowry War,

this uprising helped

send the Confederates

packing and continued

into Reconstruction.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/22/
opinion/confederate-monuments-indians-original-southerners.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress > Civil War

 

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_10.html

http://archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_of_freedom_11.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civil War photographers

 

Mathew B. Brady    1823?-1896

Alexander Gardner    1821-1882

 

 

In 1862,

Brady shocked America

by displaying his photographs

of battlefield corpses from Antietam,

posting a sign on the door

of his New York gallery that read,

"The Dead of Antietam."

 

This exhibition

marked the first time

most people witnessed

the carnage of war.

 

The New York Times

said that Brady had brought

"home to us the terrible reality

and earnestness of war."

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwbrady.html

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/brhc/

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/coll/048.html

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/cwp/bradynote.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwphome.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwbrady.html

http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/lessons/brady/student.html

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/17/the-civil-wars-brother-artists/

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/24/the-dead-of-antietam/

http://www.npr.org/2012/09/17/
161167847/re-tracing-the-steps-of-a-civil-war-photographer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

Selected Civil War Photographs Collection

 

 

The Selected Civil War Photographs Collection

contains 1,118 photographs.

 

Most of the images

were made

under the supervision

of Mathew B. Brady,

and include

scenes of military personnel,

preparations for battle,

and battle after-effects.

 

The collection also includes

portraits

of both Confederate

and Union officers,

and a selection

of enlisted men.

 

An additional

two hundred

autographed portraits

of army and navy officers,

politicians,

and cultural figures

can be seen

in the Civil War

photograph album,

ca. 1861-65.

(James Wadsworth

Family Papers).

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwphome.html

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwphome.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress > Faces of the Civil War

 

“The Last Full Measure:

Civil War Photographs

from the Liljenquist

Family Collection,”

a exhibit opening

at the Library of Congress

on April 12,

offers an haunting view

of the Civil War generation

through 400 period

photographs.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/civil-war-faces-live-again-at-library-of-congress/2011/03/31/AFtg7vfC_story.html

 

 

 

More than 700 ambrotype

and tintype photographs

highlight both Union

and Confederate soldiers

during the American Civil War

(1861-1865).

 

The Liljenquist Family

sought out striking images,

especially young enlisted men.

 

The photographs

often show

weapons, hats, canteens,

musical instruments,

painted backdrops,

and other details

that enhance

the research value

of the collection.

 

Among

the most rare images

are sailors,

African Americans in uniform,

a Lincoln campaign button,

and portraits of soldiers

with their families and friends.

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/

 

 

 

 

 

Title: [Unidentified African American soldier in Union uniform

with wife and two daughters]

 

Date Created/Published: [between 1863 and 1865]

 

Medium: 1 photograph : quarter-plate ambrotype ; 13.9 x 16.4 cm. (frame)

 

Summary: Photograph showing soldier in uniform,

wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats.

In May 1863, U.S. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton

issued General Order No. 143 creating the Bureau of U. S. Colored Troops.

 

This image was found in Cecil County, Maryland,

making it likely that this soldier belonged

to one of the seven U.S.C.T. regiments raised in Maryland.

(Source: Matthew R. Gross and Elizabeth T. Lewin, 2010)

Reproduction Number:

LC-DIG-ppmsca-36454 (digital file from original item, tonality adjusted)

LC-DIG-ppmsca-26454 (digital file from original item)

Call Number: AMB/TIN no. 5001 [P&P]

Repository:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/pnp/ppmsca/36400/36454v.jpg

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/item/2010647216/

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Unidentified soldier in Confederate 1st lieutenant's uniform

with wife and baby]

 

Digital ID: (digital file from original item) ppmsca 33455

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.33455

Reproduction Number:

LC-DIG-ppmsca-33455 (digital file from original item)

Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs

Repository:

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print
 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/lilj/

http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/
civil-war-faces-live-again-at-library-of-congress/2011/03/31/AFtg7vfC_story.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NARA        Pictures of Civil War

 

http://www.archives.gov/research/military/civil-war/photos/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

Civil War photograph album, ca. 1861-65

(James Wadsworth Family Papers)

 

https://www.loc.gov/item/mm78044297/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress daguerreotype collection

 

more than 725 photographs

dating from 1839 to 1864

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/daghtml/daghome.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 21, 1861

 

Union and Confederate troops

clash outside

Manassas, Virginia,

in the first major engagement

of the Civil War,

the First Battle of Bull Run

(outside Manassas, Virginia)

 

 

After months of preparation

by both the Union

and Confederate governments,

more than 80,000 soldiers

held strategic positions

across northern Virginia

during the first weeks

of July 1861.

 

The largest army

ever fielded

by the United States,

35,000 strong

and commanded

by Brig. Gen.

Irvin McDowell,

occupied the area

around Arlington

and Alexandria,

just across

the Potomac River

from Washington (...) .

 

A second Union force

of 18,000 men,

led by Brig. Gen.

Robert Patterson,

guarded

the lower Shenandoah Valley,

near Harpers Ferry.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/07/20/where-ignorant-armies-clash/

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul21.html#bullrun

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jul21.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/placesinhistory/archive/2011/20110721_firstbullrun.html

http://www.loc.gov/item/99439226

http://www.loc.gov/item/99439122

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/07/25/the-all-seeing-eye/

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/07/20/where-ignorant-armies-clash/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

struggle at Fort Sumter,

an almost-bloodless two-day battle

that became the start of the Civil War

almost by mistake.

 

"[At Fort Sumter]

the Southerners

thought that they would be able

to drive the Yankees off

of Confederate territory,

and [they thought that]

the North would feel

like it wasn't worthwhile

to fight to bring

the South back

into the Union,"

says Goodheart.

 

"Suffice to say,

they miscalculated hugely."

 

Goodheart

is the author of 1861:

The Civil War Awakening,

a social history

of the earliest days

of the Civil War,

a time when the country

— soon to be two separate nations —

was preparing itself for battle.

http://www.npr.org/2011/04/12/135246259/looking-at-the-civil-war-150-years-later

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2011/04/12/
135246259/looking-at-the-civil-war-150-years-later

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Who Won the Civil War?

 

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/02/who-won-the-civil-war

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/02/
who-won-the-civil-war/who-won-and-lost-the-civil-war-changed-over-time

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/02/
who-won-the-civil-war/the-us-won-the-civil-war

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/02/
who-won-the-civil-war/you-could-argue-that-the-west-won-the-civil-war

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/02/
who-won-the-civil-war/the-civil-war-was-a-victory-for-marx-and-working-class-radicals

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/02/
who-won-the-civil-war/after-the-civil-war-memory-took-time-to-desegregate

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/02/
who-won-the-civil-war/the-civil-war-and-the-perils-of-occupation

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/07/02/
who-won-the-civil-war/mexico-benefitted-from-the-civil-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The Black Press

During the Civil War

 

Although

the Civil War began

as a conflict

over secession,

from the start

most blacks

saw it

as an opportunity

to free the enslaved

with a Union victory

– a theme reflected

in the robust black press

that prospered

across the North.

 

In New York City,

the war

was closely chronicled

by two newspapers,

The Anglo-African

and The Christian Recorder.

 

Established in 1859

by the editor Robert Hamilton

and his brother Thomas,

The Anglo-African

reported extensively

on the Civil War

and the emancipation efforts.

 

But Anglo-African articles

also covered the breadth

of African-American life,

with a focus on political issues

relevant to black Americans,

presented

by black writer and activists

like Frances Ellen Watkins Harper,

the Rev. James W.C. Pennington

and Martin Delany.

 

The Christian Recorder,

founded in 1848,

was a national

weekly newspaper

published by the African

Methodist Episcopal Church,

based in Philadelphia,

but with correspondents

across the country.

 

The New York area

was served

by correspondents

in Manhattan and Brooklyn,

who, along with

The Recorder’s editor,

provided an unvarnished

critique of the war

and frequently of New York’s

black community.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/03/13/the-black-press-during-the-civil-war/

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/03/13/
the-black-press-during-the-civil-war/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American Civil War        1861-1865

 

The United States of America / The Confederate States of America

 

Timeline        Battles        Maps        Civil war photographs

 

Slaves / Slavery

 

Harper's Weekly Original Civil War Newspapers

 

Washington during the Civil War:

The Diary of Horatio Nelson Taft,

1861-1865

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1861.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwphome.html

 http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1861.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/cwmhtml/cwmhome.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/features/timeline/civilwar/civilwar.html

http://www.loc.gov/spcoll/048.html

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/tafthtml/tafthome.html

https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs 

http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/03/opinion/why-the-civil-war-still-matters.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Library of Congress

 

Time Line of The Civil War        1861-1865

 

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1861.html
http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paCw1861.html

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1862.html
http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paCw1862.html

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1863.html
http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paCw1863.html

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1864.html
http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paCw1864.html

 

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1865.html
http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paCw1865.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New York Times        Civil war timeline

 

An unfolding history

of the major events

of the Civil War

since Lincoln's election

using

contemporaneous coverage

from The Times'

article and photo archives.

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/opinion/disunion.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2010/10/29/opinion/20101029-civil-war.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20 December 1860

 

South Carolina Ordinance of Secession

 

 

"An Ordinance to dissolve the Union

between the State of South Carolina

and other States,"

 

On Dec. 20, 1860,

169 men

— politicians

and people of property —

met in the ballroom

of St. Andrew’s Hall

in Charleston, S.C.

 

After hours of debate,

they issued the 158-word

“Ordinance of Secession,”

which repealed the consent

of South Carolina

to the Constitution

and declared the state

to be an independent country.

 

Four days later,

the same group

drafted a seven-page

“Declaration

of the Immediate Causes,”

explaining why

they had decided

to split the Union.

 

The authors

of these papers

flattered themselves

that they’d conjured up

a second

American Revolution.

 

Instead,

the Secession Convention

was the beginning

of the Civil War,

which killed

some 620,000 Americans;

an equivalent war

today [ 2010 ]

would send home more

than six million body bags.

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/opinion/19Ball.html

 

 

 

 

 

Document Description:

After Abraham Lincoln was elected President

in early November 1860,

the South Carolina State Legislature

called for elections to a state convention

to be held on December 17th.

 

On December 20th,

all 169 delegates to the convention voted for secession

against Republican Presidential leadership

on matters of race, economics, and politics.

 

This document states that South Carolina

has repealed the Constitution and its amendments

and disassociated itself from the United States of America.



The convention would also draft the

“Declaration of Immediate Causes”

explaining exactly why the state seceded,

and “The Address to the People of South Carolina . . .”

outlining the erosion of the Union

and calling for a confederacy of southern states.

 

Citation:

Constitutional Convention (1860-1862).

South Carolina Ordinance of Secession, 20 December 1860.

Constitutional and Organic Papers. S 131053.

South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, South Carolina.

Transcription:

The State of South Carolina

At a Convention of the People of the State of South Carolina,

begun and holden at Columbia on the Seventeenth day of December

in the year or our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty

and thence continued by adjournment to Charleston,

and there by divers adjournments to the Twentieth day of December in the same year –

An Ordinance To dissolve the Union between the State of South Carolina and other States united

with her under the compact entitled “The Constitution of the United States of America.”

We, the People of the State of South Carolina, in Convention assembled do declare and ordain,

and it is herby declared and ordained, That the Ordinance adopted by us in Convention,

on the twenty-third day of May in the year of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred and eight eight,

whereby the Constitution of the United State of America was ratified,

and also all Acts and parts of Acts of the General Assembly of this State,

ratifying amendment of the said Constitution, are here by repealed;

and that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States,

under the name of “The United States of America,” is hereby dissolved.

Done at Charleston, the twentieth day of December,

in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty

[signed] D.F. Jamison Delegate from Barnwell and

President of the Convention

[signatures of delegates to the convention]

Attest: Benj. J. Arthur, Clerk of the Convention

http://www.teachingushistory.org/lessons/documents/Ordinance.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/dec/21/south-carolina-secession-civil-war

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/opinion/19Ball.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1859

 

The Birth of ‘Dixie’

 

 

the famous anthem

of the Confederacy

can trace its origins back

to a New York apartment

in March 1859.

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/31/the-birth-of-dixie/

 

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/31/
the-birth-of-dixie/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zachary Taylor    1784-1850

 

Twelfth president of the United States    1849-1850

 

 

Northerners

and Southerners

disputed sharply

whether the territories

wrested from Mexico

should be opened

to slavery,

and some Southerners

even threatened

secession.

 

Standing firm,

Zachary Taylor

was prepared

to hold

the Union together

by armed force

rather than

by compromise.

 

 Born in Virginia

in 1784,

he was taken

as an infant to Kentucky

and raised

on a plantation.

 

He was a career officer

in the Army,

but his talk

was most often

of cotton raising.

 

His home was

in Baton Rouge, Louisiana,

and he owned a plantation

in Mississippi.

 

But Taylor

did not defend slavery

or southern sectionalism;

40 years in the Army

made him

a strong nationalist.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zacharytaylor

 

 

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zacharytaylor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civil war photographs

 

http://www.thedailybeast.com/galleries/2011/04/10/
civil-war-at-150.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confederate States of America

 

Selected Images

from the Collections

of the Library of Congress

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paConfed.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portraits of Named Civil War Enlisted Men

 

Library of Congress

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/233_cwsoldiers.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photographs of African Americans

During the Civil War:

A List of Images in the Civil War

Photograph Collection

 

Library of Congress

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/081_cwaf.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photographs of Women During the Civil War:

Selected Images

 

Library of Congress

 

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/107_civw.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Broken Bodies, Suffering Spirits”

 

permanent exhibition on Civil War medicine - Mütter Museum, Philadelphia

 

 

 

 A new exhibition at the Mütter Museum

focuses in part on Philadelphia’s role in the Civil War.

 

It was not a battleground,

but about 157,000 injured soldiers

were transported there for treatment.

 

Among the images is this one of a soldier

who underwent reconstructive surgery for a facial wound

in 1864.

 

Historical Medical Photography Collection, Mütter Museum

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/science/broken-bodies-suffering-spirits-at-the-mutter-museum.html

 

Stark Reminders of How Uncivil a War It Was

‘Broken Bodies, Suffering Spirits’ at the Mütter Museum

By DENISE GRADY        NYT        JAN. 20, 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/science/broken-bodies-suffering-spirits-at-the-mutter-museum.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/
science/broken-bodies-suffering-spirits-at-the-mutter-museum.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Documentaries        Ken Burns        The Civil War

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/civil-war/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The New York Times        Disunion

 

Disunion

revisits and reconsiders

America's

most perilous period

-- using contemporary

accounts, diaries, images

and historical assessments

to follow the Civil War

as it unfolded.

https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/category/disunion/

 

 

https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/category/disunion/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Enlightenment’s ‘Race’ Problem

 

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/02/10/
why-has-race-survived/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History / Historical documents

 

17th, 18th, 19th, 20th century > America, USA

Slavery, Racism, Civil war, Abraham Lincoln

 

 

20th century > 1920s-1970s > Civil rights era

 

 

18th, 19th century > America, USA

 

 

19th century > USA > Emancipation Proclamation - 1863

 

 

United Kingdom > Slavery

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

slavery, eugenics,

race relations, racism, civil rights,

apartheid