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History > 20th century > WW2 > USA > India, Asia, Pacific > Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

 

The Last Kamikaze | Guardian Features        Video        The Guardian        11 August 2015

 

The last kamikaze:

'I felt the blood was draining from my face'

 

‘It sounds strange,

but we were congratulating each other for being selected’

for the special suicide attack unit.

 

‘When I knew we had lost the war ...

the thought going through my mind

was I had missed my chance to die ...

and be remembered in infinite glory.’

 

Two Japanese veterans

share memories of the second world war

and the aftermath of the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F3qoNE4XwhM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

War And Conflict-Wwii

 

Pfc. Faris M. (Bob) Tuohy, 19 holding coffee cup

&, along w. his fellow Marines, looking grimy & weary

from 2 days & 2 nights of fighting on Eniwetok Atoll

during WWII.

 

Location: Marshall Islands

Date taken: 1944

 

Photographer: Ray R. Platnick

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=09888f22a734f933

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louis Silvie Zamperini        1917-2014

 

 

 

 Capt. Louis Zamperini, right,

and Capt. Fred Garrett

at Hamilton Field, Calif.,

after their release

from a Japanese prisoner of war camp

in 1945.

 

Credit PCS/Associated Press

 

Louis Zamperini, Olympian and ‘Unbroken’ War Survivor, Dies at 97

By IRA BERKOW        NYT        JULY 3, 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/04/
arts/louis-zamperini-olympian-war-survivor-unbroken-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Olympic runner

whose remarkable story of survival

as a prisoner of war in World War II

gained new attention in 2010

with the publication

of a best-selling biography

by Laura Hillenbrand

 

(...)

 

Ms. Hillenbrand’s book,

“Unbroken: A World War II Story

of Survival, Resilience,

and Redemption”

recounted in vivid detail

how Mr. Zamperini

— a track star at the University

of Southern California

and an airman

during the war —

crashed into the Pacific,

was listed as dead

and spent 47 days

adrift in a life raft

before his capture

by the Japanese.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/04/
arts/louis-zamperini-olympian-war-survivor-unbroken-dies.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/04/
arts/louis-zamperini-olympian-war-survivor-unbroken-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eric Sutherland Lomax        1919-2012

 

The experience

of three and a half years

of slave labour and torture

as a prisoner of war

of the Japanese,

on the notorious

Burma-Siam railway,

dominated the rest of the life

of Eric Lomax.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/oct/09/eric-lomax

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/oct/09/eric-lomax

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

165th infantry attacking Butaritari, Yellow Beach Two

find it difficult to wade through coral-bottomed waters

while dodging Japanese gunfire.

 

Location: Makin Atoll, Gilbert Islands

Date taken: November 20, 1943

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=7342004b71c86934

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA        General Douglas MacArthur        1880-1964

 

second world war

supreme allied commander

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/timeline/index.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/peopleevents/pandeAMEX96.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/peopleevents/pandeAMEX98.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0126.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2009/oct/29/macarthur-reel-history

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

International Military Tribunal for the Far East    IMTFE

 

Tokyo Trials / Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal        1946-1948

 


 

 

Jap War Criminals Arraigned, Tokyo

 

Date taken: 1946

 

Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=f1bfe4a6feb8274e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jap War Criminals Arraigned, Tokyo

 

Date taken: 1946

 

Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=5150bc4a0b3cabd0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/peopleevents/pandeAMEX101.html

http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/nuremberg/tokyo.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 September 1945

 

Japanese surrender ceremony on board

the battleship USS Missouri (BB-63) in Tokyo Bay

 

日本の降伏

 

 

 

 

Japanese Sign Final Surrender

日本の降伏

 

News reel of the surrender ceremony

on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay

on September 2, 1945.

 

Background music is "With Honour Crowned".

 

YouTube > sget88        Aug 6, 2007

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcnH_kF1zXc 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mr. Desfor photographed

the official Japanese surrender ceremony

aboard the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay

on Sept. 2, 1945.

 

Max Desfor, 104, War Photographer at Midcentury, Is Dead

 

Mr. Desfor’s photo of hundreds of Korean War refugees crawling

across a damaged bridge in 1950 helped win him a Pulitzer Prize.

 

By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS        NYT        FEB. 21, 2018

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/21/
obituaries/max-desfor-104-war-photographer-at-midcentury-is-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5MMVd5XOK8

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcnH_kF1zXc

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/filmmore/
reference/primary/macspeech04.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hiroshima and Nagasaki        August 1945

 


 

 

Time Covers - The 40S

TIME cover 08-20-1945 The Fall of Japan,

re Japan's acceptance

of unconditional surrender on August 14, 1945,

ending WWII. (from TAC 1233-1)

 

Date taken: August 20, 1945

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=f87800b8af46bd44

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USS Indianapolis bombed        July 30, 1945

 

(...) The USS Indianapolis

is torpedoed

by a Japanese submarine

and sinks within minutes

in shark-infested waters.

 

Only 317 of the 1,196 men

on board survived.

 

However, the Indianapolis

had already completed

its major mission:

the delivery

of key components

of the atomic bomb

that would be dropped

a week later at Hiroshima

to Tinian Island

in the South Pacific.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/uss-indianapolis-bombed

 

 

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/uss-indianapolis-bombed

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/08/22/
545212207/remains-of-some-missing-sailors-found-in-sealed-compartments-on-uss-john-s-mccai

https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/20/world/asia/
uss-indianapolis-paul-allen.html

 

http://www.npr.org/2015/07/26/
425904134/cost-of-war-veterans-remember-uss-indianapolis-shark-attacks

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 6, 1945

 

The Yamato battleship

is sunk by American bomber

and fighter planes

 

 

In early April 1945,

the Pacific war

was in its final, violent days.

 

American soldiers

had slowly and bloodily

fought their way,

island by island,

across the Pacific,

while the Japanese

were running out

of kamikaze pilots and planes,

and their navy

had been half destroyed.

 

This is the setting

for both a battle

and a clash between

two styles of warfare.

 

On one side,

America is ready

to attack Okinawa

with 1,500 ships

and 250,000 men.

 

On the other,

Japan is led by an emperor

who traces his line of succession

back to the sun goddess

and the Japanese military

is possessed,

Morris explains,

by “the conviction

that battles can be won

by single, deadly blows,

samurai style.”

 

Now the Yamato

is sent on a suicide mission.

 

At 3 o’clock

on the afternoon of April 6

it sets sail for Okinawa,

where there is no plan

but for the great ship

to fire away at its enemies.

 

At 12:30 the following day,

386 American bomber

and fighter planes

begin their attack,

joined by submarines,

and three hours later

the Yamato slowly capsizes.

 

This was the end of the era

of battleships and great sea

battles.

 

It was, Morris claims,

“perhaps even the end

of the imperial idea itself.”

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/11/
books/review/jan-morris-battleship-yamato.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/11/
books/review/jan-morris-battleship-yamato.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japan        B-29 missions against Toyama, Honshu        1945



 

 

Aerial photo taken from American B-29

shows massive fire damage caused

by night time incendiary bombing raid over city.

 

Location: Toyama, Honshu, Japan

Date taken: 1945

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=e939926964f767ac

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japan        B-29 missions against Tokyo        March 10, 1945

 

 

 

Tokyo burns under B-29 firebomb assault,

May 26, 1945

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Firebombing_of_Tokyo.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Tokyo

Primary source > Library of Congress

DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3c11427

http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c11427
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?pp/PPALL:@field(NUMBER+@1(cph+3c11427))

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At Yalta,

the Soviet Union also agreed

to join the war against Japan

as soon as Germany was defeated.

 

The United States and Britain,

shaken by the suicidal defence

of Pacific islands,

feared that storming Japan

would cost up to half

a million allied casualties.

 

At that stage,

nobody knew whether

the new atomic bomb

would work.

 

In the meantime,

General Curtis LeMay

stepped up

his bombing attacks.

 

On the night of 9 March,

he sent his Superfortress squadrons

on a fire-bombing raid against Tokyo.

 

The mainly wooden houses

blazed into an inferno.

 

It is estimated

that 97,000 people died,

125,000 were injured

and 1 million left homeless.

 

On 6 April,

US forces landed on Okinawa

to seize it as a springboard

for the invasion of Japan itself.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/10/
second-world-war-liberation-europe

 

 

On March 10, 1945,

flying in darkness

at low altitudes,

more than 300 B-29s

dropped close to a quarter

of a million incendiary bombs

over Tokyo.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/pacific-b-29s/

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Tokyo

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/pacific/peopleevents/e_b29s.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/10/
second-world-war-liberation-europe

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/
pacific-yoshiko-hashimoto/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April - June 1945        Pacific        Battle of Okinawa

 

 

 

Ernie Pyle listening to a news report on war activities

over the loudspeaker of a Navy transport carrying Marines

to the invasion of Okinawa in 1945.

 

Credit Bettmann Archive/Getty Images

 

The Man Who Told America the Truth About D-Day

June 5, 2019

NYT

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/05/
magazine/d-day-normandy-75th-ernie-pyle.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

On 6 April,

US forces landed

on Okinawa to seize it

as a springboard

for the invasion

of Japan itself.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/10/
second-world-war-liberation-europe

 

 

 

The Battle of Okinawa

was one

of the bloodiest

and costliest

of World War II

in the Pacific.

 

The United States

needed a base

to stage an invasion

of mainland Japan.

 

The island of Okinawa

was the crucial final

stepping stone

for the Americans.

 

For the Japanese,

it would be the first time

they met the enemy

on home soil.

 

The battle

lasted 82 days.

 

More than

12,000 Americans

were killed

or missing in action

-- the highest number lost

in a single battle

in the Pacific war.

 

More than

70,000 Japanese soldiers

and Okinawan conscripts

were killed

defending the island.

 

Civilians,

caught in the crossfire,

bore the highest toll

-- perhaps as many as

100,000 to 150,000

Okinawan men,

woman, and children

lost their lives

during the nearly

three months of fighting.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/pacific-civilians-okinawa/

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/pacific-civilians-okinawa/

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/pacific-major-battles/

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/11/
the-last-kamikaze-two-japanese-pilots-tell-how-they-cheated-death

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/10/
second-world-war-liberation-europe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

near the Japanese island of Kyushu

 

Lt. Cmdr. Joseph R. Carmichael Jr.        May 11, 1945

 

 

The Bunker Hill,

an aircraft carrier

with dozens of planes

and vast stores

of fuel and ammunition

on its flight deck,

was struck

by two kamikaze planes

in suicide attacks

within minutes

of each other.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/02/us/joseph-r-carmichael-jr-hero-of-uss-bunker-hill-dies-at-96.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/02/us/
joseph-r-carmichael-jr-hero-of-uss-bunker-hill-dies-at-96.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philippines        The Battle for Manila        February-March 1945

 

 

 

San Thomas Prison Liberation

 

Two emaciated American civilians,

Lee Rogers (L) & John C. Todd,

sit outside gym

which had been used as a Japanese prison camp

following their release by Allied forces liberating the city.

 

Location: Manila, Luzon, Philippines

Date taken: February 05, 1945

 

Photographer: Carl Mydans

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MacArthur's forces take back the city

 

San Thomas Prison Liberation

 

 

Manila was only one

of the great cities

of Southeast Asia

overrun by the Japanese

war machine

between July, 1941

and April, 1942.

 

But unlike

Saigon, Hong Kong,

Singapore, Djakarta

and Rangoon

-- which late in the war

the Japanese

surrendered

to British forces

without a fight --

Manila

was the only city

in which Japanese

and Allied forces

collided.

 

The results

were unspeakable:

an estimated

100,000 of its citizens

died.

 

In the entire war,

only the battles

of Berlin and Stalingrad

resulted in more casualties.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/peopleevents/pandeAMEX98.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/peopleevents/pandeAMEX98.html

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_619.htm

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_2356.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16-26 February 1945

 

Pacific ocean

 

Battle for the Recapture of Corregidor

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/timeline/1945.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pacific Ocean

 

Mogmog Island in the Ulithi Atoll, part of the Caroline Islands        1945

 

 

 

Vast array of American warships just offshore of naval base

on Mogmog Island in the Ulithi Atoll, part of the Caroline Islands.

 

Location: Caroline Islands

Date taken: 1945

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=231a781adb859430

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ulithi was a major base

for the U.S. Navy in World War II.

 

The Japanese had established

a radio and weather station

early in the war,

and had used the lagoon

as an anchorage occasionally,

which resulted in strikes

from US aircraft carriers

early in 1944.

 

However, Ulithi

was perfectly positioned

to act as a staging area,

being nearly equidistant

from the Philippines,

Formosa, and Okinawa.

 

On September 23, 1944,

an army regiment

landed unopposed

(the Japanese

having evacuated

the atoll

some months earlier),

followed a few days later

by a battalion of Seabees.

 

The survey ship

USS Sumner (AGS-5)

surveyed the lagoon

and reported it capable

of holding 700 vessels,

and indeed just

a few months later,

617 ships

had gathered there

for the Okinawa operation.

 

The huge anchorage capacity

was greater than either Majuro

or Pearl Harbor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulithi

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulithi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pacific ocean        US flag raised over Iwo Jima        23 February 1945

 

 

 

Joe Rosenthal’s original, uncropped image from Iwo Jima.

 

Photograph: Joe Rosenthal/AP

 

Marines investigate claim of mistaken identity in Iwo Jima photograph

Associated Press in Des Moines        G        Tuesday 3 May 2016        16.32 BST

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/03/iwo-jima-photograph-mistaken-identity-marines-investigation

 

 

Related

 

Marines of the 28th Regiment, 5th Division

raise the U.S. flag atop Mount Suribachi

on Iwo Jima on Feb. 23, 1945.

 

After more than seven decades,

Navy Corpsman John Bradley's name

will be replaced in captions

with the name of Pvt. 1st Class Harold Schultz.

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/06/23/
483235411/marines-confirm-decades-old-case-of-mistaken-identity-in-iwo-jima-photo

 

Related

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/oct/16/
iwo-jima-flag-photo-marines-troops-soldier-misidentified

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/apr/28/alan-wood-iwo-jima-flag-photo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flag raising on Iwo Jima.

Joe Rosenthal, Associated Press.

February 23, 1945.

80-G-413988.

Pictures of World War II

US National Archives

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-156.jpg

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/?template=print#iwo

 

Related

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5685028

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The photograph, taken on Feb. 23, 1945,

became the model for the Iwo Jima Memorial

near Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.

 

Joe Rosenthal, Associated Press.

 

Joe Rosenthal, Photographer at Iwo Jima, Dies

August 21, 2006        NYT        By RICHARD GOLDSTEIN

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/21/business/media/22rosenthalcnd.html

Related

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5685028

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Put all your might into the Mighty 7th War Loan

Collection: Ad*Access

Company: F. & M. Schaefer Brewing Co.

Product: 7th War Loan

Publication: New Yorker

Publication Type: Magazine


Year: 1945


Number of Pages: 1

Military

Item Number: W0250

Duke University

http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/adaccess_W0250/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Large armada of US Navy ships

bringing American Marines & supplies

toward beachheads along island of Iwo Jima

during opening hours of the battle

to take the island from occupying Japanese forces.

 

Location: Mt Suribachi, Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands

Date taken: February 19, 1945

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=ef8f537a9a2be101

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iwo Jima Action

 

American Marines crouch below hillside

while detonating large explosive charge intended

to destroy cave network

connecting Japanese fortifications

dug into the ground of Iwo Jima.

 

Location: Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands

Date taken: 1945

 

Photographer: W. Eugene Smith

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=377b111e2396cff2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dead Japanese soldier following battle for Iwo Jima during WWII.

 

Location: Volcano Islands

Date taken: February 1945

 

Photographer: W. Eugene Smith

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=85635bd2747feb33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/23/newsid_3564000/3564547.stm

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=124232057

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7227947.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/5270434.stm

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5685028 

https://www.warnerbros.com/movies/letters-iwo-jima/  

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/vhp/story/loc.natlib.afc2001001.09749/

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/21/business/media/22rosenthalcnd.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/pacific-major-battles/

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/oct/16/
iwo-jima-flag-photo-marines-troops-soldier-misidentified

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/15/japanese-prime-minister-iwo-jima

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/oct/22/iwo-jima-graves-japanese-soldiers

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/20/nyregion/20iwo.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/jun/20/secondworldwar.japan

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2006/dec/20/
japan.film 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philippines        Leyte Gulf        20 October 1944 - 15 August 1945

 

 

 

Hospital On Leyte

Black-veiled Philippino women

kneeling at benches before alter

where priest conducts mass

while badly burned American Army officer

lies swathed in bandages

as he convalesces on cot in Cens Cathedral

turned into a makeshift Army hospital.

 

Location: Leyte, Philippines

Date taken: December 1944

 

Photographer: W. Eugene Smith

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=91bfe450df41e89c

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

One of the most memorable

images of World War II

is that of MacArthur

wading ashore at Leyte,

making good on his pledge

to return to and liberate

his beloved Philippines.

 

But often lost in the story

is the epic battle

being waged around him,

which included the greatest

naval engagement in history

and a long, difficult

land campaign.

 

As both prongs

of the Allied advance

-- MacArthur's and Nimitz's --

gained speed in 1944,

the Japanese

grew determined

to make a stand

in the Philippines.

 

Most American war planners

expected the greatest resistance

in Luzon,

where Japanese air bases

in China, Formosa,

Okinawa and Indochina

could play a decisive role.

 

But the Japanese defense plan,

code-named "Sho-1,"

called for a massive

commitment at Leyte

to cripple the American fleet

and destroy the invading force.

 

The plan nearly worked.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/maps/leyte01.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_5226.htm

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/maps/leyte01.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/pacific-major-battles/

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2015/03/04/
390684719/japanese-world-war-ii-battleship-musashis-wreck-found

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June and November, 1944

 

Pacific Ocean

 

Mariana and Palau Islands campaign

 

Offensive launched

by United States forces

against Imperial Japanese forces

in the Mariana Islands and Palau

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariana_and_Palau_Islands_campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 21-August 8, 1944

 

 

Second Battle of Guam

 

American capture

of the Japanese held island of Guam

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_5220.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saipan        15 June-9 July 1944

 

 

 

A member of a Marine patrol on Saipan

found this family of Japs hiding in a hillside cave.

The mother, four children and a dog,

took shelter from the fierce fighting in that area.

 

Cpl. Angus Robertson,

June 21, 1944.

127-GR-113-83266.

Pictures of World War II > Island Campaigns

US National Archives

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-144.jpg

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D-Day for Saipan

was June 15, 1944.

 

Twenty thousand Marines

made it to shore by nightfall.

 

U.S. forces

had come to understand

that the enemy they faced

did not believe in surrender.

 

Two days before the battle

ended on July 9,

in one of the Pacific war's

most horrifying suicide charges,

3,000 Japanese soldiers and sailors

attacked the U.S. Army's 27th Division

using whatever weapons they had left

-- grenades, rifles, mortars and even rocks,

swords and rusty bayonets attached

to bamboo sticks.

 

The Japanese preference

for suicide over capture

had been repeated

throughout the war

in the Pacific.

 

But it was civilian suicides

that would forever mark

the memories

of American troops

on Saipan.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/pacific-koyu-shiroma/

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_5219.htm

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/biography/pacific-koyu-shiroma/

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/pacific-major-battles/

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/6bdb5a098dbef6f0.html

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/e1c8b67783cf31af.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19-21 June 1944

 

Battle of the Philippine Sea (Marianas Turkey Shoot)

 

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_5220.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 March - 18 July 1944

 

South East Asia

Northern Burma and north east India

 

Defence of Imphal and Kohima

 

 

The Battle

of Kohima and Imphal

was the bloodiest

of World War II in India,

and it cost Japan much

of its best army in Burma.

 

(...)

 

The battlefields

in what are now

the Indian states

of Nagaland and Manipur

— some just a few miles

from the border with Myanmar,

which was then Burma —

are also well preserved

because of the region’s

longtime isolation.

 

(...)

 

The battle

began some two years

after Japanese forces

routed the British

in Burma in 1942,

which brought

the Japanese Army

to India’s eastern border.

 

Lt. Gen. Renya Mutaguchi

persuaded

his Japanese superiors

to allow him

to attack British forces

at Imphal and Kohima

in hopes of preventing

a British counterattack.

 

But General Mutaguchi

planned to push farther into India

to destabilize the British Raj,

which by then

was already being convulsed

by the independence movement

led by Mahatma Gandhi.

 

General Mutaguchi

brought a large number

of Indian troops

captured after the fall

of Malaya and Singapore

who agreed to join

the Japanese in hopes

of creating an independent India.

 

The British were led

by Lt. Gen. William Slim,

a brilliant tactician who re-formed

and retrained the Eastern Army

after its crushing defeat in Burma.

 

The British and Indian forces

were supported by planes

commanded

by the United States Army

Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell.

 

Once the Allies

became certain

that the Japanese

planned to attack,

General Slim withdrew

his forces

from western Burma

and had them dig

defensive positions

in the hills

around Imphal Valley,

hoping to draw

the Japanese into a battle

far from their supply lines.

 

But none

of the British commanders

believed that the Japanese

could cross

the nearly impenetrable jungles

around Kohima in force,

so when a full division

of nearly 15,000 Japanese troops

came swarming out

of the vegetation

on April 4,

the town

was only lightly defended

by some 1,500 British

and Indian troops.

 

The Japanese encirclement

meant that those troops

were largely cut off

from reinforcements and supplies,

and a bitter battle eventually

led the British and Indians

to withdraw into a small enclosure

next to a tennis court.

 

The Japanese,

without air support or supplies,

eventually became exhausted,

and the Allied forces

soon pushed them

out of Kohima

and the hills around Imphal.

 

On June 22,

British and Indian forces

finally cleared

the last of the Japanese

from the crucial road

linking Imphal and Kohima,

ending the siege.

 

The Japanese 15th Army,

85,000 strong

for the invasion of India,

was essentially destroyed,

with 53,000 dead and missing.

 

Injuries and illnesses

took many of the rest.

 

There were 16,500

British casualties.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/22/world/asia/
a-largely-indian-victory-in-world-war-ii-mostly-forgotten-in-india.html

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/ff6_imphal.shtml

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/22/world/asia/
a-largely-indian-victory-in-world-war-ii-mostly-forgotten-in-india.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Burma        Britain’s Fourteenth Army

 

https://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2016/jun/26/
sundays-best-tv-messages-home-lost-films-of-the-british-army-love-island

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In June 1942,

Japan invaded

and occupied

Kiska and Attu,

the westernmost islands

of Alaska's Aleutian Chain,

an archipelago of 69 islands

stretching some 1,200 miles

across the North Pacific Ocean

toward Russia's

Kamchatka Peninsula.

 

From a strategic perspective,

Japan wanted to close

what they perceived

as America's back door

to the Far East.

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/02/21/
516277507/the-other-wwii-american-internment-atrocity

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2017/02/21/
516277507/the-other-wwii-american-internment-atrocity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 18, 1942

 

Doolittle raids

 

America’s first strike

against the Japanese homeland

in World War II

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/23/us/
david-thatcher-part-of-42-doolittle-raid-on-japan-dies-at-94.html

 

 

 

 

On April 18, 1942,

sixteen B25 bombers,

with 80 volunteers

commanded

by Lieutenant Colonel

James Doolittle,

took off

from the aircraft carrier

Hornet.

 

Their mission

was to drop the first bombs

on Tokyo, Nagoya

and Yokohama.

 

All reached

their targets successfully,

with little Japanese response.

 

Then, low on fuel,

fifteen of the planes crashed

or were abandoned in China.

 

(The Japanese

would eventually

execute 250,000 Chinese

for helping

the American fliers

escape.)

 

A sixteenth plane

landed near Vladivostok.

 

Two of the Doolittle raiders

came down in enemy territory

and three crewmen were executed.

 

But 71 men

eventually came home.

 

The raid caused minor damage,

but the psychological effect,

on both the Americans

and the Japanese,

was incalculable.

 

Still recovering militarily

and emotionally from Pearl Harbor,

America had,

through a bold stroke

by real heroes,

brought the war home

to Japan.

 

Film of the raid

was widely distributed;

30 Seconds Over Tokyo (1943),

was a bestseller.

http://www.pbs.org/perilousfight/battlefield/doolittle_raid_midway/

 

 

 

 

The raid led by Colonel Doolittle

inflicted relatively light damage

on military and industrial targets,

but it delivered

a moral victory to Americans,

disconsolate

since the sneak attack

on Pearl Harbor less

than five months earlier,

and it was a stunning

psychological blow

to the Japanese,

who had been led to believe

that their homeland

was inviolable.

 

The raid became the basis

for the 1944 movie

“Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo,”

adapted from the book

of the same title

by Capt. Ted W. Lawson,

a pilot who took part in the attack.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/31/us/
robert-l-hite-survivor-of-doolittle-raid-and-japanese-imprisonment-dies-at-95.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/perilousfight/battlefield/doolittle_raid_midway/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/23/us/
david-thatcher-part-of-42-doolittle-raid-on-japan-dies-at-94.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/31/us/
robert-l-hite-survivor-of-doolittle-raid-and-japanese-imprisonment-dies-at-95.html

 

http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?
res=9F0DEEDB173DE13BBC4951DFB2668388659EDE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Northeast of Australia        Solomon Islands

 

Guadalcanal        August 7, 1942 - February 9, 1943

 

 

 

 

Guadalcanal

Gruesome severed head of a napalmed Japanese soldier

propped up below gun turret of a disabled Japanese tank.

 

Location: Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands

Date taken: February 1943

 

Photographer: Ralph Theodore Morse (USA, 1917-2015)

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=3dec57e9e439ffb4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bitter contest

between the Japanese

and the Americans

that marked a turning point

in the Pacific war.

 

The struggle

on Guadalcanal

was protracted,

and the period

from August 1942

to February 1943

saw some

of the most bitter

fighting of the war.

 

In all,

there were some 50 actions

involving warships or aircraft,

7 major naval battles,

and 10 land engagements.

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_5210.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/japan_no_surrender_01.shtml

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/detail_5210.htm

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/previous_seasons/case_dogfight/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tarawa Atoll        Battle of Tarawa         November 20 - November 23, 1943

 

 

 

US Marines dashing for cover

while assaulting Japanese positions on Betio Island.

 

Location: Betio, Tarawa, Gilbert Islands

Date taken: November 21, 1943

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=22a82f93f23885eb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony

is occupied by Japanese forces.

 

The Tarawa Atoll

sees some

of the fiercest fighting

in the Pacific

between Japan

and the Allied forces.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/2944816.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US Marine preparing to throw a hand grenade

while under fire on Betio Island during the invasion of Tarawa.

 

Location: Betio, Tarawa, Gilbert Islands

Date taken: November 20, 1943

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=939bb2fa024c0e18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tarawa Raid And Landing

 

Photographer: John Florea

Undated

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=ffe58804cd654fd7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tarawa Raid And Landing

Undated

 

Photographer: John Florea

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=f33b9706e8db266f

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tarawa

http://tv.nytimes.com/show/59385/Return-to-Tarawa-Memories-of-Battle/overview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Navajo code talkers        1942

 

 

Samuel Billison    1926-2004

Chester Nez    1921-2014

 

For Mr. Nez and his fellows,

World War II was quite literally

a war of words.

 

Their work,

and the safety

of tens of thousands

of American servicemen,

depended crucially

on the code

that they had created

during 13 fevered weeks in 1942,

as the prospect

of Allied victory in the Pacific

seemed increasingly uncertain.

 

Members of other

Native American tribes,

including the Comanche,

Choctaw and Winnebago,

using codes based

on their languages,

were also recruited

for the war effort,

serving in Europe

and North Africa.

 

But the Navajo,

who served in the Pacific,

furnished the war's

single largest contingent

of code talkers.

 

About 400 Navajos

followed the original 29 to war;

 

(...)

 

Serving on the front lines

in the Pacific's key battles,

Mr. Nez and other members

of the Marine Corps's 382nd Platoon

— made up entirely of Navajos

recruited for their fluency

in the language —

used the code

to relay movements

of American and enemy troops,

casualty reports,

coordinates of strategic targets

and other vital intelligence

to Marines in the field.



“There were no machines

or other devices

that could scramble

voice communications

that could be used

on the front lines,”

David A. Hatch,

the National Security

Agency's historian,

said in an interview

on Thursday.

 

“What the code talkers did

was to provide

absolute security

for the information

we transmitted

on the radios,

denying to the enemy

vital information

that we were picking up

from their communications.”

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/06/us/chester-nez-dies-at-93-his-native-tongue-helped-to-win-a-war-of-words.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/06/us/
chester-nez-dies-at-93-his-native-tongue-helped-to-win-a-war-of-words.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/2004/dec/07/guardianobituaries.usa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philippines

 

Internment of American Civilians

 

http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/eyewitness/html.php?section=6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Bridge on River Kwai

 

The Japanese use

Allied prisoners of war

and laborers from Malaysia,

India and Singapore

beginning in June of 1942

to complete

the strategic railway bridge

linking Thailand and Burma,

now known as Myanmar.

 

More than 300,000

prisoners and slave laborers

worked on the 268-mile rail line.

 

An estimated 90,000 died

from disease, malnutrition

and ill treatment.

 

 

http://articles.latimes.com/1990-11-19/news/mn-3584_1_river-kwai-bridge-festival 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/41/a3911041.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philippines        Battle of Corregidor

 

Fall of Bataan        April 9, 1942

 

American troops surrender to Japanese forces        May 1942

 

 

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/vhp-stories/loc.natlib.afc2001001.02940/

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/at_war_timeline_1942.htm

http://www.nps.gov/archive/wapa/indepth/extContent/usmc/pcn-190-003140-00/sec12.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Corregidor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 9, 1942

 

Philippines        The fall of Bataan

 

 

News of this atrocity sparked outrage in the US,

as shown by this poster.

The newspaper clipping shown

refers to the Bataan Death March.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anti-Japan2.png

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataan_Death_March

 

Creator: Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information.

Domestic Operations Branch.

Bureau of Special Services. (03/09/1943 - 09/15/1945)

NARA

ARC ID: 515483 / Local ID: 44-PA-1804

http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/action/ExternalIdSearch?id=515483&jScript=true

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Bataan Death March

from Bataan to Cabanatuan,

the prison camp

 

 

as many as 11,000 soldiers died

at the hands of the Japanese

in the Philippines

during the Bataan Death March

in 1942

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/us/16brown.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/sfeature/bataan_capture.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/sfeature/bataan_siege.html

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/

http://memory.loc.gov/diglib/vhp-stories/loc.natlib.afc2001001.02940/  

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/at_war_timeline_1942.htm

http://www.pbs.org/thewar/about_episode_guide_01.htm

http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=124054&page=1

http://www.ina.fr/histoire-et-conflits/seconde-guerre-mondiale/video/AFE98000046/
retour-du-general-wainwright-heros-de-bataan.fr.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/04/08/
523124519/ceremony-in-san-francisco-marks-the-75th-anniversary-of-the-bataan-death-march

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/07/19/
424408003/japans-mitsubishi-to-apologize-for-using-u-s-pows-as-laborers-in-wwii

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/us/16brown.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/17/books/17garner.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/17/books/excerpt-tears-in-the-darkness.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/25/opinion/25norman.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/26/opinion/26kotler.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pacific ocean        Military operations in the Pacific        Timeline

 

http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/topics/philippine/timeline.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/timeline/index.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 4-7 1942

 

Pacific ocean        USA        Japan        Battle of Midway

 

 

The Battle of Midway

is viewed as a turning point

of the war in the Pacific

because of the island's

strategic importance.

 

Its location would allow

an occupying Japanese force

to launch attacks

against Hawaii

and the American fleet

based there,

as well as Alaska

http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/94/9412/wwii.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/timeline/1942.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/pacific/maps/index.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_midway_01.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/7/newsid_3499000/3499378.stm

http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/94/9412/wwii.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_midway_01.shtml

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/10/us/
james-muri-honored-for-valor-in-battle-of-midway-dies-at-94.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1940-1949/Story/0,,127521,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 February 1942

 

Singapore forced to surrender

 

 

British forces in Singapore

surrender unconditionally

to the Japanese

seven days after enemy troops

first stormed the island.

 

(...)


The British capitulation

comes one week

after Japanese forces

invaded Singapore

and only two weeks

since their onslaught

on the Malay Peninsula

forced the British troops'

withdrawal to the island.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/newsid_3529000/3529447.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/
newsid_3529000/3529447.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(...) at the end of 1941 (...)

the Japanese

launched their great assault

across a front stretching

from the Malayan peninsula

to the central Pacific.

 

An all-conquering,

lightning march

down the Indochina peninsula

brought 30,000 Japanese troops

to the Strait of Johor,

between Malaya

and Singapore Island.

 

The British garrison

numbered nearly 140,000

but was in total chaos,

under‑equipped

with no aircraft or tanks,

demoralised and disorganised.

 

General Arthur Percival

surrendered the island

on 15 February 1942

– the greatest defeat

in British military history.

 

The prisoners

– British, Australian,

Indian and Malayan -

were initially

force-marched to Changi,

which rapidly

became an overcrowded

and insanitary

concentration camp.

 

From there,

many thousands went to Burma

to work on the railway to Siam

(now known as Thailand)

in appalling conditions.

 

Brutal interrogations

and gratuitous torture

became routine.

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2012/oct/09/eric-lomax 

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2012/oct/09/
eric-lomax 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pacific Campaign        1941-1945

 

 

 

By Lt. Victor Jorgensen, May 1945.

Pvt. J.B. Slagle, USA, receives  his daily dressing of wounds

on board USS SOLACE enroute from  Okinawa to Guam.

 

1999 digital print.

General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947.

(80-G-413963)

http://www.archives.gov/press/press-kits/picturing-the-century-photos/pvt-j-b-slagle.jpg

 

Picturing the Century:

One Hundred Years of Photography from the National Archives

Eight Portfolios from Part II

http://www.archives.gov/press/press-kits/1930-census-photos/photos-2.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Torpedoed Japanese destroyer

photographed through periscope of U.S.S. Wahoo or U.S.S. Nautilus,

June 1942.

 

80-G-418331.

Pictures of World War II > Navy & Naval Battles

US National Archives

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-62.jpg

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/pacificwar/timeline.htm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/05/asia_pac_world_war_ii_in_the_pacific/html/1.stm

http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/pacificwar/timeline.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South-East Asia        Burma Campaign        1941/42-1945


 

 

Battle-weary soldier who is a member of Merrill's Marauders,

pausing with a cigarette during Burma campaign in WWII.

 

Location: Myanmar

Date taken: 1944

 

Photographer: Bernard Hoffman

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=496fa633d8db3f08

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/1/burma/summary.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/burma_campaign_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_burma_campaign.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Micronesia

becomes major battleground

during World War II

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1300865.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japan        Comfort Women

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/05/30/
529671510/not-all-south-koreans-satisfied-with-japans-apology-to-comfort-women

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/15/
opinion/comfort-women-and-japans-war-on-truth.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/feb/09/japan.
secondworldwar 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japan        American POWs

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/13/
japan-revisits-its-darkest-moments-where-american-pows-became-human-experiments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japanese-Americans internment camps

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pearl Harbor - 7 December 1941

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

Japan > Hiroshima and Nagasaki - August 1945

 

 

USA > Pearl Harbor - 7 December 1941

 

 

20th century > 1939-1945 > World War II

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Images

 

advertisements > WW2 > USA

 

photos > wars > WW2

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

genocide, war,

weapons, espionage, torture