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History > 20th century > WW2 > USA, Canada, Europe, North Africa, Russia, Persia, Asia > Timeline in pictures

 

 

 

Henri-Chapelle Cemetery, Belgium

Date taken: November 1946

 

Photograph: Ralph Morse

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=c94836dddafcf8bd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 15, 1945

"American servicemen and women

gather in front of "Rainbow Corner" Red Cross club in Paris

to celebrate the unconditional surrender of the Japanese."

 

By an unknown photographer,

Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer.

(111-SC-210241)

 

NARA > Picturing the Century:

One Hundred Years of Photography from the National Archives

http://www.archives.gov/press/press-kits/picturing-the-century-photos/rainbow-corner-club-paris.jpg

http://www.archives.gov/press/press-kits/1930-census-photos/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mary Louise Rasmuson (born Milligan)        1911-2012

 

Mary Louise Rasmuson (...)

joined the Women’s

Army Corps

when it was formed

during World War II,

rose to be its director

under two presidents

and later

found a new life

as a civic leader

and philanthropist

in the young

state of Alaska

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/05/us/
mary-louise-rasmuson-led-womens-army-corps-dies-at-101.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/05/us/
mary-louise-rasmuson-led-womens-army-corps-dies-at-101.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Monuments men

 

Les oeuvres volées par Hitler

ou l'incroyable sauvetage

 

Documentaire de Petra Dorrmann        52mn

Allemagne-Autriche        2014

 

 

Dès 1944,

Hitler ordonne

de mettre à l’abri

les oeuvres d'art pillées.

 

Plus de 6 500 pièces

sont regroupées

dans la mine de sel

d’Altaussee,

en Autriche.

 

Après son suicide,

le 30 avril 1945,

et alors que les Alliés

approchent,

les nazis se préparent

à tout faire sauter.

 

Quand, le 12 mai,

les "Monuments men"

américains arrivent,

les oeuvres d’art

sont intactes...

 

Qui les a sauvées ?

 

Hitler et Göring

avaient en commun

leur amour de l’art (sic).

 

D’où l’énergie déployée

par leurs sbires

à piller des œuvres,

parfois de façon concurrente,

dans tous les musées

des pays occupés

ou à spolier

les grands collectionneurs

d’origine juive

comme la famille Rothschild.

 

À partir

du printemps 1944,

Hitler donne l’ordre

de mettre

les plus précieux trésors

à l’abri.

 

Dans la mine de sel

d’Altaussee, en Autriche,

sont ainsi regroupées

plus de 6 500 pièces

choisies par le Führer

pour le musée

qu’il rêve de créer à Linz,

dont la statue de la Madone

de Bruges de Michel-Ange

ou le retable de Gand

des frères Van Eyck.

 

Après son suicide,

le 30 avril 1945,

et alors que

les Alliés approchent,

les responsables du lieu

se préparent

à tout faire sauter.

 

Mais une série

de personnages

- ouvriers et experts

au service des nazis,

résistants

anglais et locaux -

s’en mêle.

 

Quand, le 12 mai,

les Monuments men

américains arrivent,

les œuvres d’art,

signées aussi Vermeer,

Rubens, Brueghel,

Rembrandt, Tintoret,

sont intactes.

 

Elles sont transportées

dans un dépôt central

à Munich

et restituées en partie

à leurs propriétaires.

 

En partie seulement,

car l’État autrichien

a joué un rôle

plus que trouble à ce sujet

des décennies durant.

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/050811-000/les-oeuvres-volees-par-hitler-ou-l-incroyable-sauvetage - outdated link

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/07/
movies/clooney-and-company-hunt-for-treasures-in-monuments-men.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/02/
arts/design/not-all-monuments-men-were-men.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saudi Arabia

gains strategic importance

during World War II

 

 

Although Saudi Arabia

officially maintained

neutrality

through most of the war,

the U.S. began

to court the kingdom

as it realized

the strategic importance

of Saudi oil reserves.

 

In 1943,

President Franklin Roosevelt

made Saudi Arabia eligible

for Lend-Lease assistance

by declaring

the defense of Saudi Arabia

of vital interest to the U.S.

 

In 1945,

King Abdel Aziz

and President Roosevelt

cemented the tacit

oil-for-security relationship

when they met

aboard the USS Quincy

in the Suez Canal.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saudi/etc/cron.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saudi/etc/cron.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japan

 

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki        August 6 / 9, 1945

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Held near Berlin,

the Potsdam Conference

(July 17 - August 2, 1945)

was the last

of the World War II meetings

held by the “Big Three”

heads of state.

 

Featuring

American President

Harry S. Truman,

British Prime Minister

Winston Churchill

(and his successor,

Clement Attlee)

and Soviet Premier

Joseph Stalin,

the talks established

a Council

of Foreign Ministers

and a central Allied

Control Council

for administration

of Germany.

 

The leaders arrived

at various agreements

on the German economy,

punishment

for war criminals,

land boundaries

and reparations.

 

Although talks

primarily centered

on postwar Europe,

the Big Three

also issued a declaration

demanding

“unconditional surrender”

from Japan.

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/potsdam-conference

 

 

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/potsdam-conference

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2016/jul/24/
the-day-i-met-joseph-stalin-brush-with-greatness-berlin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 1945

 

الجزائر        سطيف        قالمة

 

Algeria

 

Massacres in the Sétif and Guelma regions

 

 

The 8th of May 1945

is a key date

for the French history.

 

Each year,

one celebrates

the victory

over the Nazi Germany.

 

On the other side

of the Mediterranean

in Algeria,

this day of glory

is one day of mourning.

 

During the celebration

of the victory in 1945,

Algerians asserted

their will of independence.

 

They will undergo

during several weeks

a violent repression

led by the French Army.

 

It will make

thousands of victims.

http://autre8mai1945-lefilm.com/

 

 

 

(...) alors que la France

fêtait la victoire

contre le nazisme,

quelque 35 000 personnes

ont été tuées

par les autorités

militaires françaises

et les milices coloniales.

http://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/070515/
8-mai-1945-setif-et-guelma-les-crimes-contre-lhumanite-de-la-france

 

 

 

 

Ce 8 mai 1945,

alors que la France célèbre

la victoire des Alliés

sur l’Allemagne nazie,

les festivités

tournent au drame

à Sétif, Guelma et Kherrata,

dans l’est de l’Algérie,

où des nationalistes défilent

drapeaux algériens à la main.

 

La répression

de ces manifestations,

considérées

comme les prémices

de la guerre d’indépendance,

fait plusieurs milliers de morts

parmi les Algériens,

victimes de la police,

de l’armée

ou de milices de colons.

 

Une centaine

d’Européens,

pris à partie

par des nationalistes,

furent aussi tués.

http://www.liberation.fr/politiques/2015/04/19/l-hommage-de-la-france-aux-victimes-de-setif_1252006

 

 

https://mondediplo.com/2005/05/14algeria

 

 

http://www.mediapart.fr/journal/france/070515/
8-mai-1945-setif-et-guelma-les-crimes-contre-lhumanite-de-la-france

 

http://www.liberation.fr/politiques/2015/04/19/
l-hommage-de-la-france-aux-victimes-de-setif_1252006

 

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/08/AR2005050801150.html 

 

http://www.mediapart.fr/club/blog/benjamin-stora/280408/
setif-guelma-de-la-tragedie-aux-massacres-epouvantables

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7 May 1945

 

Germany signs unconditional surrender

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/7/
newsid_3578000/3578325.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5 May 1945

 

Denmark is liberated

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/may/05/
nazi-doctor-gay-people-carl-vaernet-escaped-justice-danish

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germany        Battle of Berlin        1945

 

 

 

Russian soldiers in Berlin at the end of the war.

 

Photograph: Hulton Getty

 


'Dancing on graves':

Russia hits out at Berlin festival near burial site

G

Thursday 21 April 2016        15.59 BST

Last modified on Thursday 21 April 2016        16.08 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/21/
dancing-on-graves-russia-berlin-soviet-memorial-lollapolooza-festival 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allied tanks move into a heavily bombed Munich

on April 29, 1945.

 

Knowing that the American troops were closing in,

residents began looting earlier that day, taking food, furniture

and parts of Hitler’s art collection.

 

Credit Hulton Archive/Getty Images

 

Hitler Looted the Art, Then They Looted Hitler

New research is helping the hunt for missing art,

largely amassed by Hitler,

then re-stolen by desperate Germans

in the closing days of the war.

NYT

July 19, 2019

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/19/
arts/design/hitler-looted-the-art-then-they-looted-hitler.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21 April 1945

 

Red Army enters outskirts of Berlin

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/21/newsid_3560000/3560175.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/berlin_01.shtml

 

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/11/29/
rare-photos-show-wwii-from-the-soviet-side-faminsky-bondar/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japan        Tokyo burns under B-29 firebomb assault        March 26, 1945

 

 

 

Tokyo burns under B-29 firebomb assault

May 26, 1945

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Firebombing_of_Tokyo.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Firebombing_of_Tokyo.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Tokyo_in_World_War_II

Primary source > Library of Congress > http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c11427

TITLE: Tokyo burns under B-29 fire bomb assault
REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-111427 (b&w film copy neg.)
RIGHTS INFORMATION: Publication may be restricted. For information see "New York World-Telegram & ...,"
(http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/076_nyw.html )
SUMMARY: Aerial view of Tokyo following bombing by B-29s, on the night of May 26.
MEDIUM: 1 photographic print.
CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1945.
NOTES: Associated Press photo from U.S. Army Air Forces. New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection.
FORMAT: Aerial photographs 1940-1950. Photographic prints 1940-1950.
DIGITAL ID: (b&w film copy neg.) cph 3c11427 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c11427 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 10, 1945

 

Japan

 

B-29 missions against Tokyo

 

 

At Yalta,

the Soviet Union

also agreed

to join the war

against Japan

as soon as Germany

was defeated.

 

The United States

and Britain,

shaken by

the suicidal defence

of Pacific islands,

feared that

storming Japan

would cost

up to half a million

allied casualties.

 

At that stage,

nobody knew whether

the new atomic bomb

would work.

 

In the meantime,

General Curtis LeMay

stepped up

his bombing attacks.

 

On the night

of 9 March,

he sent

his Superfortress

squadrons

on a fire-bombing raid

against Tokyo.

 

The mainly

wooden houses

blazed

into an inferno.

 

It is estimated

that 97,000 people died,

125,000 were injured

and 1 million

left homeless.

 

On 6 April,

US forces landed

on Okinawa to seize it

as a springboard

for the invasion

of Japan itself.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/10/
second-world-war-liberation-europe

 

 

 

On March 10, 1945,

flying in darkness

at low altitudes,

more than 300 B-29s

dropped

close to a quarter

of a million

incendiary bombs

over Tokyo.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/pacific-b-29s/

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Tokyo

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/pacific/peopleevents/e_b29s.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/10/
second-world-war-liberation-europe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germany

Bombing of Dresden - February 13-15, 1945

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russia        Ukraine        Yalta Conference         4-11 February 1945

 

 

 

Conference of the Big Three at Yalta

makes final plans for the defeat of Germany.

 

L to R:

Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill,

President Franklin D. Roosevelt,

and Premier Josef Stalin.

 

February 1945.

 

111-SC-260486

Pictures of World War II > Leaders

US National Archives

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-05.jpg

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WWII allies 3-power conf.

 

(L-R seated) British PM Churchill, US Pres. Roosevelt, Soviet ldr. Stalin,

w. aides (standing L-R) Fleet Adm. Cunningham, Fleet Adm. King, Air Marshal Portal, US Adm. Leahy

& unident. Soviets, at Livadia Palace.

 

Location: Yalta, Ukraine, Russia

Date taken: February 1945

 

Life Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4241863.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4201858.stm

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/7/newsid_3517000/3517236.stm

 

http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/yalta.htm

 

http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/01/documents/yalta.html

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/10/second-world-war-germany-yalta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 January 1945

 

German ship

Wilhelm Gustloff

is sunk

by three Russian

torpedoes

in January 1945.

 

 

The ship carried soldiers

and thousands of civilians,

many of them children

from Poland,

Latvia and Lithuania.

 

They were all fleeing

the advancing Soviet army.

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/17/
466924137/more-died-on-this-wwii-ship-than-on-the-titanic-and-lusitania-combined

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2016/02/17/
466924137/more-died-on-this-wwii-ship-than-on-the-titanic-and-lusitania-combined

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ardennes belges

et nord du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

 

 

December 1944 - January 1945

Bataille des Ardennes / Battle of the Bulge

 

 

Rundstedt's offensive

against American troops in the Ardennes

 

 

December 17, 1944

Germany counter-attacks in Ardennes

 

 

Adolf Hitler’s

massive surprise attack

inflicting heavy casualties

as the Allies massed

for a push toward Berlin.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/06/us/
nicholas-oresko-medal-of-honor-recipient-dies-at-96.html

 

 

 

 

The Germans

mount a series

of counter-attacks

on the Western front

allowing them

to re-cross the borders

of Luxembourg

and Belgium.

 

in December 1944 (...)

Hitler mounted

his last offensive of the war

in the snowy,

densely forested

Ardennes region

of Belgium, France

and Luxembourg.

 

Allied forces,

which had been moving

toward Germany

after the D-Day

invasion of France,

were caught unaware

by the counteroffensive

and were initially

pushed back.

 

Hitler had hoped to defeat

the British and Americans there

so he could concentrate

on fighting the Soviet Union

on the eastern front.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/23/us/vernon-mcgarity-medal-of-honor-winner-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

The bodies

of Belgian men, women, and children,

killed by the German military

during their counter-offensive

into Luxembourg and Belgium,

await identification before burial.

 

15 December 1944

 

Source: National Archives and Records Administration

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DeadBelgiumcivilians1944.jpg

 

Author Franklin D. Roosevelt Library Public Domain Photographs

Primary source > NARA > ARC Identifier 196543

http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/action/ExternalIdSearch?id=196543&jScript=true

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Troops of the famed 82nd Airborne Div (3rd Batt; 504th Para. Reg.).

march through snow behind tanks of the 340th Tank battalion

on way to engage Germans

nr. town of Herresbach during the Battle of the Bulge.

 

Location: Herresbach, Belgium

Date taken: December 1944

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=7e3993069999e7fc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bodies (marked for identification)

of American POW soldiers of Battery B,

285th Field Artillery Observation Battlion

murdered in cold blood on Dec. 17, 1944

by a regiment of the Nazi 1st SS Panzer Div.

under command of Lt. Col. Jochen Peiper

outside the town of Malmedy

during the opening days

of the Battle of the Bulge.

 

Location: Malmedy, Belgium

Date taken: January 15, 1945

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=2e2ddd790a82d179

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bulge/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/ff7_bulge.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_bulge_01.shtml

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10006178

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/maps/wwii/essay1.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/16/
obituaries/anthony-acevedo-who-documented-his-holocaust-ordeal-dies-at-93.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/26/world/europe/augusta-chiwy-forgotten-wartime-nurse-dies-at-94.html

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/may/20/ardennes-1944-hitlers-last-gamble-antony-beevor-review

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/06/us/nicholas-oresko-medal-of-honor-recipient-dies-at-96.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/23/us/vernon-mcgarity-medal-of-honor-winner-dies-at-91.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/23/opinion/23colley.html

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/10/second-world-war-battle-bulge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oct. 29, 1944

 

First Jewish Broadcast

from Aachen, Germany   

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/18/nyregion/18cantor.html

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZihm6VlYjo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 - 19 October 1944

 

Second Moscow Conference

 

 

The Allied conference

held in Moscow

in October 1944

was codenamed

Tolstoy.

 

It involved

Stalin, Churchill

and their advisors.

 

America

was represented

by the US ambassador

Averell Harriman,

as an observer,

and the head

of the US military

in Moscow,

General John Dean.

 

Outcome:

 

Decisions

about Russia's entry

in the war

against Japan;

 

post-war division

of the Balkans;

 

the future of Poland.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1144874.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1144874.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17-25/26 September 1944

 

Holland        Battle of Arnhem        Operation Market Garden

 

 

US Airborne Divisions

take objectives in Holland

to open a corridor

for the advancing British Army.

 

British 1st Airborne 10 Division

lands at Arnhem

but meets strong resistance.

 

The Allies fail

to gain a bridgehead

across the lower River Rhine

 

Airborne troops

retreat from Arnhem - 26 September 1944

http://london.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/4/dday/pdfs/DDayAftermath.pdf

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/26/
newsid_3523000/3523972.stm

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/battle_arnhem_01.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launch_ani_arnhem.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 12 – 16, 1944

 

Conferences

Quebec, Canada - 1944 (codename Octagon)


Participants : Winston Churchill,

Franklin D. Roosevelt

 

 

Objectives:

 

Churchill:

to ensure that Great Britain

received extended

U.S. Lend-Lease supplies

and to propose dividing Germany

into zones of occupation ;

 

Roosevelt:

to discuss the plan

on the deindustrialization of Germany

created by Secretary of the Treasury

Henry Morgenthau.

 

Outcome:

They determined

Allied military strategy

in Europe and the Pacific.

 

Churchill

committed a British fleet

to help the U.S.

in the Pacific war

and received the assurance

of continued Lend-Lease aid

while Japan remained

undefeated.

 

The men

agreed that Germany

would be divided

into occupation zones

after the war.

 

Despite

Churchill’s reservations,

they also approved

the Morgenthau plan

to obliterate German industry

and give German machinery

to Allied nations;

the plan was later abandoned.

http://www.pbs.org/behindcloseddoors/in-depth/the-conferences.html#Octagon

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/behindcloseddoors/in-depth/the-conferences.html#Octagon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt

sitting together on terrace of The Citadel, Quebec,

during the two leaders' conference on war problems.

 

Location: Quebec City, Canada

Date taken: 1944

 

Photographer: George Skadding

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/f724f4053cc353c0.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        Liberation of Paris        25 August 1944

 

 

 

American troops in tank passing the Arc de Triomphe

after the liberation of Paris,

August 1944.

208-YE-68.
 

Pictures of World War II

US National Archives

http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/images/ww2-105.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sign carrying civilians march in parade

the day after the liberation of Paris

by Allied troops.

 

Location: Paris, France

Date taken: August 26, 1944

 

Photographer: Frank Scherschel

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=2f7515f69abac870

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7984436.stm

https://www.archives.gov/research/military/ww2/photos?template=print#france 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3590542.stm

http://www.lemonde.fr/shoah-les-derniers-temoins-racontent/article/2005/08/01/
les-parisiens-racontent-l-embrasement-d-une-ville_676095_641295.html#ens_id=675875

http://www.ina.fr/histoire-et-conflits/seconde-guerre-mondiale/video/
AFE00003169/le-general-de-gaulle-a-paris.fr.html

http://www.ina.fr/fictions-et-animations/fictions-historiques/video/AFE99000037/
le-general-de-gaulle-met-le-pied-sur-la-terre-de-france.fr.html

http://www.ina.fr/fictions-et-animations/fictions-historiques/video/AFE00003044/
role-de-l-armee-francaise-dans-la-liberation-de-la-france.fr.html

http://www.ina.fr/histoire-et-conflits/seconde-guerre-mondiale/video/AFE00003140/
annonces-du-debarquement-en-normandie-et-de-la-liberation-de-paris-a-alger.fr.html

http://www.ina.fr/histoire-et-conflits/seconde-guerre-mondiale/video/AFE99000038/
journal-de-la-resistance-la-liberation-de-paris.fr.html

http://www.ina.fr/histoire-et-conflits/seconde-guerre-mondiale/video/AFE01000022/
la-liberation-de-paris-version-monde-libre.fr.html

http://www.ina.fr/histoire-et-conflits/seconde-guerre-mondiale/video/AFE04002049/
bilan-d-un-an.fr.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25 August 1944

 

Paris liberation made 'whites only'

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7984436.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/bristol/somerset/7868913.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August - 2 October 1944

 

Poland        Warsaw Uprising

 

 

The Warsaw Uprising

took place

on 1 August 1944,

when the Polish resistance

attempted to liberate

Warsaw

from Nazi Germany

in occupied Poland.

 

The uprising

lasted for 63 days,

ending after

massive retaliation

by the Nazis

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2013/aug/07/poland-warsaw-uprising-69th-anniversary

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2013/aug/07/poland-warsaw-
uprising-69th-anniversary

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/3/newsid_3560000/3560811.stm

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005188

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1944

 

German

 

The Stauffenberg plot to kill Hitler

 

Count Claus von Stauffenberg    1907-1944

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/10/
stauffenberg-plot-germany-hitler

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 1944

 

Italy        Liberation of Rome

 

 

http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/11/11/an-american-garden-in-a-foreign-land/ 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/5/newsid_3547000/3547329.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 June 1944

 

France

 

Oradour-sur-Glane

 

Nazi massacre of civilians

 

 

Six hundred and 42 people,

including 247 children,

were shot or burnt alive

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/03/
oradour-sur-glane-nazi-massacre-village

 

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007840

 

 

http://www.lepoint.fr/societe/massacres-de-tulle-et-oradour-70-ans-apres-
hommages-de-hollande-et-valls-09-06-2014-1833886_23.php

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/09/
former-nazi-guard-france-oradour-massacre

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/03/
oradour-sur-glane-nazi-massacre-village

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 June 1944

 

France

 

Tulle

 

Nazi massacre of civilians

 

 

Le 9 juin 1944,

en représaille

à des actions de résistance,

les Waffen SS

avaient pendu aux balcons

et aux lampadaires de la ville

99 Tullois.

 

Cent quarante-neuf habitants

avaient également été déportés

au camp de concentration

de Dachau, près de Munich

(sud-ouest de l'Allemagne),

dont 101 ne sont jamais revenus.

http://tempsreel.nouvelobs.com/topnews/20140609.AFP9202/
massacres-de-tulle-et-oradour-70-ans-apres-hommages-de-hollande-et-valls.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        D-Day / Normandy landings        June 6, 1944

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander Cassie, known as Sandy    1916-2012

 

It was

on the moonless night

of March 24 and 25, 1944,

that 76 Allied

prisoners of war,

most of them British,

clambered down

a 30-foot shaft

and crawled through

a 340-foot-long tunnel

below the supposedly

escape-proof

Stalag Luft III camp

in eastern Germany

— the daring breakout

that was celebrated

in the classic 1963 movie

“The Great Escape.”

 

In their pockets,

the escapees carried

what looked like officially

stamped documents,

identification cards,

business cards

and even letters

written in German

from purported

wives and sweethearts,

all of which were intended

to make it possible for them

to befuddle a hapless

guard or police officer

stopping them

on their way to freedom.

 

Flight Lt. Alex Cassie,

a British bomber pilot,

was one of a half-dozen artists

who had been forging

those documents for months,

playing a central role

in the larger conspiracy

to free hundreds

of the nearly 1,000 airmen

in the camp.

 

They called their unit

Dean and Dawson,

after a well-known

London travel agency.

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/22/world/europe/
alex-cassie-who-aided-great-escape-from-nazis-dies-at-95.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/22/world/europe/
alex-cassie-who-aided-great-escape-from-nazis-dies-at-95.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19 March 1944

 

The German army invades Hungary

 

 

(...) four weeks later,

the concentration of Jews

began.

 

Jews from Munkács

were forced

into two ghettos,

and those from

the surrounding areas

were assembled

at two brick factories

on the outskirts of town.

 

On 11 May 1944

the deportations

to Auschwitz began,

and on 23 May

the last deportation train

left Munkács.

http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/communities/munkacs/during_holocaust.asp

 

 

https://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/communities/
munkacs/during_holocaust.asp 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1944

 

Life Magazine

 

Rare Photos

From the Allied Invasion

of Southern France

 

 

http://life.time.com/history/rare-photos-from-the-allied-invasion-of-southern-france-1944/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italian Campaign        1943-1945

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July - August 1943

 

Battle of Kursk

The largest tank battle in history

 

German and Soviet operations

on the Eastern Front

 

Georgi Zhukov    1896-1974

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/zhukov_georgi.shtml

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kursk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1943

 

Western Allies invade Sicily

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/10/
newsid_3587000/3587283.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1943-1945

 

Allies        Italian campaign

 

 

The campaign

started in July 1943,

when the troops

invading Italian territory

became the first

to liberate Nazi Europe,

and did not end until 1945.

 

However,

much of the most

critical fighting

took place

in May and June 1944,

leading up

to the liberation of Rome,

on 5 June 1944

– the day before

the Normandy Landings.

 

(...)

 

Allied casualties in Italy

were more than 312,000

– considerably higher

than those in Normandy.

 

British casualties

are thought

to have been

more than 90,000,

during a gruelling

advance northwards

through what Winston Churchill

called the "underbelly of Europe".

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/britainatwar/5299500/D-Day-dodgers-prepare-for-attention.html

 

 

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/britainatwar/
5299500/D-Day-dodgers-prepare-for-attention.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11-25 May 1943

 

Allies        Second Washington Conference

 

 

The primary focus

of the conference

was future strategy

in the European war.

 

A major decision was made

to delay the invasion of France;

a date was set for May

the following year.

 

To establish air bases

in the Azores,

the Allies also decided

to apply to Portugal

for assistance.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1142047.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1142047.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norway

 

Birger Edvin Martin Stromsheim    1911-2012

 

 

There was

no Google Earth,

no Gore-Tex

and only a modest

measure of hope

on the February night in 1943

when six Norwegians

parachuted

into the remote and frigid

Telemark region

of their home country

for an outdoor challenge

like few others.

 

They had

skis and explosives

and a destination:

the German-controlled

Norsk Hydro facility,

high on an isolated

and snowy ridge.

 

The Norwegians intended

to destroy equipment inside

that the Germans

were using to produce

what is known as heavy water,

a crucial ingredient

in making a nuclear weapon

and one they feared

the Nazis would use

to build an atomic bomb.

 

One of the demolitions experts

on the team,

Birger Stromsheim,

died Nov. 10 in Oslo at 101.

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/world/europe/
birger-stromsheim-who-aided-raid-on-nazi-plant-dies-at-101.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/10/world/europe/
birger-stromsheim-who-aided-raid-on-nazi-plant-dies-at-101.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14-24 January 1943

 

Allies        Casablanca Conference

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1140373.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russia        Battle of Stalingrad        August 21, 1942 - February 2, 1943

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Winter 1942

 

Germany        Reinhard Hardegen        1913-2018

 

 

(...) leading German

submarine commander

of World War II

who brought U-boat warfare

to the doorstep

of New York Harbor

in the winter of 1942

 

(...)

 

Soon after

the United States

went to war

with Japan and Germany,

Admiral Karl Donitz,

the commander

of the German

submarine service,

sent six U-boats to attack

oil tankers and freighters

in American and Canadian waters

before they could head overseas.

 

The mission,

code-named

Paukenschlag

(Drumbeat),

was aimed at further

disrupting Britain’s

precarious supply lifeline

and demoralizing

the American home front.

 

Captain Hardegen

provided Drumbeat

with some of its

most stirring exploits

when his U-boat sank

two ships off Long Island

and brought him close

enough to New York City

to see the glare

from Manhattan’s

skyscrapers

in the night skies.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/17/
obituaries/reinhard-hardegen-who-led-u-boats-to-americas-shore-dies-at-105.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/17/
obituaries/reinhard-hardegen-who-led-u-boats-to-americas-shore-dies-at-105.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operation Torch

 

Algeria-Morocco military campaign

 

Allied Landings in French North Africa        8 November 1942

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19 August 1942

 

France

 

Dieppe Raid / Landing

 

 

also known as

The Battle of Dieppe,

Operation Rutter

or Operation Jubilee

 

Most of the 6,000-strong force

was made up of Canadians,

seeing front line action

for the first time,

as well as British, American

and French soldiers.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/19/newsid_3560000/3560309.stm

 

 

http://www.junobeach.org/canada-in-the-second-world-war/

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/19/
newsid_3560000/3560309.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France

 

Margival, près de Soisson

 

Margival,

la forteresse hitlérienne

méconnue

 

 

Construit en 1942

par des ouvriers français,

le camp de Margival,

dans l'Aisne,

fut, jusqu'en 1944,

le QG d'Hitler en France.

http://www.lesechos.fr/info/france/020725082719.htm

 

 

https://www.lesechos.fr/12/08/2010/
lesechos.fr/020725082719_margival--la-forteresse-hitlerienne-meconnue.htm

 

http://www.dday-overlord.com/en/battle-of-normandy/bridgehead/2/3  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japan

 

The Japanese military

raped and enslaved

thousands of Asian

and European women

in army brothels

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/03/
opinion/another-attempt-to-deny-japans-history.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/29/
obituaries/kim-bok-dong-dead.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/03/
opinion/another-attempt-to-deny-japans-history.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Singapore forced to surrender        15 February 1942

 

 

 

British, Australian, and Indian troops

surrender to the Japanese

as Singapore falls in 1942.

 

Photograph: Popperfoto/Getty Images

 

Into the storm: the horror of the second world war

Eighty years ago the worst conflict in history began,

killing up to 85 million people.

It also shaped modern Britain

and its relationship with Europe

G

Sun 1 Sep 2019    08.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2019/sep/01/
ascherson-into-the-storm-second-world-war-outbreak

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British forces

in Singapore

surrender

unconditionally

to the Japanese

seven days

after enemy troops

first stormed

the island.

 

(...)


The British capitulation

comes one week after

Japanese forces

invaded Singapore

and only two weeks

since their onslaught

on the Malay Peninsula

forced the British troops'

withdrawal to the island.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/
newsid_3529000/3529447.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/15/
newsid_3529000/3529447.stm

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theobserver/2019/sep/01/
ascherson-into-the-storm-second-world-war-outbreak

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1942

 

USA

 

The Women Airforce Service Pilots

- The "WASPs"

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/24/us/
24cowden.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Europe map        1942

 

 

 

Carte de l'Europe en 1942

Mémorial de la Shoah

http://www.enseigner-histoire-shoah.org/outils-et-ressources/chronologie-et-cartes/cartes.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 December 1941 - 14 January 1942

 

Allies        Washington Conference

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1140346.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 December 1941

 

Germany and Italy

declare war on US

 

 

Germany and Italy

announce they are at war

with the United States.

 

America

immediately responds

by declaring war

on the two Axis powers.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/11/newsid_3532000/3532401.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/december/11/
newsid_3532000/3532401.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25 August - 17 September 1941

 

Allies        Middle East        Persia (now Iran)

 

Anglo-Soviet invasion        Operation Countenance

 

 

Persia's

strategic importance

increased

as the war progressed.

 

In 1940

it produced

over eight million

tons of oil,

essential

for the Allied war effort.

 

Furthermore,

Germany's

invasion of Russia

in June 1941

made Persia

critically important

for sending

American Lend-Lease

supplies

to the Eastern Front.

 

While officially neutral,

Persia had friendly ties

with Germany

and was home

to many German

nationals.

 

Reza Shah Pahlavi's

refusal to expel

the German nationals,

coupled with their

more strategic concerns,

prompted

an Anglo-Soviet invasion

in August 1941.

 

The invasion

and occupation

of Persia

was swift

and undemanding.

 

The British units

invaded Persia

from their bases

in Iraq,

to the south of Iran.

 

The Russians

invaded from the north.

 

Persian resistance

was rapidly

overwhelmed

and neutralised

by Soviet and British

tanks and infantry.

 

Before long,

the Shah was exiled

to South Africa.

 

The British

and Soviet troops

met in Tehran

on 17 September

and effectively

divided the country

between them

for the rest of the war.

 

A Tri-Partite

Treaty of Alliance

between Britain,

Russia and Persia,

signed in January 1942,

committed the Allies

to leaving Persia

at the end of the war.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1130121.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1130121.shtml

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Soviet_invasion_of_Iran

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August 1941

 

Allies        Secret meetings seal US-Britain alliance

 

 

Top-secret meetings

between Prime Minister

Winston Churchill

and American President

Franklin D Roosevelt

 

(...)

 

Details of the meetings

only emerged

after the announcement

of a joint declaration

by Britain and America

on the basic principles

for a post-war world,

sealing the alliance

between the two countries

for the downfall of Hitler.

 

(...)

 

The document,

known as the Atlantic Charter,

consists of a list of eight (?)

undertakings.

 

1 - Britain

and the United States

seek no territorial gains

from the war

 

2 - any changes to a country's

territory should only happen

with the agreement

of the people living there

 

3 - it is the right of everyone

to choose the government

under which they will live

 

4 - self-government

should be restored

to those who have lost it

 

5 - there should be free trade

between all nations

 

6 - improvements in the economy

and in living standards

should be available to all

 

7 - there should be peace following

what the Charter calls

"the end of Nazi tyranny"

 

8 - peace should enable

freedom of movement

around the world

 

9 - a belief

that aggressive nations

must be disarmed

if the world

is to live at peace

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/14/newsid_3536000/3536533.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/14/newsid_3536000/3536533.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Allies        France        Normandie-Niémen unit

 

Created by

de Gaulle in 1942

to help repel

Hitler’s invasion

of the Soviet Union

in June 1941,

the Normandie-Niémen unit

was composed

of nearly 100 French

fighter pilots,

almost half of whom

were killed in action.

https://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/26/
world/europe/26albert.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/26/
world/europe/26albert.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atlantic Ocean

 

Contemporary accounts

of Atlantic Ocean battles

during the second world war

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/08/
buchheim-monsarrat-atlantic-naval-duel-ww2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA        Home front

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Soviet-German War        1941-1945

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/soviet_german_war_01.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germans invade the Soviet Union        Operation Barbarossa        22 June 1941

 

 

 

Air Raid Over Moscow

 

Overall of central Moscow

w. antiaircraft gunners dotting sky over Red Square

w. exploding shells w. spires of Kremlin silhouetted

by German Luftwaffe flare.

 

Location: Moscow, Russia

Date taken: July 26, 1941

 

Photographer: Margaret Bourke-White

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=eabefc43c9dc43b0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/hitler_russia_invasion_02.shtml

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/22/newsid_3526000/3526691.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/06/
operation-barbarossa-russia-second-world-war 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Greece        Axis occupation        April 1941 - October 1944


 

 

Ragged young Greek children during WWII.

 

Location: Greece

Date taken: October 1944

 

Photographer: Dmitri Kessel

Life Images

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_occupation_of_Greece_during_World_War_II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Axis occupation

of Greece

during World War II

began in April 1941

after the German and Italian

invasion of Greece,

and was carried out together

with Bulgarian forces.

 

The Occupation lasted

until the German withdrawal

from the mainland

in October 1944.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_occupation_of_Greece_during_World_War_II

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_occupation_of_Greece_during_World_War_II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In early March 1941,

Bulgaria

joined the Axis alliance

and, in April 1941,

participated

in the German-led attack

on Yugoslavia and Greece.

 

In return,

Bulgaria received

most of Thrace

from Greece,

and Macedonia

as well as parts

of eastern Serbia

from Yugoslavia.

 

Though Bulgaria

participated

in the Balkan Campaign,

it refused to enter the war

against the Soviet Union

in June 1941

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005451

 

 

 

 

Hitler/Jaeger File

 

German troops enter Bulgaria.

 

Date taken: March 1941

 

Photographer: Hugo Jaeger

Hugo Jaeger was one of Hitler's personal photographers.

http://www.life.com/image/ugc1000272/in-gallery/27022

Life images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=79631bc8a3b75742

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005451

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA / Japan        Pacific Campaign        1941-1945

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA        Japanese-Americans internment camps

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japan, USA        Pearl Harbor        Sunday, 7 December 1941

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The case against American isolationism

during the second world war

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/07/
american-isolationism-henry-luce-ww2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Britain declares war

on Finland,

Hungary and Romania

on 5 December 1941,

following the signing

of the Tri-partite Pact

and Finland's alliance

with Germany

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1138501.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

German conquests in Europe        1939-1942


 

 

German conquests in Europe, 1939-1942 > map

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/media_nm.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005137&MediaId=363

Copyright © United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA        Trading with the Enemy Act

 

George W. Bush's grandfather

US senator Prescott Sheldon Bush    1895-1972


 

 

Steve Bell        The Guardian        G2        p. 23        10.5.2005

 

Top > Main character : U.S. President George W. Bush

 

Top > last image on tle right: Adolf Hitler.

http://digital.guardian.co.uk/guardian/2005/05/10/pages/two22.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/sep/25/usa.secondworldwar

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/sep/25/usa.secondworldwar 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/sep/25/germany.secondworldwar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1940

 

Russia        Katyn massacre

 

forest of Katyn, near the city of Smolensk

 

zbrodnia katyńska, mord katyński

 

Катынский расстрел

 

 

In the spring of 1940

the Soviets proceeded

with the “liquidation”

of the Polish officer corps,

shooting nearly 15,000 men

in Katyn Forest

http://movies.nytimes.com/2009/02/18/movies/18katy.html

 

 

 

22,000 Polish

officers and intellectuals

were murdered

http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2010/apr/24/katyn-massacre-poland-president

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/apr/28/katyn-massacre-russia-documents-web

http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2010/apr/24/katyn-massacre-poland-president

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/
katyn-painful-wound-that-has-yet-to-heal-1942117.html

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/5579176/Katyn-review.html  

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8606126.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11845315

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8606126.stm - 7 April 2010

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2009/jun/19/katyn-andrzej-wajda-film-review

http://movies.nytimes.com/2009/02/18/movies/18katy.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 June 1940

 

United Kingdom

 

Charles de Gaulle's

BBC rallying call to France

 

Appel du 22 juin

 

 

Il n'y a pas eu

d'enregistrement

(audio ou film)

de l'Appel du 18 juin 1940,

contrairement à

celui du 22 juin 1940,

avec lequel

on le confond souvent

http://www.charles-de-gaulle.org/pages/l-homme/dossiers-thematiques/
1940-1944-la-seconde-guerre-mondiale/l-appel-du-18-juin/documents/l-appel-du-22-juin-1940.php

 

 

http://www.charles-de-gaulle.org/pages/l-homme/dossiers-thematiques/
1940-1944-la-seconde-guerre-mondiale/l-appel-du-18-juin/documents/l-appel-du-22-juin-1940.php

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 June 1940

 

United Kingdom

 

Charles de Gaulle's

BBC rallying call to France

 

Appel du 18 juin

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jun/18/charles-de-gaulle-bbc-broadcast

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jun/13/de-gaulle-rallying-cry-almost-silenced

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10339678

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France        Bataille de Dunkerque / Battle of Dunkirk        20 May - 3 June 1940

 

 

 

Hitler/Jaeger File

Dunkirk after British bombardment and retreat.

 

Location: Dunkirk, France

Date taken: June 1940

 

Photographer: Hugo Jaeger

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/df15c1ca7a20795a.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/4/newsid_3500000/3500865.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romania and Hungary

joined the Tri-partite Pact

- originally signed

on September 27, 1940

by Germany,

Japan and Italy -

in November 1940,

as Hitler

prepared his attack

against Bolshevism

on the Eastern Front.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1138501.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/timeline/factfiles/nonflash/a1138501.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 23, 1940

 

France        Hendaye        Adolf Hitler meets Francisco Franco

 

 

 

Smiling German ldr. Adolf Hitler (R)

shaking hands w. Spanish leader Generalissimo Francisco Franco (2L)

during Hitler's only official meeeting w. Franco.

 

Location: Hendaye, France

Date taken: October 23, 1940

 

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=2bab5be9c6f1bc41

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.ina.fr/histoire-et-conflits/seconde-guerre-mondiale/video/
AFE85000178/entrevue-historique-du-chancelier-hitler-avec-le-general-franco.fr.html

 

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/spain/3533400/
Franco-feared-Hitler-would-kidnap-him.html
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Tripartite Pact,

also called

the Three-Power Pact,

Axis Pact,

Three-way Pact

or Tripartite Treaty,

was signed

in Berlin, Germany

on September 27, 1940.

 

It established

the Axis Powers

of World War II.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tripartite_Pact

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tripartite_Pact

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?ModuleId=10005177

 

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/triparti.asp

 

http://www.ina.fr/fresques/jalons/notice/InaEdu00227/
signature-du-pacte-tripartite-entre-l-allemagne-l-italie-et-le-japon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 June 1940

 

The Soviet Union invades Lithuania

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jan/04/
chiune-sugihara-my-father-japanese-schindler-saved-6000-jews-lithuania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Fall of France        May - June 1940

 

 

 

In 1940,

refugees fled Paris

in anticipation of the German invasion.

 

FPG/Hulton Archive, via Getty Images

 

Would You Hide a Jew From the Nazis?

Nicholas Kristof        NYT        SEPT. 17, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/18/
opinion/sunday/would-you-hide-a-jew-from-the-nazis.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/fall_france_01.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/45/a2598645.shtml

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/france

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Netherlands        Rotterdam        May 14, 1940

 


 

 

Leveled city of Rotterdam

resulting from ignored German ultimatum

ordering Dutch commander of city to cease fire

delivered to him at 10:30 a.m. on May 14, 1940;

at 1:22 p.m.,

German bombers set

whole inner city of Rotterdam ablase,

killing 30,000 of its inhabitants.

 

Location: Rotterdam, Netherlands

 

Date taken: 1940

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/l?imgurl=c35a9c97fcd778ca

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

German bombers

set whole inner city

of Rotterdam ablaze,

killing 30,000

of its inhabitants

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotterdam_Blitz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 May 1940

 

Germany invades the Netherlands

 

 

On 10 May 1940,

the German army

invaded the Netherlands.

It was the start

of five days of fighting

that resulted

in the occupation

of the Netherlands

 

(...)

 

The planned attack

on the Netherlands

was part of a larger

plan of attack,

of which the code name

was Fall Gelb.

 

The goal of the Germans

was to conquer France.

 

They wanted to bypass

the French defence line

at the eastern border

by going through

the Netherlandsand Belgium.
 

https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/
go-in-depth/german-invasion-netherlands/

 

 

https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/
go-in-depth/german-invasion-netherlands/

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/25/
obituaries/freddie-oversteegen-dutch-resistance-fighter-dies-at-92.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Avril 1940

 

Guerre dans le Grand Nord

 

Occupation of Denmark

 

 

En avril 1940,

les troupes allemandes

lancent une offensive

contre la Norvège.

 

D’abord

prises au piège

à Narvik,

port norvégien

au-delà

du cercle polaire,

elles sont ensuite

en première ligne

pour attaquer

l’Union soviétique.

http://www.arte.tv/fr/content/tv/02__Universes/U1__Comprendre__le__monde/02-
WebMagazines/50_20ARTE_20Histoire/01_20Geschichte_20am_20Mittwoch/01_20
Aktuell/edition-2010.08.08/ART__intro__Arktis__11.08.2010/3347848.html
- outdated link

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denmark_in_World_War_II

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/jan/13/
ignobledanes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1940

 

France        War is real, U.S. is told        April 4, 1940

 

 

France

is not fighting

a ‘‘phoney’’ war

and it will not accept

a ‘‘phoney’’ peace,

Premier Paul Reynaud

declared last night

in a radio talk in English

to the United States,

which was carried

on a national hook-up

in America.

 

He said that,

once Hitler

has been crushed,

Europe can return

to normal life,

eliminating

disastrous war budgets

and spending billions

on social welfare

instead of armaments,

at the same time returning

to a sane conception

of exchange

and taking up

the problem

of establishing

a federative bond.

 

Mr. Reynaud’s speech

follows in part:

‘‘I am not addressing

you tonight

to give you advice.

You alone can decide

what you wish

or do not wish to do.

 

The only thing of which

we are sure here

is that if wishes

were active forces

in this world,

there are so many

Americans

who wish the Allies

to be victorious,

that we would win the war

tomorrow morning.’’

 

— New York Herald Tribune,

European Edition, April 4, 1940

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/03/1940-war-is-real-u-s-is-told/

 

 

http://iht-retrospective.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/03/
1940-war-is-real-u-s-is-told/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17,000 Jewish Canadians

(...) fought in World War II

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/08/
magazine/canadian-jewish-veterans-world-war-ii.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WWII: (...) catastrophe foretold

 

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/sep/01/
world-war-two-eighty-years-on-world-still-haunted-by-catastrophe-foretold

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russia before the second world war

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/05/
second-world-war-stalin-russia 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rising tension in Asia

before the second world war

 

Declining relations

between Russia and Japan

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/05/
second-world-war-asia-japan-russia 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

America's economy

before the second world war

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/05/
america-great-depression-second-world-war

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The economic impact

of the Treaty of Versailles

(28 June 1919)

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/05/
versailles-second-world-war 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/versailles_01.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/outcomes3_01.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/thetreatyrev1.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nazi Germany invades Poland        September 1, 1939

 

 

 

Nazi soldiers arrive in Gdańsk, Poland,

in 1939.

 

Photograph: AP

 

Tehran Children: A Holocaust Refugee Odyssey – review

G

Sun 1 Dec 2019    11.00 GMT

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/dec/01/
tehran-children-holocaust-refugee-odyssey-mikhal-dekel-review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beginning

of World War II

as the United Kingdom

declares war

on Germany

in response

to the invasion.

 

The Soviet Union

invades from the east.

 

Germany

and the Soviet Union

divide Poland

between them

and treat

Polish citizens

with extreme

brutality.

 

Germany

begins

systematic

persecution

of the large Jewish

population.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/1/
newsid_3506000/3506335.stm

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?ModuleId=10005070

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005300

 

http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/wwii/

 

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005069

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7913.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7914.shtml

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1054724.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23-24 August 1939

 

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact / Nazi-Soviet Pact

 

 

 

L to R:

Stalin and Ribbentrop at the signing of the Pact

23 August 1939

Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-H27337,_Moskau,_Stalin_und_Ribbentrop_im_Kreml.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin

Primary source > Das Bundesarchiv

http://www.bild.bundesarchiv.de/archives/barchpic/search/_1252826541/?
search%5Bform%5D%5BSIGNATUR%5D=Bild+183-H27337

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vyacheslav Molotov (left) signs the pact

as Joachim von Ribbentrop (centre)

and Joseph Stalin watch.

 

Photograph: ullstein bild via Getty Images

 

Molotov-Ribbentrop:

why is Moscow trying to justify Nazi pact?

 

Exhibition about Soviet-Nazi treaty,

signed on 23 August 1939,

seeks to turn spotlight

on west’s behaviour in 1930s

 

Fri 23 Aug 2019        07.17 BST

Last modified on Fri 23 Aug 2019        10.14 BST

G

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/23/
moscow-campaign-to-justify-molotov-ribbentrop-pact-sparks-outcry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treaty of Non-Aggression

between

the Third German Reich

and the Union of Soviet

Socialist Republics

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8212451.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8214391.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/bitesize/higher/history/
roadwar/munich_rev2.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/23/
moscow-campaign-to-justify-molotov-ribbentrop-pact-sparks-outcry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22 May 1939

 

Italy and Germany

sign the Pact of Steel

to help each other

in the event of war

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/bitesize/higher/history/
roadwar/munich_rev2.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1938-1939

 

Munich agreement,

Annexation of Austria,

Czechoslovakia partition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spain        Spanish civil war        Guernica        1937

 

 

 

The Basque town of Guernica

after its devastation by German bombs

in 1937.

 

Photograph: Universal History Archive/UIG via

 

Eighty years on,

Spain may at last be able to confront the ghosts of civil war

O

Sunday 29 May 2016        08.00 BST

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/29/
national-museum-spanish-civil-war-barcelona

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Gen Franco

wanted to terrorise

the people

in the Basque region,

an area of strong resistance

to his nationalist forces

in the Civil War.

 

For Nazi Germany

and Fascist Italy,

it was an opportunity

to get some practice

with a new form of warfare:

strategic, aerial bombing

of civilians.

 

No strictly military objectives

were touched.

 

Factories and bridges

were left alone

- civilians

were the only targets.

 

(...)

 


The figures for the number

of casualties in the bombing

are still disputed,

but most historians think

between 200 and 250 people

were killed

and many hundreds

wounded.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6583639.stm

 

 

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6583639.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcone/
modernmasters/virtual-exhibition/picasso/12-guernica.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/29/
national-museum-spanish-civil-war-barcelona

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 1936

 

German-Japanese Treaty

 

Berlin and Tokio

announce their pact

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1930-1939/
Story/0,,127041,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1936

 

Germany begins rearming

and invades the Rhineland

up to the French border

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwtwo/
overview_britain_1918_1945_03.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rise of Fascism in Italy

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/21/
books/review/iris-origo-chill-in-the-air.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1936

 

Italy

 

Mussolini: 'Ethiopia is Italian'

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1930-1939/
Story/0,,127067,00.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italy's empire building

before the second world war

 

1936

 

Mussolini's conquest of Abyssinia

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopian_Empire

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/05/
italy-abyssinia-second-world-war 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1930-1939/
Story/0,,127069,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 1936

 

Mussolini and Hitler

recognise the Government

of General Franco

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1930-1939/
Story/0,,127033,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 18, 1935

 

Anglo-German Naval Agreement

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-German_Naval_Agreement

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nazi Germany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1933

 

Germany

 

 

Adolf Hitler

comes to power  

on a programme to reverse

the Versailles Treaty.

 

He withdraws

from the disarmament conference

and leaves the League of Nations.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwtwo/overview_britain_1918_1945_03.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwtwo/overview_britain_1918_1945_03.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/germany/hitlerconsolidaterev2.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/germany/hitlerconsolidaterev_print.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/sceptred_isle/page/197.shtml?question=197

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir1/aimsrev1.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA

 

The Immigration Act of 1924

(The Johnson-Reed Act)

 

 

Japanese immigration to America

is banned

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_Act_of_1924 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1920s

 

U.S. Isolationism

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
United_States_non-interventionism#Isolationism_Between_the_World_Wars 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

20th century > 1939-1945 > World War II

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Images

 

advertisements > WW2 > USA

 

photos > wars > WW2

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

genocide, war,

weapons, espionage, torture

 

 

 

 

Related

 

The New York Times > Topics > WW2

http://www.nytimes.com/topic/subject/world-war-ii-193945 

 

 

Canada > Canadian War Posters Collection

http://digital.library.mcgill.ca/warposters/english/introduction.htm

 

 

The Guardian > Second World War

 

Second world war > Holocaust

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2009/sep/09/second-world-war

Second world war > Stalingrad

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2009/sep/08/second-world-war

Second World War > Liberation

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2009/sep/10/second-world-war

Second World War > Aftermath

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/2009/sep/11/second-world-war

 

 

 

 

BBC Archive

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/index.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/ww2outbreak/7970.shtml

 

 

 

 

Combattants de l'ombre - Des Européens résistent au nazisme

Un film de Bernard George, ARTE France 2011

 

Tournée dans quatorze pays,

cette série exceptionnelle traite pour la première fois

de la Résistance dans sa dimension européenne.

 

À partir d'archives et de témoignages inédits,

un nouveau et passionnant regard sur cette époque.

http://www.arte.tv/fr/
Comprendre-le-monde/histoire/Les-mercredis-de-l-histoire/2068068.html

http://videos.arte.tv/fr/videos/
les_combattants_de_l_ombre_des_europeens_resistent_au_nazisme-4186160.html

http://videos.arte.tv/fr/videos/
les_combattants_de_l_ombre_des_resistants_europeens_contre_le_nazisme-4186164.html

- broken URLs

 

 

 

 

Le Monde Diplomatique > Seconde guerre mondiale    1939-1945

http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/index/sujet/secondeguerremondiale

 

 

 

 

US “sand pounders” / Coast Guardsmen

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/03/nyregion/
john-cullen-coast-guardsman-who-detected-spies-dies-at-90.html