Les anglonautes

About | Search | Grammar | Vocapedia | Learning | Docs | Stats | History | News podcasts - Videos | Arts | Science | Translate

 Previous Home Up Next

 

History > 20th, early 21st century > South Africa > Apartheid, Post-apartheid era > Nelson Mandela    1918-2013
 

 

 

SA celebrates 20 years of freedom for Mandela

DAVID SMITH

Mail & Guardian Online

 

Slideshow > Mandela's release

Relive the historic moment of Nelson Mandela's release,

as he took his first steps as a free man in a new South Africa

following 27 years in prison.

Feb 11 2010        06:42

http://mg.co.za/article/2010-02-11-sa-celebrates-20-years-of-freedom-for-mandela

http://mg.co.za/multimedia/2010-02-11-mandelas-release

http://mg.co.za/uploads/2010/02/11/mandelawinnie.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nelson Mandela        1918-2013

 

 

 

 

FRONTLINE

The Long Walk of Nelson Mandela

 

Aired: 05/25/1999

01:51:33

Rating: NR

An intimate portrait

of one of the 20th century's greatest leaders

https://www.pbs.org/video/frontline-long-walk-nelson-mandela/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/topic/person/nelson-mandela 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/nelsonmandela

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/046172-000/nelson-mandela-le-reconciliateur

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-obituary

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/world/africa/nelson-mandela_obit.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/10/world/africa/Honoring-Mandela.html

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2013/12/the_world_mourns_mandela.html

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/12/06/us-mandela-death-idUSBRE9B417U20131206

http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/africa/100000002602889/mandelas-enduring-words.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/09/nelson-mandela-1992-video

https://www.cagle.com/news/nelson-mandela/

http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/africa/1247465446832/nelson-mandela-1918-2013.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-interactive-timeline

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-life-quotes

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mandela_nelson.shtml

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jul/22/
men-rivonia-trial-nelson-mandela-1964

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/07/17/
629601956/obama-speaks-up-in-south-africa

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/07/17/
629601956/obama-speaks-up-in-south-africa

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/jul/16/
the-prison-letters-of-nelson-mandela-review

 

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2018/jul/14/
lifelines-nelson-mandelas-prison-letters-reveal-his-love-dreams-and-loss

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/20/
nelson-mandela-weapons-training-mossad-agents

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/15/nelson-mandela-zelda-la-grange-interview

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/14/
opinion/molefe-mandelas-unfinished-revolution.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/13/
opinion/cohen-gandhi-and-mandela.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/13/
nelson-mandela-battle-war-inequality

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/12/
nelson-mandela-long-walk-legacy

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/11/
mandela-sanitised-hypocrites-apologists-apartheid

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/11/world/africa/
will-handshake-with-castro-lead-to-headache-for-obama.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/11/opinion/friedman-why-mandela-was-unique.htm

 

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-23618727 - 11 December 2013

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/10/mandela-coverage-banality-of-goodness

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/10/world/africa/nelson-mandela-south-africa.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/10/world/africa/after-mandela-a-test-at-the-polls-for-his-party.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/09/obama-castro-speakers-nelson-mandela-memorial

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/video/2013/dec/09/parliament-pays-tribute-nelson-mandela-video

 

http://www.theguardian.com/media/greenslade/2013/dec/09/nelsonmandela-daily-mirror

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/09/mandela-memorial-barack-obama-raul-castro-dilma-rousseff

 

http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/dec/09/nelson-mandela-death-davd-cameron-ed-miliband

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/09/nelson-mandela-uk-political-delegation-south-africa

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/09/nelson-mandela-1992-video

 

http://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/dec/09/jerry-dammers-free-nelson-mandela

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/09/world/africa/nelson-mandela-south-africa.html

 

http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2013/12/09/how-mandela-shifted-views-on-freedom-of-markets/

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/nelson-mandela-funeral-south-africa

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/nelson-mandela-how-africa-changed

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/08/prayers-remembrance-nelson-mandela-south-africa-video

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/south-africa-soweto-regina-mundi-church-apartheid-nelson-mandela

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/nelson-mandela-shared-final-moments-graca-machel-winnie-madikizela

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/08/nelson-mandela-anti-apartheid-movement

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/08/nelson-mandela-death-anc-south-african-democracy

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/nelson-mandela-favourite-photographer

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/nelson-mandela-francois-pienaar-rugby-world-cup

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/08/opinion/sunday/keller-nelson-mandela-communist.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/africa/
100000002591923/a-soweto-church-says-goodbye-to-mandela.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/nelson-mandela-david-astor-observer

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/video/2013/dec/07/gillian-slovo-nelson-mandela-video

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/what-nelson-mandela-meant-to-me

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/maya-angelou-poem-nelson-mandela

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/nelson-mandela-freedom-fighter-john-carlin

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/nelson-mandela-robben-island-anc-prisoner

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/07/world/africa/south-africas-born-frees-move-past-apartheid.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/07/opinion/nelson-mandela-freedoms-champion.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/07/opinion/a-lesson-before-dying.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/nelson-mandela-time-world-statesman

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/africa/100000002587899/born-free.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/africa/100000002589043/reflections-from-soweto.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/06/world/africa/mandela-photographers.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/06/world/africa/mandela-obit-music.html

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/recalling-and-covering-nelson-mandela/

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-in-britain

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-death-giant-among-men

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-remembered-south-africa

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-companions-walk-freedom

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/06/desmond-tutu-nelson-mandela

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/06/desmond-tutu-leads-prayer-memory-nelson-mandela-video

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-south-africa-black-president

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/graca-machel-nelson-mandela-wife
 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/qunu-nelson-mandela-home

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-south-africa-house-london

 

http://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-protest-song-special-aka

 

http://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-in-the-movies

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-aids-south-africa

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-robben-island-prison

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/head-quarters/2013/dec/06/
was-nelson-mandela-the-pinnacle-of-human-psychology

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-blessed-share-lifetime-justice-malala

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/06/barack-obama-tribute-nelson-mandela-video

 

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/photographing-outside-apartheids-white-bubble/

 

 

 

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/12/06/us-mandela-death-idUSBRE9B417U20131206

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/12/06/us-mandela-obituary-idUSBRE9B417H20131206

 

http://www.reuters.com/video/2013/12/05/
nelson-mandela-a-life-in-pictures?videoId=274812212&videoChannel=5

 

http://www.reuters.com/video/2013/12/05/africa-
loses-beloved-leader?videoId=274811787&videoChannel=117760

 

http://www.reuters.com/news/pictures/slideshow?articleId=USRTR3BF86#a=1

 

http://blogs.reuters.com/nicholas-wapshott/2013/12/05/what-mandela-meant/ 

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/world/africa/nelson-mandela_obit.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/world/africa/nelson-mandela.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/africa/1247465446832/nelson-mandela-1918-2013.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/05/world/africa/memories-of-mandela-a-hero-everywhere-and-nowhere.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/the-voice-of-mandela.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/mandela-memories-obit.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/news/minute/2013/12/05/times-minute-nelson-mandela-remembered/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/world/africa/obama-mandela.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/opinion/nelson-mandela.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/opinion/the-contradictions-of-mandela.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/opinion/mahama-mandela-taught-a-continent-to-forgive.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-death-long-walk-to-freedom-film-premiere

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/06/follow-nelson-mandela-laugh-rightwing-fawning

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-winnie-mandela-marriage

 

http://www.theguardian.com/media/gallery/2013/dec/06/newspapers-national-newspapers

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/gallery/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-life-in-pictures

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-barack-obama-symbol-justice

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-a-leader-above-all-others

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-south-africa-black-president

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/06/opinion/the-contradictions-of-mandela.html

 

 

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-dies-aged-95-south-africa

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-dies-aged-95-live-updates

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-death-world-reaction

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/fw-de-klerk-nelson-mandela-death

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-barack-obama-symbol-justice

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-interactive-timeline

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-changed-history-south-africa-us

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-funeral-plan

 

https://witness.theguardian.com/assignment/52a0f50fe4b0a8ed49b80847#contribute

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/nelson-mandela-life-quotes

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-dies-aged-95-live-updates

 

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/12/05/nelson-mandela-was-undeniably-great-but-he-doesn-t-need-a-halo.html

 

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/12/05/six-defining-moments-from-nelson-mandela-s-life-video.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-at-peace-jacob-zuma-video

 

 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/29/movies/mandela-long-walk-to-freedom-with-idris-elba.html

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/jul/18/nelsonmandela-southafrica

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jul/17/nelson-mandela-better-95th-birthday

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/12/world/africa/for-mandelas-family-a-wrenching-decision-may-loom.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/09/opinion/global/roger-cohen-dreaming-of-mandela.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jul/04/nelson-mandela-grandson-defends-burial

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/jul/04/nelson-mandela-children-graves-exhumed-video

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/world/africa/obama-visits-prison-where-mandela-was-jailed.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jun/30/battle-nelson-mandela-legacy-qunu

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/30/world/africa/johannesburg-
center-is-helping-to-preserve-the-legacy-of-mandela.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/30/opinion/sunday/keller-mandela-and-obama.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/30/world/africa/obama-mandela.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jun/29/daughter-mandela-burial

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/jun/29/obamas-south-africa-mandelas-video

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/29/world/africa/mandela-health-overshadows-visit-by-obama.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/jun/28/nelson-mandela-global-village-loses-elder

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/jun/27/nelson-mandela-daughter-media-vultures-video

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jun/27/mandela-family-vultures-foreign-media

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jun/27/nelson-mandela-condition-improves

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/28/world/africa/mandela-obama-africa.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/24/world/africa/mandelas-condition-now-said-to-be-critical.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/jun/12/nelson-mandela-responding-better-treatment-video

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/jun/08/nelson-mandela-hospital

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/dec/26/nelson-mandela-south-africa-discharged-hospital

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/17/opinion/keller-south-africa-since-mandela.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/dec/08/nelson-mandela-admitted-hospital-tests

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/dec/07/mandela-bailed-out-zuma-audit

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/04/world/africa/arthur-chaskalson-south-african-chief-justice-dies-at-81.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/15/world/africa/alf-kumalo-south-african-photographer-of-apartheid-dies-at-82.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/aug/06/south-africa-clinton-mandela-meeting

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2012/jul/18/nelson-mandela-birthday-south-africa-video

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2011/dec/02/
nelson-mandela-observer-south-africa-apartheid-video

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/oct/11/nelson-mandela-conversations-with-myself

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/12/world/robben-island-
journal-with-vivid-palette-mandela-depicts-the-jailhouse-years.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/26/nelson-mandela-death-fear-south-africa

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/04/mandela-tambo-law-offices-museum

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jan/28/nelsonmandela-southafrica

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/28/world/africa/28safrica.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/oct/17/nelson-mandela-conversations-with-myself-review

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/jun/10/barack-obama-nelson-mandela-diaries

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/14/nelson-mandela-office-redevelopment-fears

http://mg.co.za/multimedia/2010-02-11-mandelas-release

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/09/world/africa/09mandela.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/oct/30/nelson-mandela-engagements-health

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1454208.stm

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/oct/12/mandela

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/apr/23/nelsonmandela1

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/apr/23/nelsonmandela2

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/feb/01/southafrica.nelsonmandela

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2005/jan/09/southafrica.nelsonmandela

http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2004/jul/25/southafrica.theobserver

http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2003/jul/12/southafrica.nelsonmandela

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T2d3ENhn8Kg

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5s8xkjG8bx4

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpw8AU3wMsM

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/11/newsid_2539000/2539947.stm

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/12/newsid_3006000/3006437.stm

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/feb/11/nelsonmandela.southafrica 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/sep/24/books.southafrica

https://www.theguardian.com/world/1993/sep/25/southafrica.davidberesford 

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,6051,105573,00.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Nelson Mandela    1918-2013

 

interactive timeline

 

 

selection

of Guardian reporting

on the former

South African president,

Nelson Mandela,

from his early days as a dissident

to his role as the world's

elder statesman

http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-interactive-timeline

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/dec/05/
nelson-mandela-interactive-timeline

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nelson Mandela    1918-2013

 

timeline

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/
Mandela-Timeline.html

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/12/05/
us-mandela-timeline-idUSBRE9B418920131205
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

cartoons > Cagle > Nelson Mandela

 

https://www.cagle.com/news/nelson-mandela/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The South African president,

Jacob Zuma,

announces the death

of Nelson Mandela

on Thursday,

December 5, 2013.

 

He claims:

'Even though

we knew this day

would come',

there is still

'a sense of a profound

and enduring loss.'

 

Mandela

died at the age of 95

after suffering

from a recurring

lung infection

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/05/
nelson-mandela-at-peace-jacob-zuma-video

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/05/
nelson-mandela-at-peace-jacob-zuma-video

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nelson Mandela's

fight against HIV/AIDS

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/
nelson-mandela-aids-south-africa

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/biographies/
nelson-mandelas-mixed-legacy-on-hivaids/

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/16/southafrica.aids

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/06/southafrica.aids

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/feb/18/aids.nelsonmandela

 

http://www.theguardian.com/business/2001/apr/16/aids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 January 2005

 

Mandela's eldest son

dies of Aids

 

 

Nelson Mandela

today revealed

that his eldest son,

Makgatho,

has died of Aids.

 

Mr Mandela's

announcement

challenged

the widespread

prejudice

against sufferers

of the disease

in South Africa,

which has

undermined efforts

to tackle

the pandemic.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/06/southafrica.aids

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/16/southafrica.aids

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/jan/06/southafrica.aids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1995

 

Rugby World Cup

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/
nelson-mandela-francois-pienaar-rugby-world-cup

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By the end of apartheid,

87 percent

of South Africa’s land

was in the hands of whites,

who made up less than

10 percent of the population;

 

some 19 million nonwhites,

most of them poor,

were crowded

into the remaining 13 percent.

 

Shortly after taking office

in 1994,

President Nelson Mandela

pledged to return

30 percent

of white-owned land

to non-whites

within 10 years.

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May 10, 1994

 

Nelson Mandela

is sworn in as President

 

 

At 75 Nelson Mandela

is sworn in as President,

the moment for which

he seems to have been born,

before an extraordinary

guest list that includes

Al Gore, Yasser Arafat,

Fidel castro,

Boutros-Boutros Ghali

and Benazir Bhutto.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-interactive-timeline

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/dec/05/
nelson-mandela-interactive-timeline

 

http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2012/12/20/
1356024464778/De-Klerk-Mandela-001.jpg

http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/
nelson-mandela-inaugurated-south-africa039s-first-black-president

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 27, 1994

 

First democratic elections

 

 

Nineteen parties participated:

 

Black parties

won the majority,

and a government

of national unity

was formed,

with Nelson Mandela

as president.

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1994

 

Nelson Mandela

on the campaign trail

in South Africa's

first democratic

general election

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/05/nelson-mandela-video-obituary

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/dec/05/
nelson-mandela-video-obituary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1993

 

A new constitution

restoring blacks’ rights

is adopted

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 April 1993

 

South African

Communist Party

secretary-general

Chris Hani

(1942-1993)

is assassinated

outside

his Boksburg home

http://www.iol.co.za/news/politics/the-assassination-of-chris-hani-1.395979

 

 

 

Born in

the small rural town

of Cofimvaba

in the Transkei,

he was the fifth child

in a family of six,

three of whom

died in infancy.

 

His mother

was illiterate.

 

Her special skill,

subsistence farming.

 

His ever-absent father,

who could barely read,

worked in the mines

in the Transvaal.

 

But Hani did

go to school and,

rather bafflingly

for his parents no doubt,

acquired a love

for the Classics

and English literature.

 

A devout Catholic,

he was an altar boy

at the age of eight

and at 12 resolved

to enter the priesthood,

which he said

he would have done

had his father

not stood in the way.

 

Instead,

in a not uncommon leap,

he became a Communist

and a freedom fighter.

 

In 1957

he joined

the ANC Youth League,

two years later went

to Fort Hare University

to study English and Latin

and in 1962 he joined

Umkhonto we Sizwe.

 

The following year

he was arrested

and charged

under the Suppression

of Communism Act.

 

But he jumped bail

and fled the country

to undertake

military training.

 

He took part

in battles alongside

the black liberation forces

in Rhodesia in 1967

and seven years later,

now a member of the ANC's

National Executive Committee,

he was instructed to run

Umkhonto operations

in the Cape from Lesotho.

 

After surviving

a number

of assassination attempts

he returned

to ANC headquarters

in Zambia in 1982

and in 1984

he was appointed

political commissar

and deputy commander

of Umkhonto.

 

In 1987

he became Umkhonto's

chief of staff

and in December 1991,

18 months after his legal

return to South Africa,

he relinquished

that position

after he was unanimously

elected general secretary

of the Communist Party.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-chris-hani-1454898.html

 

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-chris-hani-1454898.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17 June 1992

 

Boipatong Massacre

 

 

Massacre of forty-six people

at Boipatong in KwaZulu Natal

in 1992

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/127498.stm

 

 

 

On 17 June 1992

the Joe Slovo

Informal settlement

in Boipatong

outside Vereeniging

was attacked by a group

of about 300 armed men

from Kwa Madala Hostel

in nearby Sebokeng Township.

 

The armed men

were affiliated

to the Inkatha

Freedom Party (IFP)

and observers suspected

that the attack was aimed

at undermining

the delicate process

of negotiations between

the Nationalist Party (NP)

government

and the African National

Congress (ANC).

 

In response

to the massacre

the ANC withdrew

from the negotiations,

blaming

the NP government

for the attack.

http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/boipatong-massacre-17-june-1992

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/127498.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18 March 1992

 

South Africa

votes 'yes'

by a huge majority

in a referendum

to end apartheid

 

South Africans

on both sides

of the racial

and political divides

were stunned last night

by the size

of the 'yes' victory

in the country's referendum,

which seemed set to propel it

into an early power-sharing

administration.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1992/mar/19/southafrica.davidberesford

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1992/mar/19/
southafrica.davidberesford

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 July 1991

 

South Africa is allowed

to rejoin the Olympic community

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1991/jul/10/
southafrica.davidberesford

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 1991

 

President FW de Klerk

announces

the dismantling

of the laws

behind apartheid,

such as the Land Acts

of 1930 and 1936,

which reserved

the best land

for white people

 

The biggest repeal

was that of the Population

Registration Act [ 1950 ],

which had introduced

the compulsory

classification

of all babies

by racial group

at birth.

 

Right-wing MPs

walked out in protest

but, outside the building,

campaigners

against apartheid

welcomed the repeals

and called

for more reforms.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7222.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7222.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First broadcast 1991

 

Arthur Miller

interviews Nelson Mandela,

less than a year after his release

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7221.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 July 1990

 

UK        London

 

Nelson Mandela meets Margaret Thatcher

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/
nelson-mandela-in-britain

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-22069896

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990

 

UK        Wembley        Simple Minds - "Mandela Day" live

 

 

"It was 25 years

they take that man away

now the freedom moves in

closer every day..."

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-vZgxJIpuc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16 April 1990

 

UK        Wembley

 

Mandela release from prison speech

 

 

Nelson Mandela

receives a hero's welcome

at Wembley

 

 

http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2012/12/20/
1356021797579/Mandela-Hugo-Young-001.jpg

 

http://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/
nelson-mandelas-wembley-speech-london-monday-16-april-1990

 

 

 

 

"Our first simple and happy task

is to say thank you.

 

Thank you very much

to you all.

 

Thank you

that you chose to care,

because you could have

decided otherwise.

 

Thank you

that you elected

not to forget,

because our fate

could have been

a passing concern.

 

We are here today

because for almost

three decades

you sustained a campaign

for the unconditional release

of all South African

political prisoners.

 

We are here because

you took the humane decision

that you could not ignore

the inhumanity represented

by the apartheid system.

 

Even through

the thickness

of the prison walls

at Robben Island,

Pollsmoor,

Victor Verster,

Pretoria,

Kroonstad,

Diepkloof

and elsewhere,

we heard your voices

demanding our freedom.

 

During all the days

we spent buried

in the apartheid dungeons,

we never lost

our confidence

in the certainty

of our release

and our victory

over the apartheid system.

 

This was because

we knew

that not even

the hard-hearted

men of Pretoria

could withstand

the enormous strength

represented by

the concerted effort

of the peoples

of South Africa

and the rest of the world. "

http://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/nelson-mandelas-wembley-speech-london-monday-16-april-1990

 

 

http://www.sahistory.org.za/archive/
nelson-mandelas-wembley-speech-london-monday-16-april-1990

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How Margaret Thatcher

helped end apartheid – despite herself

 

 

Former PM

opposed white rule

in South Africa

as a sin against

economic liberalism

rather than a crime

against humanity

 

(...)

 

Margaret Thatcher

played a pivotal role

in the ending of apartheid

in spite of herself.

 

She famously declared

the African National Congress

to be a "terrorist" organisation,

but she gave these "terrorists"

diplomatic protection.

 

In the mid 1980s

the South African

government

blew up

the ANC offices

in London

and tried to kidnap

its members in London,

including Thabo Mbeki

and Oliver Tambo.

 

She was obliged

to provide armed bodyguards

for their most senior officials.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/apr/10/margaret-thatcher-apartheid-mandela

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/apr/10/
margaret-thatcher-apartheid-mandela

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990

 

ANC in 'secret talks' with government

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1990/dec/24/
mainsection.fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mandela free after 27 years in prison        Feb. 11, 1990

 

 

 

Nelson Mandela, accompanied by his wife Winnie,

walks out of the Victor Verster prison, near Cape Town,

after spending 27 years in apartheid jails

on Feb. 11, 1990.

 

Juda Ngwenya/Files/Reuters

 

Boston Globe > Big Picture

The world mourns Mandela        December 6, 2013

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2013/12/the_world_mourns_mandela.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mr. Mandela,

now 71,

is freed

without conditions,

ending 27

and a half years

of imprisonment.

 

For Mr. de Klerk,

enlisting Mr. Mandela

in negotiations

over a new constitution

seems to be the surest way

to achieve his stated goal:

to end political domination

by the white minority

without replacing it

with domination

by the black majority.

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/08/
nelson-mandela-anti-apartheid-movement

 

http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2012/12/20/
1356020101057/mand3-002.jpg

http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2012/12/20/
1356021465527/Mandela-Sparks-001.jpg

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/02/12/world/south-africa-
s-new-era-mandela-freed-urges-step-up-in-pressure-to-end-white-rule.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/02/12/world/south-africa-
s-new-era-in-phone-call-bush-invites-mandela-to-visit-him.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/02/12/
world/man-unwavering-opponent-unpredictable-leader-south-africa-nelson-mandela.html

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/07/nelson-mandela-prison-release-1990

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/11/newsid_2539000/2539947.stm

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/02/12/world/south-africa-
s-new-era-transcript-mandela-s-speech-cape-town-city-hall-africa-it.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aug. 16, 1989

 

F. W. de Klerk

is sworn in

as Acting President

of South Africa

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1989/08/16/
world/de-klerk-becomes-pretoria-president.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1988

 

Simple Minds & Peter Gabriel

 

Biko - Live Mandela 70th Wembley

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dAjv7QCQkzw 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1986

 

Abolishment of the pass laws

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thousands of Students Protest Afrikaans Language in Soweto        June 16, 1976

 

 

 

 

INDEPENDENT LENS

The World Witnesses the Soweto Uprising

 

Aired: 01/12/2012

04:58

Rating: TV-PG

 

On June 16, 1976,

what began as a non-violent demonstration by students in Soweto

quickly escalated into a violent uprising once the authorities fired

on the unarmed protestors, killing 12-year-old Hector Pieterson.

 

Don't miss "The New Generation,"

the second episode of the landmark series,

"Have You Heard from Johannesburg," airing January 12, 2012

(check local listings).

https://www.pbs.org/video/independent-lens-the-world-witnesses-the-soweto-uprising/ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tens of thousands of students

take to the streets of Soweto

to oppose the use of Afrikaans

as the language of instruction

in black schools.

 

The police

fire on the protesters,

setting off

months of violence

that will leave more

than 570 people dead.

 

The uprising

is considered

a turning point

in the history

of black resistance

to apartheid.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7210.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7209.shtml

http://video.pbs.org/video/2185498596/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1976/jun/17/southafrica.fromthearchive 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/16/newsid_2514000/2514467.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1970s

 

More than 3 million people

forcibly resettled

in black 'homelands'

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 1966

 

Prime Minister

Hendrik Verwoerd

[ 1901-1966 ]

is assassinated

 

 

Hendrik Verwoerd

was the architect

behind apartheid,

which built upon

earlier colonial legislation

to keep the different

racial groups apart.

 

Verwoerd believed

in the 'separate development'

of the different racial groups

as an ideology as much

as a political system.

 

He was born

in the Netherlands

but moved

to South Africa

due to his sympathy

with the Afrikaner people

after the Boer War.

 

He was native

affairs minister

before becoming

prime minister

in 1958

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7207.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7207.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p013t15n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rivona trial (1964), Robben Island jail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16 August 1962

 

The State v. Mandela

 

 

In Johannesburg today

the case is due to open

of the State v. Mandela.

 

Undoubtedly the court

will be crowded out

with supporters

of the resistance movement,

just as it was in 1952

when 13 African

and Indian leaders,

including Mandela,

were tried for organising

the great Defiance Campaign

against unjust laws,

and again in 1956

when 156 men and women,

including Mandela,

were accused

of high treason.

http://century.theguardian.com/1960-1969/Story/0,6051,105573,00.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,6051,105573,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dec. 16, 1961

 

Mandela Helps Form Guerrilla Army

 

 

Mr. Mandela

and other A.N.C. leaders

form a military wing

called Umkhonto we Sizwe,

or Spear of the Nation.

 

Mr. Mandela becomes

the first commander in chief

of the guerrilla army.

 

He will train to fight,

work to obtain weapons

for the group,

and come to be known

as the Black Pimpernel,

but he will never

see combat.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/
world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 29, 1961

 

Acquitted of Treason

 

 

Mr. Mandela

and his co-defendants

are acquitted of treason.

 

Fearing he will be arrested again,

Mr. Mandela goes underground.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/
Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Killings in Sharpeville        March 21, 1960

 

 

 

 

The Sharpeville Massacre:

Archbishop Tutu discusses events surrounding the massacre


21st of March 1960

when Archbishop Tutu was 28

South Africa exploded in violence.

 

Police shot down

unarmed protestors "The Sharpeville Massacre".

 

Taken from The Frost Interview w/Sir David Frost,

Archbishop Tutu describes South Africa

at the time surrounding the massacre.

 

YouTube >  DesmondTutu PeaceFoundation    Published 25 January 2013

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9dS4pJ8r0E 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The police fire

on a demonstration

in Sharpeville,

killing 69 people

and wounding 181.

 

After the shooting,

the South African

government

bans black

political groups

and gatherings,

and arrests

thousands.

 

The A.N.C.

is among

the banned groups.

 

Its members

go underground

and begin

planning a campaign

of direct attacks

on the apartheid

government.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/audioslideshow/2010/mar/19/southafrica

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/19/south-africa-sharpeville-massacre-anniversary

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/19/sharpeville-massacre-south-africa-archive

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/audioslideshow/2010/mar/19/southafrica

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1985/03/21/world/sharpeville-25-years-later-recalls-a-fateful-day.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/fromthearchive/story/0,12269,1442607,00.html

http://century.guardian.co.uk/1960-1969/Story/0,6051,105513,00.html

http://century.guardian.co.uk/1960-1969/Story/0,6051,105520,00.html

https://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,6051,105518,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 3, 1960

 

UK Prime Minister

Harold Macmillan's speech

to the South African Parliament

 

'wind of change' speech

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/1960/feb/03/southafrica.past

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/3/newsid_2714000/2714525.stm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7203.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The implementation of apartheid

 

The homelands policy        1960s

 

 

The ideologues

of apartheid

created 10

tribal homelands,

planning to groom

them to autonomy

and then full independence,

leaving behind a prosperous,

white South Africa.

 

By gerrymandering

and forced removals,

17 million blacks

were moved

onto these reservations.

 

Four homelands

were persuaded

to accept independence,

a status unrecognized

by any country

except South Africa.

https://www.nytimes.com/1993/11/28/
world/homeland-apartheid-s-child-is-defying-change.html

 

 

 

In the 1960s,

Dr HF Verwoerd

took further steps

to develop

apartheid known

as Separate Development.

 

The Nationalists

said that South Africa,

was composed

of a white group

and 10 African ones,

based on the particular

African language

that a group spoke.

 

The whites

belonged in the areas

where successful mining,

manufacturing

and agriculture

were carried out.

 

Each African person

belonged to one

of the small, impoverished

rural ethnic enclaves.

http://teachers.guardian.co.uk/Guardian_RootRepository/Saras/ContentPackaging/UploadRepository/
learnpremium/Lesson/learnpremium/histor~00/keystage4/southa~00/theimp~00/thehom~00/thehom~00/default.htm

 

 

http://teachers.guardian.co.uk/Guardian_RootRepository/Saras/ContentPackaging/UploadRepository/
learnpremium/Lesson/learnpremium/histor~00/keystage4/southa~00/theimp~00/thehom~00/thehom~00/default.htm

http://www.nytimes.com/1994/03/23/world/a-2d-homeland-is-taken-over-by-south-africa.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1994/03/11/world/homeland-leader-in-south-africa-flees-his-capital.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/19/world/south-african-hit-squads-tied-to-homeland.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1993/11/28/world/homeland-apartheid-s-child-is-defying-change.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/12/11/world/
a-black-homeland-finds-itself-an-orphan-in-post-apartheid-south-africa.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1988/02/11/world/south-africa-quells-coup-attempt-in-a-homeland.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1987/12/31/world/army-coup-in-south-african-homeland.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mandela's first treason trial

 

During Trial, a Second Marriage        June 14, 1958

 

 

 

Nelson Mandela,

leaves the Pretoria synagogue,

being used as a court,

at the end of the day's proceedings in 1958

during his first treason trial.

 

He and other defendants

were acquitted on 1961

after a four and half year trial.

 

The South Africa government

said on Nov. 21

that it will not send the black leader

back to prison

when he completes his hospital stay

but keep him under close guard

at an unspecified location.

 

Associated Press

 

Boston Globe > Big Picture

The world mourns Mandela        December 6, 2013

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2013/12/the_world_mourns_mandela.html

 

 

Moses Kotane (left)

emerges from court in Pretoria with Nelson Mandela

at the end of the first day of their treason trial October 1958.

 

Photograph: Jurgen Schadeberg/AP

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/23/
anti-apartheid-hero-moses-kotanes-remains-repatriated-russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the midst of Mr. Mandela’s

trial on treason charges,

he marries

Nomzamo Winifred Madikizela,

16 years his junior.

 

The tumultuous

union

will produce

two daughters

and a national drama

of forced separation,

devotion, remorse

and acrimony.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/
Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mandela Arrested on Treason Charges        Dec. 5, 1956

 

 

 

ANC supporters pray

in front of the courthouse of Johannesburg,

on Dec. 28, 1956,

to support 152 anti-apartheid militants,

including Nelson Mandela, during their trial.

 

AFP/Getty Images

 

Boston Globe > Big Picture

The world mourns Mandela        December 6, 2013

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2013/12/the_world_mourns_mandela.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dec. 5, 1956

 

Mr. Mandela

is arrested at his home

and charged with treason,

along with 155 others

who called for

a nonracial state

in South Africa

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/12/05/world/africa/
Mandela-Timeline.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Public Safety Act

and the Criminal Law

Amendment Act,

passed in 1953,

allowed

the government

to impose

strict punishments

for protesting a law,

including fines,

imprisonment

and whippings.

 

It also allowed

the government

to declare

“states of emergency”;

individuals detained

during such periods

could be held

without a hearing

for up to six months.

 

These states

of emergency

were declared often

through 1989

and resulted

in thousands

dying in custody,

frequently

as a result of torture.

 

Of those

who were tried,

many were

sentenced to death,

banishment

or life in prison.

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1950

 

Population classified by race

 

 

Group Areas Act passed

to segregate blacks and whites.

 

Communist Party banned.

 

ANC responds

with campaign

of civil disobedience,

led by Nelson Mandela.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

 

 

 

In 1950,

the Population Registration Act

classified

all South Africans

as either Bantu

(black),

white

or “coloured”

(mixed race).

 

(A fourth category,

Asian

— including Indian

and Pakistani people —

was later added.)

 

That same year,

the Group Areas Act

established

in urban areas

residential

and commercial sections

for each race

and prohibited

other races from living,

owning land

or operating businesses

in any areas

but those designated

for them.

 

Although whites

made up less than 10

percent of the population,

they received

more than 80 percent

of South African land

as a result

of this and two later acts,

collectively known

as the Land Acts.

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RyDv7d0Mm-Q 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apartheid laws in South Africa        1948-1991

 

 

 

South Africa 1974 Dec.

 

Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1206.html

Life Images

http://www.gstatic.com/hostedimg/9638bb615c68cbad_large

Related

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/f75ca0a6387b364f.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://teachers.guardian.co.uk/Guardian_RootRepository/Saras/
ContentPackaging/UploadRepository/
learnpremium/Lesson/learnpremium/histor~00/keystage4/southa~00/
theimp~00/theapa~00/theapa~00/default.htm

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0160mtw

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7205.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7208.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7201.shtml

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7217.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apartheid in South Africa        1948-1991

 

 

 

South Africa 1974 Dec.

 

Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1206.html

Life Images

http://images.google.com/hosted/life/8a77508f1473beef.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Living under racial

segregation and discrimination

 

 

The political system

of apartheid

governed

every aspect of life

in South Africa

from 1948 to 1991.

 

In practice,

apartheid enforced

a racial hierarchy

privileging

white South Africans

and under this system

only they had the vote.

 

The programmes

and documents

illustrate

what life was like

for ordinary South Africans

as well as revealing

key moments

in the struggle

against

this political system.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0160mtw

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7205.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7208.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7201.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/7217.shtml

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/11/
mandela-sanitised-hypocrites-apologists-apartheid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 20, 1964

 

An ideal

for which I am prepared to die

 

 

Mandela

made this statement

from the dock

at the opening of his trial

on charges of sabotage,

Supreme court of South Africa,

Pretoria

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/apr/23/nelsonmandela

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/apr/23/
nelsonmandela

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

April 1960

 

Africans urged to burn pass books

 

 

Africans

throughout the country

have been urged

by the former Chief Luthuli,

president

of the African National Congress,

to burn their pass-books

"in an orderly manner."

 

It was resentment

against the pass-book system

which led to last Monday's riots

in which some seventy Africans

were killed.

 

The Congress's

president's statement

was issued

after the South African

Government

had made known

a change in its policy:

 

for the present

the police

have been told

not to demand

to see the passes

or arrest Africans

for failing

to carry them.

 

But Mr F.C. Erasmus,

the Minister of Justice,

made it clear

that this move

is only temporary,

and that Africans

will again have

to carry the documents

when conditions

return to normal.

http://century.theguardian.com/1960-1969/Story/0,,105518,00.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/century/1960-1969/Story/0,,105518,00.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Population Registration Act        1950

 

 

 

English: A certificate issued in 1988

by the South African government

in terms of the Population Registration Act

indicating the registration and racial classification

of a newborn on the Population Register.

 

Date 18 March 1988

 

Source Scanned by User:Htonl

Author Government of South Africa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Population_registration_certificate_South_Africa_1988.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Population

Registration Act of 1950

required that each

inhabitant of South Africa

be classified

and registered

in accordance

with their racial

characteristics

as part of the system

of apartheid

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_Registration_Act,_1950

 

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_Registration_Act,_1950

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1913

 

Land Act

introduced to prevent blacks,

except those living in Cape Province,

from buying land outside reserves

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

 

 

 

The 1913 Native Land Act

prohibited the sale of white territory

to blacks and vice versa.

http://www.pbs.org/pov/promisedland/background.php

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natives_Land_Act,_1913

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1912

 

Native National Congress founded,

later renamed

the African National Congress (ANC)

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094918

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Graça Machel

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/audio/2014/jul/18/
nelson-mandela-biographies-graca-machel-dinaw-mengestu-podcast

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/08/
nelson-mandela-shared-final-moments-graca-machel-winnie-madikizela

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/06/
graca-machel-nelson-mandela-wife

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/jun/29/
profile-graca-machel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nelson Mandela archive

launches digital treasure trove        March 2012

 

More than 1,900

documents, photographs and films

of South Africa's first black president

available for free online

http://archive.nelsonmandela.org/#!home

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/mar/27/
nelson-mandela-archive-digital-treasure

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2012/mar/27/
inside-nelson-mandela-digital-archive-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

Mandela was arrested in 1962,

a year before Martin Luther King Jr would give

his "I Have a Dream" speech in Washington, DC.

 

After 27 years in prison,

Mandela was released in 1990.

 

Four years later,

he would become

the first democratically elected

president of South Africa.

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/jul/18/
nelson-mandela-birthday-america-racism

 

 

 

 

Mandela recordings

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/feb/11/nelsonmandela.southafrica1 

 

 

 

 

The Rivonia Trial

The historical background to Mandela's

final public speech for 27 years

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/feb/11/nelsonmandela.southafrica2 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/feb/11/nelsonmandela.southafrica4 

 

 

 

 

Robben Island prison

William Ernest Henley (1849-1902 / Gloucester / England) > Invictus

http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/invictus/ 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/world/africa/
obama-visits-prison-where-mandela-was-jailed.html

 

 

 

 

Documentaire > Photographes contre l'apartheid

Le Bang Bang Club        55mn        WDR        Allemagne
 

Sous l’apartheid,
le quotidien The Star,
qui prenait clairement position contre le régime raciste,
était le plus puissant organe de presse d’Afrique du Sud.

Dans les années 1990,
il employait une équipe de photojournalistes
dont les clichés spectaculaires ont fait le tour du monde,
et hantent aujourd’hui encore l’inconscient collectif.

Ken Oosterbroek, Greg Marinovich, Kevin Carter et João Silva
formaient le « Bang Bang Club »,
qui couvrit les événements depuis la libération de Nelson Mandela
jusqu’aux élections de 1994.

Quatre années durant lesquelles 20 000 personnes furent tuées
dans des combats rapprochés entre partisans de l’ANC
et de l’Inkatha, le parti adverse.

Persuadés de la nécessité de rendre compte de ces assassinats,
mus par l’ivresse du danger, ces « voyous » de la photographie
ont été jusqu’à accompagner les auteurs des massacres
pour documenter leurs crimes.

Si ces expériences sont profondément traumatiques,
elles suscitent également des controverses d’ordre éthique :
face à la mort d’autrui, comment rester simple spectateur ?

Kevin Carter en a fait les frais :
sa célèbre image couronnée du Prix Pulitzer
– un enfant soudanais épuisé, guetté par un vautour –
essuya un flot de critiques.

Hanté par les horreurs vues et par la mort de Ken Oosterbroek,
tué dans un échange de tirs, il se suicide l’année suivante.

Quant à João Silva, il a perdu ses deux jambes en 2010
après avoir sauté sur une mine en Afghanistan, l’appareil à la main.

À travers leurs récits et ceux de leurs proches,
ce film propose un portrait saisissant de ces quatre écorchés vifs,
chroniqueurs d’une histoire sanglante.

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/048230-000/photographes-contre-l-apartheid

 

http://www.arte.tv/guide/fr/048230-000/photographes-contre-l-apartheid

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/04/29/twenty-years-after-apartheid/

http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/02/joao-silva-looking-back-moving-forward/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > History

 

South Africa > 20th / early 21st century

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

Apartheid

 

myths and heroes

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Podcasts / Videos

 

Documentaries about Nelson Mandela