Spaces and exchanges / Espaces et échanges
planet > seven billion souls inhabit this planet 2011
food and nutrition crisis 2012
food insecurity and water shortages 2011
one billion slum dwellers 2012
lack clean water, electricity, sanitation
and other basic services
Apollo 11 July 1969
astronauts Neil A. Armstrong,
Michael Collins and Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin Jr.
space tourism > passenger spaceplane
world population: 7 billion
around the world
around the globe
across the world
across the globe in many countries
worldwide economic crisis 2011
global warming / climate change
global warming / climate change > hurricanes
global protests against economic injustice 2011
G8 / G20
United States of America (USA) + V au singulier
live out the American dream
Cuban-Americans And The Elusive 'American Dream' 22 January 2014
the land of opportunity
the land of plenty
the promised land
United Kingdom (UK)
European Union (EU)
Google map U.S. / Mexico border
Beyond The Border August 2014
between The Texas Observer
and the Guardian
Texas has become
the deadliest state in the US
for undocumented immigrants.
271 migrants died
while crossing through Texas,
surpassing Arizona as the nation's
most dangerous entry point.
The majority of those deaths
at the Texas-Mexico border
but in rural Brooks County,
70 miles north of the Rio Grande,
where the US Border Patrol
has a checkpoint.
To circumvent the checkpoint,
migrants must leave the highway
and hike through the rugged ranchlands.
each year on the trek,
most from heat stroke.
This four-part series
looks at the lives
impacted by the humanitarian crisis.
EU > borderless travel between member nations
on the border
U.S. - Mexico Border Fence / US-Mexico frontier
NEARLY 700 miles of walls
now separate the United States and Mexico. 2013
The U.S. border with Mexico
spans almost 2,000 miles
from California to Texas
Signed into law by George W. Bush,
mandated the construction of almost 700 miles
of barrier fences along the Mexican border.
The act also appropriated
the expansion of checkpoints, vehicle barriers,
and technological systems designed
to monitor the expanse of boundary.
United States Border Patrol agents
separation wall / security fence
Our walled world 19 November 2013
Why are we building new walls
to divide us?
Using satellite imagery,
video and first-hand testimony,
Guardian reporters across the world
chart the new walls being built
to divide people from their neighbours
Almost a quarter of a century
after the Iron Curtain came down,
the walls are going up again.
In steel and concrete,
with watchtowers and barbed wire,
mankind is building separation barriers
at a rate perhaps unequalled in history
- at least 6,000 miles in the last decade alone,
according to a Guardian analysis.
Now, in a unique project,
Guardian journalists have visited 10
of the most controversial, striking,
contested and extraordinary walls,
from the US-Mexican border to the West Bank,
and from Europe’s eastern and southern frontiers
to the divided cities of Homs and Belfast.
We have tried to establish
why these new divisions are going up now,
in an age when globalisation was supposed
to tear the barriers down
- particularly when, as history shows,
walls rarely did what they set out to do.
sheriff's deputies in Brooks County found 129 bodies,
around double the amount from the year before
and six times the number recorded in 2010.
Most of those who die succumb
to the punishing heat and rough terrain
that comprise the ranch lands of south Texas.
Reuters photographer, Eric Thayer,
traveled to Brooks County, Texas
and Reynosa, Mexico
to investigate the rising rates
of immigrant deaths along the border there,
spending time at a migrant's hostel in Mexico
and with U.S. Border Patrol in Brooks County.
Many migrants, after spending several weeks
traveling through Mexico and past the Rio Grande,
spend a few days in a "stash house,"
such as Casa del Migrante, in Reynosa, Mexico,
and many are ignorant of the treacherous journey ahead.
Boston Globe > Big Picture > Deadly Crossing USA May 17, 2013
desperate Mexican migrants > death map
Immigration Reform News: Bodies on the Border - Op-Docs NYT 19 August 2013
Immigration Reform News: Bodies on the Border - Op-Docs NYT 19 August 2013
struggle to identify the bodies of migrants
who perished while attempting to cross illicitly
from Mexico into the United States.
America's Immigration Debate NYT 30 January 2014
America's Immigration Debate | Think Back | The New York Times 30 January 2014
The Times's Sam Tanenhaus explains government efforts
to keep immigrants out of the country
and links President Reagan's amnesty for Latino Americans
to today's debate.
New York Times > series of interactive charts
showing how Americans have moved between states
The charts show
striking patterns for many states:
You can trace
the rise of migrant and immigrant populations
all along the Southwest,
particularly in Texas and Arizona;
the influx of New Yorkers
and other Northeasterners
into Florida starting in the 1970s;
and the growth in the Southern share
of the Illinois population
during the Great Migration.
95 percent of the people
living in the Carolinas were born there,
with similarly high numbers
all through the Southeast.
More than a hundred years later,
those percentages are nearly cut in half.
each state tells its own story,
and each makes for fascinating reading.
As a follow-up,
here is the big picture:
a map showing all of the states
at a given time.
Where We Came
From and Where We Went, State by State
August 19, 2014
between states since 1900.
See how your state has changed.
Key Dates and Landmarks
in United States Immigration History > Timeline 1789-1930
Ireland > Irish immigration 19th century
during the 19th century
"Potato crop fails in Ireland
sparking the Potato Famine that kills one million
and prompts almost 500,000
to immigrate to America
in the next five years."
mass immigration USA
illegal immigration > boat people
melting pot > e pluribus unum USA
ruthless and costly human traffickers
immigration enforcement USA
immigration bill 2013
As America struggles
to adapt to an aging population,
the bill’s supporters argue,
immigrants offer youth,
vitality and tax dollars.
migrant > Europe
immigrant > NYT series > The Way North
By DAMIEN CAVE and TODD HEISLER
as they travel up Interstate 35,
from Laredo, Tex., to Duluth, Minn.,
chronicling how the middle of America
is being changed by immigration.
immigrants from Latin America
USA > a nation of immigrants
Today, almost 25 percent of working-age Americans
are first-generation immigrants or their children.
That figure is up sharply since the 1960s,
and it’s projected to climb to 37 percent by 2050. April 2013
As a result of the 1965 immigration act,
which opened the door widely
to non-European immigrants,
40 million foreign-born immigrants
now live in the United States.
They make up 13 percent of the population,
the largest such proportion since the 1920s.
More than half of these migrants
are from Latin America and the Caribbean,
although a study released Tuesday
by the Pew Research Center found
that Asians overtook Hispanics in 2009
as the fastest-growing group of immigrants. June 2012
displaced people / the displaced
underpaid migrant worker
flee war, poverty, corruption
USA > green card
USA > A Green Card holder (permanent resident)
is someone who has been granted authorization
to live and work in the United States
on a permanent basis.
get a decent job
the promise of American life
DREAM Act Development, Relief, and
Education for Alien Minors
proposed legislation intended
to give certain undocumented young people
a path to citizenship
children who entered the country illegally
with their parents.
homeland / home nation
Documentaire > Ellis Island, une histoire du rêve américain
(105 min, réalisé par Réalisation: Michaël Prazan)
Ellis Island, dans la baie de New York,
devient la principale porte d’entrée aux États-Unis
pour les immigrants
qui arrivent de plus en plus nombreux d’Europe.
Inauguré en 1900,
après un incendie qui a ravagé les anciens bâtiments,
l’immense centre aujourd’hui transformé en musée va voir passer,
jusqu’à sa fermeture, quelque 12 millions de personnes.
Parmi elles, l’actrice Pola Negri
ou le producteur de cinéma Sam Goldwyn, venus de Pologne,
l’écrivain tchèque George Voskovec, le gamin sicilien Salvatore Lucania,
qui deviendra le chef suprême de la mafia sous le nom de Lucky Luciano,
l’Irlandais William O'Dwyer, futur maire de New York...
Comme les autres, ils ont traversé l'Atlantique
pour fuir une existence misérable, persécutée ou incertaine en Europe,
vers une nouvelle Terre promise qui ne les accueille pas toujours à bras ouverts.
En tirant les fils de ces quelques destinées exemplaires,
qui font écho à d’autres voix anonymes,
ce documentaire montre combien,
face aux drames européens de la première moitié du XXe siècle,
l’Amérique fut ambivalente.
Mais il explique aussi pourquoi
ces parias irlandais, juifs et italiens
brocardés par les xénophobes
vont renouveler et incarner le " rêve américain ".
Des archives, souvent poignantes,
tissent avec fluidité les souvenirs des émigrants
et la parole des historiens pour un voyage passionnant
dans la mémoire complexe du melting-pot américain.
USA > Ellis Island
Between 1892 and 1954,
more than twelve million immigrants
passed through the U.S. immigration portal at Ellis Island,
enshrining it as an icon of America's welcome.
That story is well known.
But Ellis was also a place of detainment and deportation,
an often-heartbreaking counterpoint
to the joy and relief of coming to America.
USA > Golden Door
The New Colossus
USA > Bedloe's island / Liberty Island
one of a group of islands in New York Harbor
near the mouth of the Hudson River
Statue of Liberty 1886
Liberty island - Google Map
Pedestal completed; Eiffel's "skeleton" raised;
decision is made to light the torch electrically;
Statue of Liberty assembled;
formal unveiling by Bartholdi at dedication ceremony
held on Bedloe's Island (October 28),
with President Grover Cleveland presiding.
USA > Statue of Liberty > 'The New Colossus' by Emma Lazarus 1883
"Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame,
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden
by Emma Lazarus, New York City, 1883
Emma Lazarus wrote "The New Colossus" in 1883
or an art auction "In Aid of the Bartholdi Pedestal Fund."
While France had provided the statue itself,
American fundraising efforts like these
paid for the Statue of Liberty's pedestal.
In 1903, sixteen years after her death,
Lazarus' sonnet was engraved on a plaque
and placed in the pedestal as a memorial.
USA > hyphenated nation (hyphen: -)
USA > gain citizenship
be sworn in as an American > naturalization document
USA > regularize 11 million illegal immigrants
In terms of dealing with the 11 million foreign citizen
who are currently living in the U.S. illegally,
which combination of the following strategies
do you support?
Give work permits and allow to stay
Let stay as visitors (no job or benefits)
Deny benefits (encourages self deportation)
Give path to full benefits of US Citizenship
Boston Globe Big Picture online poll, May 2013 - No link
USA > assimilation
USA > assimilate and rise
In September 1620,
a merchant ship called the Mayflower
set sail from Plymouth,
a port on the southern coast of England.
Typically, the Mayflower’s cargo
was wine and dry goods,
but on this trip the ship carried passengers:
102 of them, all hoping to start a new life
on the other side of the Atlantic.
Nearly 40 of these passengers
were Protestant Separatists
–they called themselves “Saints”–
who hoped to establish a new church
in the New World.
Today, we often refer to the colonists
who crossed the Atlantic on the Mayflower
The colonists spent the first winter,
which only 53 passengers and half the crew survived,
living onboard the Mayflower.
(The Mayflower sailed back to England in April 1621.)
Once they moved ashore,
the colonists faced even more challenges.
During their first winter in America,
more than half of the Plymouth colonists
died from malnutrition, disease
and exposure to the harsh New England weather.
In fact, without the help
of the area’s native people,
it is likely that none of the colonists
would have survived.
An English-speaking Pawtuxet named Samoset
helped the colonists form an alliance
with the local Wampanoags,
who taught them how to hunt local animals,
gather shellfish and grow corn, beans and squash.
At the end of the next summer,
the Plymouth colonists celebrated
their first successful harvest
with a three-day festival of thanksgiving.
Sailing of the Mayflower, Plymouth, Devon 1620
was an ageing square-rigged merchant vessel,
about 100 feet long and 25 wide.
Aboard were 102 men and women,
including crew, entrepreneurs and religious dissenters.
This last group were the so-called Pilgrim Fathers,
who sailed from Plymouth on 6 September, 1620,
giving the town’s name to New England’s
first permanent European settlement,
which they founded in December that year.
The Plymouth colony’s first governing document,
the Mayflower Compact,
represents the exporting of democracy
from the old world to the new.
Mayflower Compact > Full text
The Mayflower Compact,
signed by 41 English colonists
on the ship Mayflower on November 11, 1620,
was the first written framework of government
established in what is now the United States.
The compact was drafted to prevent dissent
amongst Puritans and non-separatist Pilgrims
who had landed at Plymouth a few days earlier.
a means of transport
see the planes in the sky right now
– interactive 21 January 2014
of passenger air travel,
our stunning interactive
uses live data to show
every one of the thousands
of commercial planes
currently in the air,
charts the history of aviation
and asks what comes next
for the industry
the internet / the web / cyberspace
higher education > Moocs – massive open online courses
suffer from internet addiction
be addicted to the internet
internet space > a new fontier
on the internet
battle for control of cyberspace
lost in space / cyberspace
world wide web
be connected to N
social network / social networking / social networking sites
social media tools
Facebook is now used
by 1 billion people every month,
or one in every seven people in the world 2012
sharing apps / sites
New evidence shows that heavy users
suffer isolation, fatigue and withdrawal symptoms 2008
The Googlization of Everything
hack into N
Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia
Related > Anglonautes > History > Immigration
Related > Anglonautes > Videos > Immigration
Related > Anglonautes > Learning