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science, technology, health, discoveries, inventions > timeline

 

 

Invention and technology timelines

tell the history of famous

16th, 17th, 18th,

19th and 20th century events.

 

http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/
Timelines_of_Invention_and_Technology.htm

 

 

 

 

Technology Timeline: 1752-1990

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

Timeline of flight

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/wb-timeline.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

genetics

 

Scientists edit DNA

in human embryos for the first time        USA        2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/08/18/
543769759/a-first-look-inside-the-lab-where-scientists-are-editing-dna-in-human-embryos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

genetics        baby with 3 genetic parents        USA        2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last fall,

the New York-based reproductive

endocrinologist John Zhang

made headlines when he reported

the birth of the world's first "three-parent" baby

— a healthy boy carrying the blended DNA

of the birth mother, her husband

and an unrelated female donor.

 

The technique,

called mitochondrial replacement therapy,

allowed the 36-year-old mother

to bypass a defect in her own genome

that had led, twice before,

to children born with Leigh syndrome,

a devastating neurological disorder

that typically culminates in death

before age 3.

 

While heralded in many circles

as a breakthrough,

the news triggered

numerous ethical and scientific questions,

many of which remained unanswered at the time.

 

Last week,

Zhang and his colleagues

at the New Hope Fertility Center

provided some answers

— and raised yet more concerns.

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/04/08/
523020895/a-baby-with-3-genetic-parents-seems-healthy-but-questions-remain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

physics

 

Scientists Blast Antimatter Atoms

With A Laser For The First Time        Dec. 19, 2016

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/12/19/
506134622/scientists-blast-antimatter-atoms-with-a-laser-for-the-first-time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

astronomy

 

galaxy known as GN-z11

is the farthest galaxy ever seen from Earth,

at 13.4 billion years in the past        2016

 

 

 

 

Hubble Team Breaks Cosmic Distance Record        NASA        3 March 2016

 

This animation shows the location of galaxy GN-z11,

which is the farthest galaxy ever seen.

 

The video begins by locating the Big Dipper,

then showing the constellation Ursa Major.

 

It then zooms into the GOODS North field of galaxies,

and ends with a Hubble image of the young galaxy.

 

GN-z11 is shown as it existed 13.4 billion years in the past,

just 400 million years after the big bang,

when the universe was only three percent of its present age.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgQdQx3V1HY

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/03/04/
469200725/hubble-sees-a-galaxy-13-4-billion-years-in-the-past-breaking-distance-record

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Gravitational waves        2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biologist Explains One Concept in 5 Levels of Difficulty - CRISPR        WIRED        24 May 2017

 

 

 

 

Biologist Explains One Concept in 5 Levels of Difficulty - CRISPR | WIRED        24 May 2017

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sweN8d4_MUg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CRISPR        2015

 

CRISPR,

which stands for

Clustered Regularly

Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats,

is the basis for a revolutionary

genome-editing technology

that allows researchers to make

very precise modifications to DNA.

http://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2017/06/05/
531537611/crispr-five-ways

 

 

https://www.npr.org/tags/419142387/crispr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nobel Prize in Medicine is Awarded for Discovery of Brain’s ‘Inner GPS’        2014

 

A British-American scientist

and a pair of Norwegian researchers

were awarded this year’s

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

on Monday for discovering

“an inner GPS, in the brain,”

that makes navigation possible

for virtually all creatures.

(...)

The three scientists’ discoveries

“have solved a problem

that has occupied philosophers

and scientists for centuries

— how does the brain create

a map of the space surrounding us

and how can we navigate our way

through a complex environment,”

the institute said in a news release.

(...)

The positioning system in the brain that they discovered

helps us know where we are, find our way from place to place

and store the information for the next time, said Goran K. Hansson,

secretary of the Karolinska’s Nobel Committee,

in announcing the laureates.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/07/
science/nobel-prize-medicine.html

 

 

 

IBM Develops a New Chip That Functions Like a Brain        2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/08/
science/new-computer-chip-is-designed-to-work-like-the-brain.html

 

 

 

 

Gravitational waves discovery        2014

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/23/
primordial-gravitational-waves-tantalising-cosmic-birth-big-bang

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/17/
gravitational-waves-bicep-inflation-big-bang

 

 

 

 

the home of tomorrow / the home of the future        2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/20/technology/
building-toward-the-home-of-tomorrow.html

 

 

 

 

solar-powered plane        2013

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/may/04/
solar-powered-plane-first-leg-us

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Higgs Boson        2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-D Printing        2010s

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2014/08/11/
will-3-d-printers-change-the-world

http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/20/
3-d-printing-moves-closer-toward-the-mainstream/

 

 

 

 

hydrogen cars / hydrogen-powered cars        2010s

http://www.npr.org/2014/01/02/
259222659/move-over-electric-car-auto-companies-
to-make-hydrogen-vehicles

 

 

 

 

driverless car        2010s

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/28/
technology/googles-next-phase-in-driverless-cars-no-brakes-or-steering-wheel.html

http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2014/03/04/
285740673/by-the-time-your-car-goes-driverless-you-wont-know-the-difference

 

 

 

 

Computing > HECToR

the UK's fastest machine        2008

http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2008/jan/02/
computing.climatechange

 

 

 

 

Health > Britain's first beating heart transplant        2006

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2006/jun/05/
topstories3.health

 

 

 

 

Genetics > Human code fully cracked        2003

 

Cambridge scientists in global consortium

spell out the 3bn letters of the genome,

50 years on from Crick and Watson's

model of DNA

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2003/apr/14/
genetics.research

 

 

 

 

Internet > the first ever webpage        1992

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/apr/30/
your-internet-memories

http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html

 

 

 

 

Genetics > Human Genome Project        1990s-2000s

 

The Human Genome Project

is an international research effort

to decode the human genome,

the complete genetic instructions for a human being.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/her_gen.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2000/jun/26/
genetics.forensicscience

 

 

 

 

Computing > Apple's Mac

 

Apple's original Mac computer

was released in January 1984.

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/feb/02/
apple-super-bowl-mac-ad-launched-1984

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jan/24/
apple-mac-ipad-30th-birthday

 

 

 

 

Computing > IBM PC 5150 computer        released September 1981

 

The IBM Personal Computer ("PC")

was not as powerful as many

of the other personal computers

it was competing against

at the time of its release.

 

The simplest configuration

has only 16K on-board RAM

and uses an audio cassette

to load and save data

- the floppy drive was optional,

and a hard drive

was not supported.

http://oldcomputers.net/ibm5150.html

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2006/aug/06/
billgates.microsoft

 

 

 

 

asymmetric digital subscriber line > DSL Internet Technology        late 1980s

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/04/
technology/joseph-lechleider-a-father-
of-the-dsl-internet-technology-dies-at-82.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lithium-ion battery        1980

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/05/22/
529116034/at-94-lithium-ion-pioneer-eyes-a-new-longer-lasting-battery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medicine > revolutionary scientific advance

in vitro fertilisation (IVF) > test tube babies        1978

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2013/jul/12/
story-ivf-five-million-babies

 

 

 

 

Computing > Apple II is unveiled,

the first personal computer

in a plastic case with color graphics        1977

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/06/
us-apple-history-idUSTRE7950NI20111006

 

 

 

 

German measles / rubella

causes only a mild illness in children,

with a rash and sometimes a fever.

 

But when pregnant women catch rubella,

their babies can develop serious birth defects,

like heart problems,

blindness and learning disabilities.

 

The virus

can also trigger miscarriages

early in a pregnancy.        USA

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

 

In the 1964-1965 rubella pandemic,

an estimated 50,000 pregnant women

in the United States

were exposed to rubella in pregnancy,

resulting in miscarriages, stillbirths,

and 20,000 babies born

with congenital rubella syndrome,

which caused blindness, deafness,

brain and heart damage.

 

At the height of the pandemic,

an estimated 1 out of every 100 babies

born in Philadelphia was afflicted.

A vaccine for rubella was introduced in the 1970s,

so parents no longer have to live in fear.        USA

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/01/30/
464899067/before-zika-virus-rubella-was-a-pregnant-womans-nightmare

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CBS Coverage of Apollo 11 Lunar Landing        NASA        July 20, 1969

 

 

 

CBS Coverage of Apollo 11 Lunar Landing        17 July 2014

 

CBS Television coverage of the July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 moon landing,

anchored by legendary newscaster Walter Cronkite.

 

YouTube > NASA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E96EPhqT-ds

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moon Landing        1969

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Internet > First internet message        at 10.30pm on 29 October 1969

 

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/oct/29/
world-internet-day-remember-first-tweet-twitter-email

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Space > Apollo 8 mission to the Moon:

the first human journey to another world

 

Christmas Eve, 1968.

 

As one of the most turbulent, tragic years

in American history drew to a close,

millions around the world

were watching and listening

as the Apollo 8 astronauts

- Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and Bill Anders -

became the first humans to orbit another world.

 

As their command module

floated above the lunar surface,

the astronauts beamed back

images of the moon and Earth

and took turns reading from the book of Genesis,

closing with a wish for everyone "on the good Earth."

http://www.nasa.gov/topics/history/features/apollo_8.html#.U-hsw2NDxyo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medicine > first birth through in vitro fertilization

in the United States        USA        1966

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/01/
science/howard-w-jones-jr-a-pioneer-of-reproductive-medicine-dies-at-104.html

 

http://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1966/03/04/79308763.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When in 1964

Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson of Bell Laboratories

detected radio waves emitted by celestial objects,

they discovered that the universe began in a fiery Big Bang.

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/14/
opinion/sunday/finding-beauty-in-the-darkness.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Space > Skylab

America's first space station

 

Skylab was conceived in 1963,

when the Office of Manned Space Flight

began to study options for programs

to follow Apollo.

 

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/skylab/

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/15/us/
jack-kinzler-skylabs-savior-dies-at-94.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medicine > Measles vaccine        1963

 

In 1963,

when the vaccine

first came into existence,

measles virus infected

about three million people

a year in the United States,

hospitalized 48,000 and killed 500.

 

By the turn of the 21st century,

however, measles infections

had been virtually eliminated.

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/28/
opinion/remembering-how-to-fight-measles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medicine > Pacemaker        late 1950s - early 1960s

 

Earl E. Bakken,

Pacemaker Inventor and Medtronic Founder (1924-2018)

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/25/
obituaries/earl-e-bakken-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medicine > Heart

Wilson Greatbatch (1919-2013) > Pacemaker inventor        1956

 

(Wilson Greatbatch)

was best known

for his pacemaker breakthrough,

an example of Pasteur’s observation

that “chance favors the prepared mind.”

 

Mr. Greatbatch’s

crucial insight came in 1956,

when he was an assistant professor

in electrical engineering

at the University of Buffalo.

 

While building a heart rhythm recording device

for the Chronic Disease Research Institute there,

he reached into a box of parts for a resistor

to complete the circuitry.

 

The one he pulled out

was the wrong size,

and when he installed it,

the circuit it produced

emitted intermittent electrical pulses.

 

Mr. Greatbatch

immediately associated

the timing and rhythm of the pulses

with a human heartbeat,

he wrote in a memoir,

“The Making of the Pacemaker,”

published in 2000.

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/
business/wilson-greatbatch-pacemaker-inventor-dies-at-92.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/
business/wilson-greatbatch-pacemaker-inventor-dies-at-92.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medicine > Polio vaccine        1955

 

American scientists

announced they had discovered

an effective vaccine against polio

in April 1955.

 

It would save millions of children

from disability and death.

 

The doctor who led the research

was Jonas Salk.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01wtd0b

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01wtd0b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discovery of DNA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Computing > Alan Turing's Pilot Ace computer

 

Built in the 1950s

and one of the Science Museum's

20th century icons,

The Pilot Ace "automatic computing engine"

was the world's first general purpose computer

– and for a while was the fastest computer in the world.

 

We now take the ability to carry out

a range of tasks on our computers for granted,

but it all started with the principles developed

by mathematician Alan Turing in the 1930s

and his design for the Ace.

 

In this film,

Professor Nick Braithwaite

of the Open University

discusses its significance with Tilly Blyth,

curator of Computing and Information

at the Science Museum

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2013/apr/12/alan-turing-pilot-ace-computer-video

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/jan/20/
unseen-alan-turing-notebook-to-fetch-1m

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/02/
ramatizes-the-story-of-alan-turing.html">
movies/the-imitation-game-dramatizes-the-story-of-alan-turing.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2013/apr/12/
alan-turing-pilot-ace-computer-video

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/grrlscientist/2011/dec/19/1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medicine

The first successful kidney transplant was conducted in 1954

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/23/
health/robert-mccabe-jr-a-kidney-donation-specialist-dies-at-88.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

maser        USA        1953


microwave amplification

by stimulated emission of radiation,

(...)

it would lead

to the building of the first laser,

which amplified light waves

instead of microwaves

and became essential to the birth

of a new technological age.

 

Lasers have found a wide range

of practical applications

from long-distance telephone calls

to eye surgery,

from missile guidance systems

to the checkout counter

at the supermarket.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/28/
science/james-gordon-dies-at-85-work-paved-way-for-laser.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jonas Salk (1914-1955) produces polio vaccine        1952

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm52sa.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bmsalk.html 

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1028.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosalind Elsie Franklin        UK        1920-1958

 

In 1951

the young British scientist

began one of the key

scientific investigations

of the century.

 

Rosalind Franklin

produced an x-ray photograph

that helped show the structure of DNA,

the molecule that holds the genetic code

that underpins all life.

 

The discovery was integral

to the transformation

of modern medicine

and has been described

as one of the greatest

scientific achievements ever.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

transistor        1948

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/01/
science/01trans.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/01/
science/01first.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

construction of the ENIAC machine

at the University of Pennsylvania in 1943

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/feb/26/
first-computers-john-von-neumann

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

digital computer        1939

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Britain's most iconic steam engine > Flying Scotsman

 

The Flying Scotsman

— the first train to reach

100 miles per hour, back in 1934 —

was pulled out of service in 1963.

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/01/08/
462412473/flying-scotsman-hits-the-rails-once-more

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

television        1927

 

Philo Farnsworth

demonstrates the first television

for potential investors by broadcasting

the image of a dollar sign.

 

Farnsworth receives

backing and applies for a patent,

but ongoing patent battles

with RCA will prevent Farnsworth

from earning his share

of the million-dollar industry

his invention will create.

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

London-New York transatlantic wireless telephone service        1927

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1927/jan/08/
fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

tetanus and diptheria        1926

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2009/jan/27/
tetanus-diptheria-vaccines-discovery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guglielmo Marconi    1874-1937

wireless pioneer

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1702037.stm

 

 

 

 

Marconi > the first live radio broadcast, from Chelmsford in 1920

 

http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/po/041206.shtml

http://www.marconicalling.com/

http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marconi > the first live radio broadcast, from Chelmsford in 1920

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/essex/hi/people_and_places/history/
newsid_8722000/8722885.stm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA > Thomas Alva Edison    1847-1931

 

Edison invented or refined devices

that made a profound impact

on how people lived.

 

The most famous of his inventions

was the incandescent light bulb (1878),

which would revolutionize indoor lighting

and forever separate light from fire.

 

He also developed the phonograph (1877),

the central power station (1881),

the motion-picture studio (1892)

and system for making

and showing motion pictures (1893),

and alkaline storage batteries (1901).

 

Edison

improved upon the original designs

of the stock ticker, the telegraph,

and Alexander Graham Bell's telephone.

 

He was one of the first to explore X-rays,

and in 1875, he announced his observation

of "etheric force" -- radio waves --

although his claim would be rejected

by the scientific community.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/edison_lo.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/edison_lo.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/eastman/peopleevents/pande04.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/edison/timeline/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/04/
books/review/noah-hawley-reviews-last-days-of-night-graham-moore.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/08/13/
489655417/its-electric-novel-re-creates-charged-rivalry-between-edison-and-westinghouse

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/05/05/
404445211/edisons-talking-dolls-can-now-provide-the-soundtrack-to-your-nightmares

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89148959 - March 27, 2008

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3602592 - January 29, 1999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

general relativity        1916

 

In 1916,

Albert Einstein

discovered a mathematical way

to explain gravity.

 

He called it

his general theory of relativity.

 

It relied on a set of coordinates

that described space and time together,

known as the space-time continuum.

 

Matter and energy

warp the space-time continuum

like heavy weight on a mattress.

 

The warping

creates the force of gravity.

 

Gravitational waves

are ripples in the space-time continuum

(instead of an ordinary mattress,

think of a waterbed).

 

It isn't all esoteric mathematics.

 

General relativity

tells us how gravity affects time,

which must be taken into account

by your satnav

to tell you accurately

where you are.

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/17/
gravitational-waves-bicep-inflation-big-bang

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/14/
opinion/sunday/finding-beauty-in-the-darkness.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2015/11/25/
457355281/the-equation-that-banged-the-cosmos

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/24/
science/a-century-ago-einsteins-theory-of-relativity-changed-everything.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/11/24/
science/what-is-einsteins-general-relativity.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/24/
science/space-the-frontier-right-in-front-of-us.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/17/
gravitational-waves-bicep-inflation-big-bang

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1955/apr/19/
fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Titanic        1912

 

http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2012/04/
the_titanic_at_100_years.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

car > Ford Model T        1908

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

origins of the airplane

 

from the early experiments

with gliders in the 1890s,

to the famous first powered flight

by the Wright brothers in December 1903

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/19/
opinion/nocera-greed-and-the-wright-brothers.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

airplane        1903

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wilbur and Orville Wright

make the world's first sustained,

powered, and controlled flight

in a heavier-than-air flying machine,

thereby realizing one of mankind's

oldest and most persistent aspirations

-- human flight.

December 17, 1903

 

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/wb-home.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

in 1895,

physicist

Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (1845-1923)

becomes the first person

to observe X-rays,

a significant scientific advancement

that would ultimately benefit

a variety of fields,

most of all medicine,

by making the invisible visible.

 

Rontgen’s discovery

occurred accidentally

in his Wurzburg, Germany, lab,

where he was testing

whether cathode rays

could pass through glass

when he noticed a glow coming

from a nearby chemically

coated screen.

 

He dubbed the rays

that caused this glow X-rays

because of their unknown nature.

 

X-rays

are electromagnetic energy waves

that act similarly to light rays,

but at wavelengths approximately

1,000 times shorter than those of light.

 

Rontgen holed up in his lab

and conducted a series of experiments

to better understand his discovery.

 

He learned that X-rays

penetrate human flesh

but not higher-density substances

such as bone or lead

and that they can be photographed.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/german-scientist-discovers-x-rays

 

 

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/german-scientist-discovers-x-rays

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/video/2010/oct/26/
x-ray-machines-icon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kodak Camera        1888

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Edison > phonograph        1877

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

telephone        1876

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

Alexander Graham Bell        UK        1847-1922

 

On March 10, 1876,

Professor Alexander Graham Bell

stood in a Boston boarding house

holding a receiving device

connected to a series of wires

that ran into an adjacent room.

 

There, his assistant,

Thomas A. Watson, waited patiently,

clutching another receiver to his ear.

 

Bell spoke into his end of the contraption,

and Watson heard his voice in the receiver:

“Mr. Watson! Come here! I want—!”

 

Watson dashed into the adjoining room gasping:

“I heard you! I heard you!”

 

From that experiment using just a few feet of wire

would grow an industry that would transform the world.

 

Through the likes

of the American Bell Telephone Company

and its successor,

AT&T (known colloquially as Ma Bell),

what was once Bell’s “toy”

became a communications goliath

made up of billions of dollars’

worth of infrastructure

carrying tens of millions of calls every day.

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
obituaries/archives/alexander-graham-bell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA > The Pacific Railway Act

signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln

on July 1, 1862.

 

This act provided Federal government

support for the building

of the first transcontinental railroad,

which was completed on May 10, 1869.

 

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/PacificRail.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville

est un inventeur français

né en 1817 à Paris

où il est mort en 1879.

 

Typographe et correcteur d'épreuves,

il apprit la sténographie et,

critiquant toutes les méthodes existantes,

rechercha un moyen mécanique

d'enregistrer la parole.

 

Il inventa le phonautographe,

traçant sur le papier des courbes

représentant les ondes sonores ;

mais on ne pouvait pas extraire

de ces tracés un texte,

comme il l'avait espéré,

ni écouter le son.

 

En 2008,

une équipe utilisant l'image

d'un de ses enregistrements,

réalisé le 9 avril 1860,

a pu entendre une voix

chantant Au clair de la lune.

 

C'est la plus ancienne trace

du son d’une voix humaine

qui ait été préservée,

de dix-sept ans antérieure

au phonographe d’Edison.

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard-L%C3%A9on_Scott_de_Martinville

 

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard-L%C3%A9on_Scott_de_Martinville

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/05/22/
529550254/at-the-dawn-of-recorded-sound-no-one-cared

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=89148959 - March 27, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1857,

Scott patented

the earliest known sound recording device,

the phonautograph

— a device with a big funnel for catching sound

and a needle attached to parchment

that caught the vibrations

and tracked them on soot-coated glass.

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/05/22/
529550254/at-the-dawn-of-recorded-sound-no-one-cared

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/05/22/
529550254/at-the-dawn-of-recorded-sound-no-one-cared

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France > Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787-1851)

and the Invention of Photography

 

daguerreotype

 

Each daguerreotype

is a remarkably detailed,

one-of-a-kind photographic image

on a highly polished,

silver-plated sheet of copper,

sensitized with iodine vapors,

exposed in a large box camera,

developed in mercury fumes,

and stabilized (or fixed)

with salt water or "hypo"

(sodium thiosulphate).

 

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dagu/hd_dagu.htm

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/cwp/bradynote.html

http://www.niepce.com/pagus/pagus-inv.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/sep/05/
emily-dickinson-new-photograph

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Invented in 1851,

the wet collodion photographic process

produced a glass negative

and a beautifully detailed print.

 

Preferred for the quality of the prints

and the ease with which

they could be reproduced,

the new method thrived

from the 1850s until about 1880.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MiAhPIUno1o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wet-plate

was first detailed

by Frederick Scott Archer in 1851,

less than three decades

after the dawn of photography,

and was known ominously as the "black art",

partly on account of the potential perils

- death from cyanide explosions

and blinding from silver among them.

 

While Brady's revelatory civil war images

documented the faces and realities of conflict,

Carleton Watkins and Eadweard Muybridge

produced stunning images of Yosemite National Park

by lugging mammoth wet-plate cameras

high into the mountains,

and Julia Margaret Cameron created ethereal shots

which promoted photography as an art form.

 

Production died swiftly, however,

as the insatiable desire for photographic innovation

saw the emergence of dry-plate technology

and collodion emulsion,

followed by handheld cameras and film.

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/photography-blog/2013/jul/22/
photography-art

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glass Plate Negatives: A Brief History

 

 Glass plate negatives

comprise two formats:

collodion wet plate negatives

and gelatin dry plate negatives.

 

Both types have a light sensitive emulsion

with a binder thinly layered

on one side of a glass plate.

 

Frederick Scott Archer,

a British inventor and photographer,

made the first collodion wet plate negative

in 1851.

 

In order to prepare a negative,

a photographer coated

a clean sheet of glass with collodion,

a liquid with ingredients

that included cellulose nitrate and ether.

 

Then the plate was quickly put

into a silver nitrate bath

in order to sensitize it to light

and placed in the camera,

where the negative was exposed.

 

The photographer had to develop it

very quickly after exposure.

 

Because it was necessary to prepare,

expose and develop a negative while it was still wet,

this process of making photographs was complicated,

inconvenient, and not very portable.

 

Richard Leach Maddox,

a British physician and photographer,

produced the first practical dry glass plate negative

in 1871.

 

In his much more convenient process,

the glass plate was coated

with gelatin and sensitized with silver salts.

 

The negative did not need

to be developed immediately after exposure.

 

Maddox's method was so well-received

that dry plates replaced wet.

 

Within ten years

they were produced in factories

and became widely available,

especially for amateur photographers.

 

One no longer had to be skilled

in mixing potentially dangerous chemicals

and could store undeveloped images

for long periods of time.

 

Gelatin dry plate negatives

were widely used into the 1920s.

 

By then gelatin sliver paper negatives

and celluloid roll film

had become popular.

 

http://archives.syr.edu/exhibits/glassplate_about.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

telegraph        1844

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Stephenson        UK        1781-1848

 

George Stephenson was an engineer.

 

He built steam locomotives for the first railways.

 

Sometimes people call him

'the Father of the Railway'.

 

(...)

 

George Stephenson was born in 1781.

 

At this time Britain was starting to change

from a land of farms and small villages

to a land of factories and big cities.

 

We call this change the Industrial Revolution.

 

By the time George Stephenson died in 1848,

its new railways and factories had made Britain

the richest country in the world.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/famouspeople/george_stephenson/

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/famouspeople/george_stephenson/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UK > rail-road

Liverpool and Manchester railway / Stephenson's locomotive engine, the Rocket        1830

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/1830/jan/02/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Public Railways

 

George Stephenson

built the world's first public railways:

the Stockton and Darlington railway in 1825

and the Liverpool-Manchester railway in 1830.

 

Stephenson was the chief engineer

for several of the railways.

 

http://inventors.about.com/od/sstartinventors/a/Stephenson.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicéphore Niépce (1765-1833)        The first photograph        1827

 

http://www.telerama.fr/scenes/
ils-ont-fait-la-photo-1-nicephore-niepce-l-homme-qui-a-tout-declenche,71329.php

http://www.niepce.com/pagus/pagus-inv.html

http://www.niepce.com/pages/page-inv.html

http://etudesphotographiques.revues.org/92

http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/wallpaper/photography/photos/
milestones-photography/niepce-first-photo/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

steam boat        1807

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

steam train

 

Thirty years after James Watt

invented the steam engine,

the first railway engine was constructed.

 

It was originally used

for pulling coal for short distances.

 

In 1829 there was a competition

to build something more useful.

 

The winner

was George Stephenson's Rocket,

which could pull passenger trains

at 50km per hour.

 

The UK became the centre

of the train-building industry,

sending engines all over the world.

 

Before the development

of the steam-train,

it took 12 days to travel

between Edinburgh and London

on horseback.

 

The Flying Scotsman

took just 8 hours

to travel the same distance.

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/steam-engines/10911.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

steam engine > James Watt    1736-1819

 

James Watt's Improved Steam Engine

Powers the Industrial Revolution        1769

 

http://inventors.about.com/od/indrevolution/ss/Industrial_Revo_4.htm

 

 

James Watt

was a Scottish inventor

and mechanical engineer,

renowned for his improvements

in steam engine technology.

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/watt_james.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Industrial revolution in Britain

 

During the late 18th

and early 19th centuries,

Britain experienced change

in all aspects of life,

as a result of the Industrial Revolution.

 

Scientific advances

and technological innovations

brought growth

in agricultural and industrial production,

economic expansion

and changes in living conditions,

while at the same time there was a new sense

of national identity and civic pride.

 

The most dramatic changes

were witnessed in rural areas,

where the provincial landscape

often became urban and industrialized

following advances in agriculture,

industry and shipping.

 

Wealth accumulated in the regions

and there was soon a need for country banking.

 

http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_research_catalogues/
paper_money/paper_money_of_england__wales/the_industrial_revolution.aspx

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When Galileo turned his telescope

toward Jupiter in 1609,

he observed moons orbiting the giant planet,

a discovery that destroyed the Aristotelian notion

that everything in heaven orbited the Earth.

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/14/
opinion/sunday/finding-beauty-in-the-darkness.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Videos

 

explainers

documentaries > USA > space

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

science, measures / units

 

 

health, mental health

 

 

space, astronomy

 

 

technology

 

 

transports

 

 

genocide, war