science > scientists > timeline > 18th / 21st century > FR, GER, UK / USA
Dr. Nash and his wife, Alicia, in Paris in 1960.
By then, mental illness had begun to take its toll on him.
Though the couple divorced in 1963, she stood by him, and they later remarried.
John F. Nash Jr., Math Genius Defined by a ‘Beautiful Mind,’ Dies at 86
By ERICA GOODE NYT MAY 24, 2015
John Dombrowski Roberts USA 1918-2016
(...) organic chemist
who pioneered the use
of nuclear magnetic
and other techniques
to reveal the structures
and the dance of atoms
as they rearrange
in chemical reactions
Thomas Walter Bannerman Kibble IND / UK 1932-2016
Sir Tom Kibble (...)
was one of the world’s
foremost theoretical physicists
and, with the Nobel laureate Peter Higgs,
discoverer of the “Higgs-Kibble mechanism”
for giving mass to the fundamental particles
of the universe.
Harold Krotoschiner USA 1939-2016
Harold Kroto (...)
shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
for discovering a new arrangement
of carbon known as the buckyball
As a spectroscopic chemist,
Dr. Kroto used electromagnetic radiation
to reveal the structures of molecules.
His Nobel Prize-winning discovery,
which he shared with Richard E. Smalley
and Robert F. Curl Jr.
of Rice University in Houston,
was the Buckminsterfullerene molecule,
a cage of 60 carbon atoms made
of interlocking pentagons and hexagons.
who had a passion for art,
named it after Buckminster Fuller,
the visionary architect
whose geodesic dome-shaped buildings
closely resemble the fullerene sphere.
“Nobody had ever thought of a molecule
that could be that symmetrical
and only consist of one element
that is carbon,”
said Naresh Dalal, a chemistry professor
at Florida State University,
where Dr. Kroto worked
for nearly a decade
before returning to England
in the fall of 2015.
was the third form of carbon to be found
after diamonds and graphite.
Dr. Kroto often likened
the molecule to a soccer ball
(or a “football”
when speaking to audiences
outside of the United States)
with a cavity in the middle
that could carry smaller molecules.
a new field of nanotechnology
that at one point was the subject
of more than 1,000 published papers a year.
The molecule has potential applications
in drug delivery, computing
and high-speed transportation,
Dr. Dalal said.
Wesley Allison Clark USA 1927-2016
physicist who designed
the first modern personal computer
James Loton Flanagan USA 1925-2015
pioneer in the field of acoustics,
envisioning and providing
the technical foundation
for speech recognition,
teleconferencing, MP3 music files
and the more efficient
of human conversation
Jacob David Bekenstein USA 1947-2015
who prevailed in an argument
with Stephen Hawking
the study of black holes,
and indeed the nature
of space-time itself (...)
Jennifer A. Doudna
at the University of California, Berkeley
(who) helped make one
of the most monumental
discoveries in biology:
a relatively easy way
to alter any organism’s DNA,
just as a computer user
can edit a word in a document.
The discovery has turned Dr. Doudna
(the first syllable rhymes with loud)
into a celebrity of sorts,
the recipient of numerous
accolades and prizes.
The so-called Crispr-Cas9
genome editing technique
is already widely used
in laboratory studies,
and scientists hope it may one day
help rewrite flawed genes in people,
opening tremendous new possibilities
for treating, even curing, diseases.
John F. Nash Jr USA
mathematician who shared a Nobel Prize in 1994
for work that greatly extended the reach and power of modern economic theory
and whose long descent into severe mental illness and eventual recovery
were the subject of a book and a film, both titled “A Beautiful Mind”
Alexander Rich USA 1924-2015
James Watson and Francis Crick
worked out the spiral structure of DNA in 1953,
but they were not proved right until Dr. Alexander Rich used X-rays
to produce a distinct image of the famous double helix in 1973.
For nearly six decades,
Dr. Rich, who died at 90 on April 27 in Boston,
doggedly investigated DNA and RNA,
the fundamental molecules of life.
He helped puzzle out the structure of collagen,
a protein that is abundant in ligaments and skin,
and he discovered that DNA can exist in an odd zigzag form,
which he called Z-DNA.
His work provided insights into how cells manufacture proteins,
and laid the groundwork for techniques that scientists use
to identify, manipulate and replace bits of genetic material.
Diagnostics for H.I.V. infection
and tests for genes that cause breast cancer
are among the technologies built on his discoveries.
Ernest Joachim Sternglass USA 1923-2015
Ernest J. Sternglass ('s) research in radiation physics
laid the foundation for important technological advances
and who became a prominent opponent of nuclear weapons
Val Fitch teaching at Princeton in 1980,
the year he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics.
The research that led to his winning discovery
was conducted at the Brookhaven National Laboratory.
William Sauro/The New York Times
Val Fitch, Who Discovered Universe to Be Out of Balance, Is Dead at 91
By DENNIS OVERBYE NYT FEB. 10, 2015
Val Logsdon Fitch USA 1923-2015
Val Fitch (...) shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics
for work that revealed a surprising imbalance in the laws of nature
and helped explain why the collision of matter and antimatter
has not destroyed everything in the universe
Martin Lewis Perl USA 1927-2014
Martin Perl (...)
was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics
for discovering a new subatomic particle,
one of the building blocks of the universe
John Woodland Hastings USA 1927-2014
whose improbable discovery of how bacteria communicate
became the foundation for groundbreaking research
in the development of more effective antibiotics
John Robert Huizenga USA 1921-2014
physicist who helped build the world’s first atom bomb,
solve dozens of atomic riddles and debunk claims that scientists in Utah
had achieved nuclear fusion in a jar of water
John Warcup Cornforth 1917-2013
who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1975
Dr. Cornforth was awarded the Nobel
for deciphering a class of chemical reactions
that are important in living organisms.
centering on the behavior of hydrogen atoms and molecules,
helped reveal the chemical steps necessary for the body
to produce a precursor to cholesterol
and the role of enzymes in shepherding such reactions.
Harold Melvin Agnew USA 1921-2013
last surviving major figure
to have been present at the birth of the nuclear age
— who helped build the world’s first reactor and atomic bombs,
flew on the first atomic strike against Japan, filmed the mushroom cloud,
helped perfect the hydrogen bomb and led the Los Alamos National Laboratory
at the height of the cold war
James Power Gordon USA 1928-2013
Distinguished Columbia University physicists,
some of them Nobel Prize winners,
called it a “harebrained scheme.”
But James P. Gordon,
principal builder of a refrigerator-size device
that would help revolutionize modern life,
believed in it enough to bet a bottle of bourbon that it would work.
He was a 25-year-old graduate student in December 1953
when he burst into the seminar room where Charles H. Townes,
his mentor and the inventor of the device, was teaching.
The device, he announced, had succeeded in emitting
a narrow beam of intense microwave energy.
Dr. Townes’s team named it the maser,
for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation,
and it would lead to the building of the first laser,
which amplified light waves instead of microwaves
and became essential to the birth of a new technological age.
Lasers have found a wide range of practical applications
from long-distance telephone calls to eye surgery,
from missile guidance systems
to the checkout counter at the supermarket.
In 1964, Dr. Townes and two Russians,
Nikolai G. Basov and Aleksandr M. Prokhorov,
shared the Nobel Prize for Physics
for the development of masers and lasers,
the Russians having worked separately from Dr. Townes.
Some thought Dr. Gordon,
who died on June 21 at 85,
deserved a share as well.
At the time of the maser’s invention,
Dr. Townes credited it
“to the triumph and glory” of Dr. Gordon.
Donald Arthur Glaser USA 1926-2013
Donald A. Glaser (...)
won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1960 for inventing, at 25,
an ingenious device called the bubble chamber
to trace the paths of subatomic particles
Kenneth Ira Appel 1932-2013
Kenneth I. Appel
the venerable mathematical proof into the computer age,
solving a longstanding problem concerning colors on a map
with the help of an I.B.M. computer making billions of decisions
Janet Davison USA 1925-2013
physician who four decades ago
became the first person to show a conclusive link
between certain genetic abnormalities and certain cancers
Carl Richard Woese USA 1928-2012
biophysicist and evolutionary microbiologist
whose discovery 35 years ago of a “third domain” of life
in the vast realm of micro-organisms
altered scientific understanding of evolution
George Arthur Cowan USA 1920-2012
chemist who helped build
the first atomic bomb,
detect the first Soviet nuclear explosion
and test the first hydrogen bomb
Irving Millman USA 1923-2012
whose work led to the creation
of a vaccine against hepatitis B
that is credited with saving millions of lives
David Leigh Waltz USA 1943-2012
whose early research in information retrieval
provided the foundation for today’s Internet search engines
Baruch Samuel Blumberg USA 1925-2011
Nobel Prize-winning biochemist
and medical anthropologist
who discovered the hepatitis B virus,
showed that it could cause liver cancer
and then helped develop a powerful vaccine to fight it,
saving millions of lives
Rosalyn Sussman USA 1921-2011
who persisted in entering a field largely reserved for men
to become only the second woman to earn a Nobel Prize in Medicine
Norman Bernard Krim USA 1913-2011
who played a pivotal role
in the industry’s transition
from the bulky electron vacuum tube,
which once lined the innards of radios and televisions,
to the tiny, far more powerful transistor
Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. USA 1915-2011
Nobel Prize-winning physicist
who developed a precise method
to probe the structure of atoms and molecules
and used it to devise a remarkably exact way to keep time
Horace Freeland Judso USA 1931-2011
science writer whose 1979 book “The Eighth Day of Creation”
is regarded as the definitive account of the breakthroughs
that transformed molecular biology in the mid-20th century
Ten years in the making
and based on interviews with more than a hundred scientists,
“The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology”
revisited the critical discoveries in molecular biology,
notably the double-helix structure of DNA, its mode of replication
and the role of RNA and proteins in carrying out its commands.
Willard Sterling Boyl USA 1924-2011
Willard S. Boyle
won the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for helping to develop
a device that is at the heart of virtually every camcorder,
digital camera and telescope in use
William Nunn Lipscomb Jr. USA 1919-2011
Harvard chemistry professor
who won a Nobel Prize in 1976
for his research on the structure of molecules
and on chemical bonding
John McCarthy USA 1927-2011
computer scientist who helped design
the foundation of today’s Internet-based computing
and who is widely credited with coining the term for
a frontier of research he helped pioneer, Artificial Intelligence, or A.I.
Betty Jean Jennings / Bartik USA 1924-2011
one of the first computer programmers
and a pioneering forerunner
in a technology that came
to be known as software
Max Palevsky, pioneer in computers USA 1924-2010
H. Edward Roberts, PC pioneer USA 1941-2010
John B. Fenn USA 1917-2010
Nobel winner who studied large molecules
Eugene Goldwasser USA 1922-2010
a largely unsung biochemist
whose 20-year pursuit of an elusive protein
led to the development of a widely used anemia drug
that became one of the biggest products of the biotechnology industry
Frank Whittle 1907-1996
British Royal Air Force (RAF) engineer officer.
He is credited with independently inventing the turbojet engine
(some years earlier than Germany's Dr. Hans von Ohain)
and is regarded by many as the father of jet propulsion.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin 1920-1958
In 1951 the young British scientist
began one of the key scientific investigations
of the century.
Rosalind Franklin produced an x-ray photograph
that helped show the structure of DNA,
the molecule that holds the genetic code
that underpins all life.
The discovery was integral
to the transformation of modern medicine
and has been described
as one of the greatest scientific achievements ever.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017
Jonas Salk USA 1914-1955
Dr. Jonas Salk (...) in the 1950's
developed the first successful vaccine against poliomyelitis,
the viral illness that had gripped a fearful nation
with images of children doomed to death or paralysis
John von Neumann 1903-1957
Francis William Aston UK 1877-1945
Nobel medal sale highlights
work of forgotten chemist who predicted the atom bomb
O Saturday 21 May 2016 13.51 BST
He won the Nobel prize
for his work on atoms,
in particular isotopes
of the whole-number rule.
Charles Darwin UK 1809-1882
Samuel Finley Breese Morse USA 1791-1872
Contrary to myth,
Samuel Morse did not invent the telegraph,
but he made key improvements to its design,
and his work to deploy it would transform
Benjamin Franklin 1706-1790
Isaac Newton UK 1643 - 1727
English physicist and mathematician
In 1667, Newton returned to Cambridge,
where he became a fellow of Trinity College.
Two years later
he was appointed
second Lucasian professor of mathematics.
It was Newton's reflecting telescope, made in 1668,
that finally brought him to the attention of the scientific community
and in 1672 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society.
From the mid-1660s,
Newton conducted a series of experiments
on the composition of light,
discovering that white light is composed
of the same system of colours
that can be seen in a rainbow
and establishing the modern study of optics
(or the behaviour of light).
Newton published 'The Opticks'
which dealt with light and colour.
He also studied and published
works on history, theology and alchemy.
with the support of his friend
the astronomer Edmond Halley,
Newton published his single greatest work,
the 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica'
('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy').
This showed how a universal force, gravity,
applied to all objects in all parts of the universe.
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