Les anglonautes

About | Search | Grammar | Vocapedia | Learning | Docs | Stats | History | Breaking News | News podcasts - Videos | Images | Arts | Science | Travel | Translate

 Previous Home Up Next

 

science > scientists > timeline > 18th / 21st century > FR, GER, UK / USA

 

 

 

Dr. Nash and his wife, Alicia, in Paris in 1960.

By then, mental illness had begun to take its toll on him.

Though the couple divorced in 1963, she stood by him, and they later remarried.

 

John F. Nash Jr., Math Genius Defined by a ‘Beautiful Mind,’ Dies at 86

By ERICA GOODE    NYT        MAY 24, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/25/
science/john-nash-a-beautiful-mind-subject-and-nobel-winner-dies-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Dombrowski Roberts        USA        1918-2016

 

(...) organic chemist

who pioneered the use

of nuclear magnetic

resonance spectroscopy

and other techniques

to reveal the structures

of molecules

and the dance of atoms

as they rearrange

in chemical reactions

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/07/science/john-roberts-organic-chemistry.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/07/
science/john-roberts-organic-chemistry.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Walter Bannerman Kibble        IND / UK        1932-2016

 

Sir Tom Kibble (...)

was one of the world’s

foremost theoretical physicists

and, with the Nobel laureate Peter Higgs,

discoverer of the “Higgs-Kibble mechanism”

for giving mass to the fundamental particles

of the universe.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/jun/08/sir-tom-kibble-obituary

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/jun/08/
sir-tom-kibble-obituary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harold Krotoschiner        USA        1939-2016

 

Harold Kroto (...)

shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

for discovering a new arrangement

of carbon known as the buckyball

 

(...)

 

As a spectroscopic chemist,

Dr. Kroto used electromagnetic radiation

to reveal the structures of molecules.

 

His Nobel Prize-winning discovery,

which he shared with Richard E. Smalley

and Robert F. Curl Jr.

of Rice University in Houston,

was the Buckminsterfullerene molecule,

a cage of 60 carbon atoms made

of interlocking pentagons and hexagons.

 

Dr. Kroto,

who had a passion for art,

named it after Buckminster Fuller,

the visionary architect

whose geodesic dome-shaped buildings

closely resemble the fullerene sphere.

 

“Nobody had ever thought of a molecule

that could be that symmetrical

and only consist of one element

that is carbon,”

said Naresh Dalal, a chemistry professor

at Florida State University,

where Dr. Kroto worked

for nearly a decade

before returning to England

in the fall of 2015.

 

The buckyball

was the third form of carbon to be found

after diamonds and graphite.

 

Dr. Kroto often likened

the molecule to a soccer ball

(or a “football”

when speaking to audiences

outside of the United States)

with a cavity in the middle

that could carry smaller molecules.

 

(...)


The fullerene discovery opened

a new field of nanotechnology

that at one point was the subject

of more than 1,000 published papers a year.

 

The molecule has potential applications

in drug delivery, computing

and high-speed transportation,

Dr. Dalal said.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/05/science/harold-kroto-nobel-prize-winning-chemist-is-dead-at-76.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/05/
science/harold-kroto-nobel-prize-winning-chemist-is-dead-at-76.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wesley Allison Clark        USA        1927-2016

 

physicist who designed

the first modern personal computer

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/
business/wesley-a-clark-made-computing-personal-dies-at-88.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/
business/wesley-a-clark-made-computing-personal-dies-at-88.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Loton Flanagan        USA        1925-2015

 

pioneer in the field of acoustics,

envisioning and providing

the technical foundation

for speech recognition,

teleconferencing, MP3 music files

and the more efficient

digital transmission

of human conversation

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/31/
business/james-l-flanagan-acoustical-pioneer-dies-at-89.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/31/
business/james-l-flanagan-acoustical-pioneer-dies-at-89.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacob David Bekenstein        USA        1947-2015

 

physicist

who prevailed in an argument

with Stephen Hawking

that revolutionized

the study of black holes,

and indeed the nature

of space-time itself (...)

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/22/science/space/
jacob-bekenstein-physicist-who-revolutionized-theory-of-black-holes-dies-at-68.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/22/
science/space/jacob-bekenstein-physicist-
who-revolutionized-theory-of-black-holes-dies-at-68.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jennifer A. Doudna

 

biochemist

at the University of California, Berkeley

(who) helped make one

of the most monumental

discoveries in biology:

a relatively easy way

to alter any organism’s DNA,

just as a computer user

can edit a word in a document.

 

The discovery has turned Dr. Doudna

(the first syllable rhymes with loud)

into a celebrity of sorts,

the recipient of numerous

accolades and prizes.

 

The so-called Crispr-Cas9

genome editing technique

is already widely used

in laboratory studies,

and scientists hope it may one day

help rewrite flawed genes in people,

opening tremendous new possibilities

for treating, even curing, diseases.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/12/science/jennifer-doudna-crispr-cas9-genetic-engineering.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/12/
science/jennifer-doudna-crispr-cas9-genetic-engineering.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John F. Nash Jr        USA

 

mathematician who shared a Nobel Prize in 1994

for work that greatly extended the reach and power of modern economic theory

and whose long descent into severe mental illness and eventual recovery

were the subject of a book and a film, both titled “A Beautiful Mind”

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/25/science/john-nash-a-beautiful-mind-subject-and-nobel-winner-dies-at-86.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/25/
science/john-nash-a-beautiful-mind-subject-and-nobel-winner-dies-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander Rich        USA        1924-2015

 

James Watson and Francis Crick

worked out the spiral structure of DNA in 1953,

but they were not proved right until Dr. Alexander Rich used X-rays

to produce a distinct image of the famous double helix in 1973.

(...)

 

For nearly six decades,

Dr. Rich, who died at 90 on April 27 in Boston,

doggedly investigated DNA and RNA,

the fundamental molecules of life.

 

He helped puzzle out the structure of collagen,

a protein that is abundant in ligaments and skin,

and he discovered that DNA can exist in an odd zigzag form,

which he called Z-DNA.

 

His work provided insights into how cells manufacture proteins,

and laid the groundwork for techniques that scientists use

to identify, manipulate and replace bits of genetic material.

 

Diagnostics for H.I.V. infection

and tests for genes that cause breast cancer

are among the technologies built on his discoveries.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/06/us/alexander-rich-dies-at-90-confirmed-dnas-double-helix.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/06/us/
alexander-rich-dies-at-90-confirmed-dnas-double-helix.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ernest Joachim Sternglass        USA        1923-2015

 

Ernest J. Sternglass ('s) research in radiation physics

laid the foundation for important technological advances

and who became a prominent opponent of nuclear weapons

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/21/science/ernest-sternglass-physicist-and-nuclear-critic-dies-at-91.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/21/
science/ernest-sternglass-physicist-and-nuclear-critic-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Val Fitch teaching at Princeton in 1980,

the year he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics.

 

The research that led to his winning discovery

was conducted at the Brookhaven National Laboratory.

 

William Sauro/The New York Times

 

Val Fitch, Who Discovered Universe to Be Out of Balance, Is Dead at 91

By DENNIS OVERBYE        NYT        FEB. 10, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/11/us/val-fitch-who-discovered-universe-to-be-out-of-balance-is-dead-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Val Logsdon Fitch        USA        1923-2015

 

Val Fitch (...) shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics

for work that revealed a surprising imbalance in the laws of nature

and helped explain why the collision of matter and antimatter

has not destroyed everything in the universe

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/11/us/val-fitch-who-discovered-universe-to-be-out-of-balance-is-dead-at-91.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/11/us/
val-fitch-who-discovered-universe-to-be-out-of-balance-is-dead-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Lewis Perl        USA        1927-2014

 

Martin Perl (...)

was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics

for discovering a new subatomic particle,

one of the building blocks of the universe

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/04/
science/martin-perl-physicist-who-discovered-electrons-long-lost-brother-dies-at-87.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/04/
science/martin-perl-physicist-who-discovered-electrons-long-lost-brother-dies-at-87.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Woodland Hastings        USA        1927-2014

 

Harvard biochemist

whose improbable discovery of how bacteria communicate

became the foundation for groundbreaking research

in the development of more effective antibiotics

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/science/j-w-hastings-87-a-pioneer-in-bioluminescence-research-dies.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/
science/j-w-hastings-87-a-pioneer-in-bioluminescence-research-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Robert Huizenga        USA        1921-2014

 

physicist who helped build the world’s first atom bomb,

solve dozens of atomic riddles and debunk claims that scientists in Utah

had achieved nuclear fusion in a jar of water

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/30/science/john-r-huizenga-physicist-at-fore-of-nuclear-era-dies-at-92.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/30/science/
john-r-huizenga-physicist-at-fore-of-nuclear-era-dies-at-92.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Warcup Cornforth        1917-2013

 

Australian-born scientist

who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1975

(...)

Dr. Cornforth was awarded the Nobel

for deciphering a class of chemical reactions

that are important in living organisms.

 

His research,

centering on the behavior of hydrogen atoms and molecules,

helped reveal the chemical steps necessary for the body

to produce a precursor to cholesterol

and the role of enzymes in shepherding such reactions.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/20/world/asia/john-w-cornforth-96-nobel-winning-chemist-dies.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/20/world/asia/
john-w-cornforth-96-nobel-winning-chemist-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harold Melvin Agnew        USA        1921-2013

 

last surviving major figure

to have been present at the birth of the nuclear age

— who helped build the world’s first reactor and atomic bombs,

flew on the first atomic strike against Japan, filmed the mushroom cloud,

helped perfect the hydrogen bomb and led the Los Alamos National Laboratory

at the height of the cold war

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/02/us/
harold-m-agnew-physicist-present-at-birth-of-the-nuclear-age-dies-at-92.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/02/us/
harold-m-agnew-physicist-present-at-birth-of-the-nuclear-age-dies-at-92.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Power Gordon        USA        1928-2013

 

Distinguished Columbia University physicists,

some of them Nobel Prize winners,

called it a “harebrained scheme.”

 

But James P. Gordon,

principal builder of a refrigerator-size device

that would help revolutionize modern life,

believed in it enough to bet a bottle of bourbon that it would work.

 

He was a 25-year-old graduate student in December 1953

when he burst into the seminar room where Charles H. Townes,

his mentor and the inventor of the device, was teaching.

 

The device, he announced, had succeeded in emitting

a narrow beam of intense microwave energy.

 

Dr. Townes’s team named it the maser,

for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation,

and it would lead to the building of the first laser,

which amplified light waves instead of microwaves

and became essential to the birth of a new technological age.

 

Lasers have found a wide range of practical applications

from long-distance telephone calls to eye surgery,

from missile guidance systems

to the checkout counter at the supermarket.

 

In 1964, Dr. Townes and two Russians,

Nikolai G. Basov and Aleksandr M. Prokhorov,

shared the Nobel Prize for Physics

for the development of masers and lasers,

the Russians having worked separately from Dr. Townes.

 

Some thought Dr. Gordon,

who died on June 21 at 85,

deserved a share as well.

 

At the time of the maser’s invention,

Dr. Townes credited it

“to the triumph and glory” of Dr. Gordon.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/28/science/james-gordon-dies-at-85-work-paved-way-for-laser.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/28/
science/james-gordon-dies-at-85-work-paved-way-for-laser.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Donald Arthur Glaser        USA        1926-2013

 

Donald A. Glaser (...)

won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1960 for inventing, at 25,

an ingenious device called the bubble chamber

to trace the paths of subatomic particles

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/05/science/donald-glaser-nobel-winner-in-physics-dies-at-86.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/05/
science/donald-glaser-nobel-winner-in-physics-dies-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kenneth Ira Appel        1932-2013

 

Kenneth I. Appel

(...)

helped usher

the venerable mathematical proof into the computer age,

solving a longstanding problem concerning colors on a map

with the help of an I.B.M. computer making billions of decisions

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/29/technology/
kenneth-i-appel-mathematician-who-harnessed-computer-power-dies-at-80.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/29/
technology/kenneth-i-appel-mathematician-
who-harnessed-computer-power-dies-at-80.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Janet Davison        USA        1925-2013

 

physician who four decades ago

became the first person to show a conclusive link

between certain genetic abnormalities and certain cancers

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/21/us/janet-d-rowley-who-discovered-that-cancer-can-be-genetic-dies-at-88.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/21/us/
janet-d-rowley-who-discovered-that-cancer-can-be-genetic-dies-at-88.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carl Richard Woese        USA        1928-2012

 

biophysicist and evolutionary microbiologist

whose discovery 35 years ago of a “third domain” of life

in the vast realm of micro-organisms

altered scientific understanding of evolution

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/01/
science/carl-woese-dies-discovered-lifes-third-domain.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1995/05/09/
science/clues-to-fiery-origin-of-life-sought-in-hothouse-microbes.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Arthur Cowan        USA        1920-2012

 

chemist who helped build

the first atomic bomb,

detect the first Soviet nuclear explosion

and test the first hydrogen bomb

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/25/
science/george-cowan-nuclear-scientist-dies-at-92.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irving Millman        USA        1923-2012

 

microbiologist

whose work led to the creation

of a vaccine against hepatitis B

that is credited with saving millions of lives

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/27/
health/research/irving-millman-dies-at-88-created-hepatitis-vaccine.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

David Leigh Waltz        USA        1943-2012

 

computer scientist

whose early research in information retrieval

provided the foundation for today’s Internet search engines

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/24/
science/david-l-waltz-computer-science-pioneer-dies-at-68.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baruch Samuel Blumberg        USA        1925-2011

 

Nobel Prize-winning biochemist

and medical anthropologist

who discovered the hepatitis B virus,

showed that it could cause liver cancer

and then helped develop a powerful vaccine to fight it,

saving millions of lives

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/07/
health/07blumberg.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosalyn Sussman        USA        1921-2011

 

medical physicist

who persisted in entering a field largely reserved for men

to become only the second woman to earn a Nobel Prize in Medicine

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/us/
02yalow.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norman Bernard Krim        USA        1913-2011

 

electronics visionary

who played a pivotal role

in the industry’s transition

from the bulky electron vacuum tube,

which once lined the innards of radios and televisions,

to the tiny, far more powerful transistor

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/21/
business/norman-krim-who-championed-the-transistor-dies-at-98.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norman Foster Ramsey Jr.        USA        1915-2011

 

Nobel Prize-winning physicist

who developed a precise method

to probe the structure of atoms and molecules

and used it to devise a remarkably exact way to keep time

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/07/us/
norman-ramsey-dies-at-96-work-led-to-the-atomic-clock.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Horace Freeland Judso        USA       1931-2011

 

science writer whose 1979 book “The Eighth Day of Creation”

is regarded as the definitive account of the breakthroughs

that transformed molecular biology in the mid-20th century

 

(...)

 

Ten years in the making

and based on interviews with more than a hundred scientists,

“The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology”

revisited the critical discoveries in molecular biology,

notably the double-helix structure of DNA, its mode of replication

and the role of RNA and proteins in carrying out its commands.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/11/
science/11judson.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Willard Sterling Boyl        USA        1924-2011

 

Willard S. Boyle

won the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for helping to develop

a device that is at the heart of virtually every camcorder,

digital camera and telescope in use

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/10/
science/space/10boyle.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Nunn Lipscomb Jr.        USA        1919-2011

 

Harvard chemistry professor

who won a Nobel Prize in 1976

for his research on the structure of molecules

and on chemical bonding

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/16/us/
16lipscomb.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John McCarthy        USA        1927-2011

 

computer scientist who helped design

the foundation of today’s Internet-based computing

and who is widely credited with coining the term for

a frontier of research he helped pioneer, Artificial Intelligence, or A.I.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/26/
science/26mccarthy.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/oct/25/
james-murdoch-shareholders-news-corp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betty Jean Jennings / Bartik        USA        1924-2011

 

one of the first computer programmers

and a pioneering forerunner

in a technology that came

to be known as software

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/08/
business/08bartik.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Max Palevsky, pioneer in computers        USA        1924-2010

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/07/us/
07palevsky.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H. Edward Roberts, PC pioneer        USA        1941-2010

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/03/
business/03roberts.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John B. Fenn        USA        1917-2010

Nobel winner who studied large molecules

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/13/
science/13fenn.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eugene Goldwasser        USA        1922-2010

 

a largely unsung biochemist

whose 20-year pursuit of an elusive protein

led to the development of a widely used anemia drug

that became one of the biggest products of the biotechnology industry

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/21/
health/21goldwasser.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frank Whittle        1907-1996

 

British Royal Air Force (RAF) engineer officer.

 

He is credited with independently inventing the turbojet engine

(some years earlier than Germany's Dr. Hans von Ohain)

and is regarded by many as the father of jet propulsion.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Whittle

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/
obituarysir-frank-whittle-1310073.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1996/08/10/
world/frank-whittle-89-dies-his-jet-engine-propelled-progress.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/life/opinion/story/0,12981,1229751,00.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosalind Elsie Franklin        1920-1958

 

In 1951 the young British scientist

began one of the key scientific investigations

of the century.

 

Rosalind Franklin produced an x-ray photograph

that helped show the structure of DNA,

the molecule that holds the genetic code

that underpins all life.

 

The discovery was integral

to the transformation of modern medicine

and has been described

as one of the greatest scientific achievements ever.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jonas Salk        USA        1914-1955

 

Dr. Jonas Salk (...) in the 1950's

developed the first successful vaccine against poliomyelitis,

the viral illness that had gripped a fearful nation

with images of children doomed to death or paralysis

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1028.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm52sa.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bmsalk.html

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/04/10/
398515228/defeating-the-disease-that-paralyzed-america

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1028.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John von Neumann        1903-1957

http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/feb/26/
first-computers-john-von-neumann

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Albert Einstein        GER / USA        1879-1955

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alan Mathison Turing        UK        1912-1954

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francis William Aston        UK        1877-1945

 

 

 

Francis Aston.

 

Nobel medal sale highlights

work of forgotten chemist who predicted the atom bomb

O        Saturday 21 May 2016        13.51 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/may/21/francis-aston-nobel-medal-forgotten-chemist-predicted-atom-bomb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

He won the Nobel prize

for his work on atoms,

in particular isotopes

and formulation

of the whole-number rule.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/may/21/
francis-aston-nobel-medal-forgotten-chemist-predicted-atom-bomb

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/may/21/
francis-aston-nobel-medal-forgotten-chemist-predicted-atom-bomb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Alva Edison        USA        1847-1931

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charles Darwin        UK        1809-1882

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/charles-darwin

http://www.nytimes.com/pages/science/sciencespecial2/index.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/05/
opinion/the-animated-life-of-ar-wallace.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/mar/19/
darwin-evolutionary-science-media-coverage

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/11/24/
an-evolve-by-date/

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/10/
science/10evolution.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/10/
science/10species.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/jan/21/
charles-darwin-evolution-species-tree-life

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/gallery/2009/jun/11/
charles-darwin-evolution?picture=348742467

http://pages.britishlibrary.net/charles.darwin3/darwin_bio.htm

http://www.literature.org/authors/darwin-charles/

http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/origin.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/interactive/2009/feb/12/
charles-darwin

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2009/jan/30/
david-attenborough-charles-darwin

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/jan/21/
charles-darwin-evolution-species-tree-life

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/jan/19/
charles-darwin

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/jun/22/
darwinbicentenary.evolution

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/17/
darwinbicentenary.evolution

http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSL1685231520080416

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/may/17/
research.science 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Samuel Finley Breese Morse        USA        1791-1872

 

Contrary to myth,

Samuel Morse did not invent the telegraph,

but he made key improvements to its design,

and his work to deploy it would transform

communications worldwide.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/morse_lo.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/morse_lo.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/25/
books/carleton-mabee-biographer-of-morse-dies-at-99.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benjamin Franklin        1706-1790

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/franklin/loc.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isaac Newton        UK        1643 - 1727

 

English physicist and mathematician

(...)

 

In 1667, Newton returned to Cambridge,

where he became a fellow of Trinity College.

 

Two years later

he was appointed

second Lucasian professor of mathematics.

 

It was Newton's reflecting telescope, made in 1668,

that finally brought him to the attention of the scientific community

and in 1672 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society.

 

From the mid-1660s,

Newton conducted a series of experiments

on the composition of light,

discovering that white light is composed

of the same system of colours

that can be seen in a rainbow

and establishing the modern study of optics

(or the behaviour of light).

 

In 1704,

Newton published 'The Opticks'

which dealt with light and colour.

 

He also studied and published

works on history, theology and alchemy.

 

In 1687,

with the support of his friend

the astronomer Edmond Halley,

Newton published his single greatest work,

the 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica'

('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy').

 

This showed how a universal force, gravity,

applied to all objects in all parts of the universe.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/newton_isaac.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/newton_isaac.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Videos

 

explainers

 

documentaries > USA > space

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

surveillance > biometrics

 

 

economy > jobs > robots

 

 

science

 

 

space, astronomy

 

 

body, medicine, drugs,

genetics / DNA, health, mental health,

viruses, bacteria, diseases,

disability, health insurance