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science > scientists > mathematicians > 20th century > UK > Alan Mathison Turing    1912-1954

 

 

 

Andy Burnham:

men convicted for being gay should get automatic pardons

G

Friday 17 July 2015        22.00 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/law/2015/jul/17/
andy-burnham-men-convicted-gay-automatic-pardons-labour

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Imitation Game        Official Trailer        The Weinstein Company        2014

 

 

 

 

The Imitation Game - Official Trailer - The Weinstein Company        21 July 2014

 

Based on the real life story of Alan Turing

(played by Benedict Cumberbatch),

who is credited with cracking the German Enigma code,

THE IMITATION GAME portrays the nail-biting race against time

by Turing and his brilliant team

at Britain's top-secret code-breaking centre, Bletchley Park,

during the darkest days of World War II.

 

Turing,

whose contributions and genius significantly shortened the war,

saving thousands of lives,

was the eventual victim of an unenlightened British Establishment,

but his work and legacy live on.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j2jRs4EAvWM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Royal Pardon for Alan Turing        BBC News report        2013

 

 

 

 

Royal Pardon for Alan Turing - BBC News report

 

BBC News report about Royal Pardon for Alan Turing

- Tuesday 24th December 2013 at 00:08am

 

YouTube > newsroundblogchannel

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mbvCl89JAm0

 

Related

http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-25495315 - 24 December 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turing's Pilot Ace computer - the world's first general purpose computer        G        15 April 2013

 

 

 

 

Alan Turing's Pilot Ace computer - the world's first general purpose computer        The Guardian        15 April 2013

 

Built in the 1950s

and one of the Science Museum's 20th century icons,

The Pilot Ace "automatic computing engine"

was the world's first general purpose computer

-- and for a while was the fastest computer in the world.

 

We now take the ability to carry out

a range of tasks on our computers for granted,

but it all started with the principles

developed by mathematician Alan Turing

in the 1930s and his design for the Ace.

 

In this film,

Professor Nick Braithwaite of the Open University

discusses its significance with Tilly Blyth,

curator of Computing and Information

at the Science Museum.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=36Ykw1l_KWs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alan Mathison Turing        1912-1954

 

Built in the 1950s

and one of the Science Museum's

20th century icons,

The Pilot Ace

"automatic computing engine"

was the world's

first general purpose computer

– and for a while

was the fastest computer

in the world.

 

We now take

the ability to carry out

a range of tasks

on our computers

for granted,

but it all started

with the principles developed

by mathematician Alan Turing

in the 1930s

and his design for the Ace.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2013/apr/12/
alan-turing-pilot-ace-computer-video

 

 

 

 

Known as the father

of the modern computer,

Turing led the famous

Bletchley Park codebreakers

who cracked Enigma,

an encryption device

used by the Nazis.

 

Despite his ground-breaking work

that is now recognised

to have shortened

the second world war,

he was hounded

from the secret service

over his sexuality.

 

Turing faced

a criminal charge of indecency

over his relationship

with another man

and after conviction in 1952

was ordered to undergo

chemical castration.

 

In 1954 he took his own life

by eating an apple laced

with cyanide.

 

In 2013 he received

a royal pardon

(...)

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/16/
gchq-chief-apologises-for-horrifying-treatment-of-alan-turing

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/timelines/z8bgr82

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/topics/enigma

https://www.theguardian.com/science/alan-turing

http://www.theguardian.com/film/the-imitation-game

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/20/
enigma-code-u-boat-u559-hms-petard-sebag-montefiori

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2017/aug/27/
collection-letters-codebreaker-alan-turing-found-filing-cabinet

 

https://www.theguardian.com/film/2016/nov/28/
selma-100-per-cent-historically-accurate-imitation-game-information-is-beautiful

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/10/20/
498691551/u-k-will-posthumously-pardon-thousands-of-gay-and-bisexual-men

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/apr/16/
gchq-chief-apologises-for-horrifying-treatment-of-alan-turing

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/mar/15/
eisenhower-letter-uk-code-breakers-display-bletchley-park

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p03hjzpt - Thu 11 Feb 2016

 

http://www.theguardian.com/education/2015/nov/17/
barry-cooper-obituary

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/aug/23/
alan-turing-letters-reveal-battle-sexuality

http://www.theguardian.com/law/2015/jul/17/
andy-burnham-men-convicted-gay-automatic-pardons-labour

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-32294655 - 13 April 2015

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/apr/13/
alan-turings-notebook-sells-for-more-than-1m-at-new-york-auction

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/feb/22/
family-alan-turing-government-petition-pardons-gross-indecency-homosexuality

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/arts-and-entertainment/wp/2015/02/17/
how-accurate-is-the-imitation-game/

http://www.npr.org/2015/01/21/
378660368/benedict-cumberbatch-on-alan-turings-awkwardness-
and-sherlocks-sex-appeal

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/jan/20/
unseen-alan-turing-notebook-to-fetch-1m

http://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2015/01/06/
375356142/setting-the-record-straight-for-alan-turing

 

http://www.theguardian.com/film/2014/nov/20/
the-imitation-game-invents-new-slander-to-insult-alan-turing-reel-history

http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-29840653 - 10 November 2014

http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-29840654 - 10 November 2014

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/02/
movies/the-imitation-game-dramatizes-the-story-of-alan-turing.html

http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-27701207 - 6 June 2014

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/dec/24/
enigma-codebreaker-alan-turing-royal-pardon

http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-25495315 - 24 December 2013

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2013/apr/12/
alan-turing-pilot-ace-computer-video

 

http://www.npr.org/2012/06/29/
155992718/npr-alan-turing-turns-100

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-18561092 - 26 June 2012

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/grrlscientist/2011/dec/19/1

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/11/
pm-apology-to-alan-turing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bletchley Park > Female codebreakers

 

https://www.theguardian.com/careers/2018/jul/24/
meet-the-female-codebreakers-of-bletchley-park

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joan Elisabeth Lowther Murray (née Clarke)        1917-1996

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joan Clarke's ingenious work

as a codebreaker during WW2

saved countless lives,

and her talents

were formidable enough

to command the respect

of some of the greatest minds

of the 20th Century,

despite the sexism of the time.

http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-29840654 - 10 November 2014

 

 

http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-29840654 - 10 November 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colossus, a computer used at Bletchley Park

to decipher messages sent by the Nazis.

 

Ms. Fawcett was among those who worked there.

 

Science and Society Picture Library/

National Museum of Science and Industry, London, via Getty Images

 

Jane Fawcett, British Decoder Who Helped Doom the Bismarck, Dies at 95

By BRUCE WEBER        NYT        MAY 28, 2016

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/30/
obituaries/jane-fawcett-british-decoder-who-helped-doom-the-bismarck-dies-at-95.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jane Fawcet (born Janet Carolin Hughes)        1921-2016

 

Jane Fawcett (...)

was a reluctant

London debutante

when she went to work

at Bletchley Park,

the home

of British code-breaking

during World War II,

and was credited

with identifying a message

that led to a great Allied

naval success,

the sinking

of the battleship Bismarck

 

(...)

 

she played

her most significant

historical role

as an eagle-eyed decoder

in British wartime intelligence.

 

In May 1941,

the Bismarck,

Germany’s mightiest warship,

had become a prime target

after it sank one of England’s

most powerful vessels,

the battle cruiser Hood,

in the battle

of the Denmark Strait,

between Iceland

and Greenland.

 

Much of the British fleet

was in search of the Bismarck,

which was presumed

to have withdrawn

to the North Atlantic

around Norway.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/30/
obituaries/jane-fawcett-british-decoder-who-helped-doom-the-bismarck-dies-at-95.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/30/
obituaries/jane-fawcett-british-decoder-who-helped-doom-the-bismarck-dies-at-95.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germany        Enigma machines        The M4

 

an estimated 1,500

(Enigma machines)

were built as Nazi Germany

fought to fend off the Allies.

 

(...)

 

The M4,

with four rotors,

is the scarcest of all Enigma

encryption machines

and was used

on naval submarines.

 

Its manufacture

was ordered by

German Admiral

Karl Donitz (1891-1980)

due to concerns

that the three-rotor

Enigma machine

had been compromised

following the capture

of a U-boat

in August 1941.

 

The model

was made rarer still

by the sinking

of 70% of German U-boats

in the later stages

of World War II,

in part due to the breaking

of the Enigma code (...)

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/23/
rare-nazi-enigma-machine-sold-at-auction-for-world-record-365000

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/may/29/
nazi-coding-machine-lorenz-teleprinter-ebay

 

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/23/
rare-nazi-enigma-machine-sold-at-auction-for-world-record-365000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germany        Lorenz teleprinter

 

More complex

than the famous Enigma code,

the Lorenz cipher

could be broken

only thanks to

the mathematician Bill Tutte,

who deduced the architecture

of a Lorenz machine

without ever having seen one.

 

Solving the problem

also led to the creation

of Colossus,

the world’s first

programmable computer,

which Tommy Flowers,

a Post Office engineer,

invented to work out

the wheel positions

on the Lorenz encryption machine

and reduce the time taken

to decrypt messages

from weeks to hours.

 

The decoding

of the top-secret Lorenz messages

is credited with shortening the war

and saving countless lives.

 

“It was the highest

possible level of security

used by the German

high command,”

 

(...)

 

It was thanks

to the breakthroughs

by Tutte and Flowers

that allied commanders

could be certain

Hitler’s high command

had bought their bluff

that the D-Day invasion force

would be landing at Calais,

rather than on the beaches

of Normandy.

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/may/29/nazi-coding-machine-lorenz-teleprinter-ebay

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/may/29/
nazi-coding-machine-lorenz-teleprinter-ebay

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/05/29/
479943359/museum-finds-piece-of-wwii-history-for-sale-on-ebay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Movies

 

UK > Benedict Cumberbatch

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

gay rights

 

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Related > Anglonautes > History > 20th century

 

UK / British Empire > WW2 (1939-1945) > Timeline in pictures