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science > timeline > 16th - 21st centuries

 

aeronautics, astronomy,

banking, computing, genetics,

medicine, technology, transport

 

breakthroughs, discoveries, inventions, milestones

worldwide

 

 

 

 

Invention and technology timelines

 

16th, 17th, 18th, 19th and 20th centuries

 

https://www.thoughtco.com/inventions-4133303

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2020

 

Medicine

 

new strain of coronavirus > SARS-CoV-2 virus

 

COVID-19 disease / outbreak / pandemic

 

research

 

The scientific race

to understand Covid-19
 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/05/22/
860789014/the-race-for-a-polio-vaccine-differed-from-the-quest-to-prevent-coronavirus

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/audio/2020/may/20/
the-scientific-race-to-understand-covid-19-podcast

 

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/12/
five-months-on-what-scientists-now-know-about-the-coronavirus

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/audio/2020/apr/06/
the-hunt-for-a-coronavirus-vaccine-podcast

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/04/03/
825639323/scientists-probe-how-coronavirus-might-travel-through-the-air

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/01/
world/europe/coronavirus-science-research-cooperation.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2019

 

Space

 

Astronomers Capture First Ever Image of a Black Hole

 

 

 

 

The first image image of a black hole,

taken by the Event Horizon Telescope

and released to the world last April.

 

“The image of a black hole

actually contains a nested series of rings,”

said Michael Johnson

of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

 

Photograph:

Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

 

Infinite Visions Were Hiding in the First Black Hole Image’s Rings

Scientists proposed a technique

that would allow us to see more of the unseeable.

NYT

March 28, 2020, 5:00 a.m. ET

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/28/
science/black-hole-rings.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/28/
science/black-hole-rings.html

 

https://www.npr.org/2019/04/10/
711723383/watch-earth-gets-its-first-look-at-a-black-hole

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/04/10/
science/black-hole-picture.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2018

 

USA

 

Space

 

 

The Ice, Cloud

and land Elevation Satellite-2,

or ICESat-2,

was launched in 2018

as part of NASA’s

Earth Observing System.

 

It replaced a satellite

that had provided data

from 2003 to 2009.

 

ICESat-2

uses a laser altimeter,

which fires pulses of photons

split into six beams

toward the Earth’s surface

300 miles below.

 

Of the trillions of photons

in each pulse,

only a handful of reflected ones

are detected back at the satellite.

 

Extremely precise measurement

of these photons’ travel times

provides surface elevation data

that is accurate

to within a few inches.

 

“It’s not like any instrument

that we’ve had in space before,”

said another of the authors,

Alex S. Gardner,

a glaciologist at NASA’s

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

in Pasadena, Calif.

 

The resolution is so high

that it can detect rifts

and other small features

of the ice surface, he said.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/30/
climate/antarctica-ice-climate-change.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/30/
climate/antarctica-ice-climate-change.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2017

 

USA

 

genetics

 

Scientists edit DNA

in human embryos for the first time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/08/18/
543769759/a-first-look-inside-the-lab-where-scientists-are-editing-dna-in-human-embryos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2016

 

USA

 

genetics

 

baby with 3 genetic parents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last fall,

the New York-based

reproductive endocrinologist

John Zhang

made headlines

when he reported

the birth of the world's

first "three-parent" baby

— a healthy boy

carrying the blended DNA

of the birth mother,

her husband

and an unrelated

female donor.

 

The technique,

called mitochondrial

replacement therapy,

allowed

the 36-year-old mother

to bypass a defect

in her own genome

that had led,

twice before,

to children born

with Leigh syndrome,

a devastating

neurological disorder

that typically

culminates in death

before age 3.

 

While heralded

in many circles

as a breakthrough,

the news triggered

numerous ethical

and scientific questions,

many of which

remained unanswered

at the time.

 

Last week,

Zhang

and his colleagues

at the New Hope

Fertility Center

provided some answers

— and raised yet

more concerns.

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/04/08/
523020895/a-baby-with-3-genetic-parents-seems-healthy-but-questions-remain

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/04/08/
523020895/a-baby-with-3-genetic-parents-seems-healthy-but-questions-remain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2016

 

physics

 

Scientists Blast Antimatter Atoms

With A Laser For The First Time

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/12/19/
506134622/scientists-blast-antimatter-atoms-with-a-laser-for-the-first-time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2016

 

astronomy

 

galaxy

known as GN-z11

is the farthest galaxy

ever seen from Earth, 

at 13.4 billion years

in the past

 

 

 

 

 

Hubble Team Breaks Cosmic Distance Record        Video        NASA        3 March 2016

 

This animation shows the location of galaxy GN-z11,

which is the farthest galaxy ever seen.

 

The video begins by locating the Big Dipper,

then showing the constellation Ursa Major.

 

It then zooms into the GOODS North field of galaxies,

and ends with a Hubble image of the young galaxy.

 

GN-z11 is shown

as it existed 13.4 billion years in the past,

just 400 million years after the big bang,

when the universe was only

three percent of its present age.

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgQdQx3V1HY

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/03/04/
469200725/hubble-sees-a-galaxy-13-4-billion-years-in-the-past-breaking-distance-record

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Gravitational waves        2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2015

 

genetics

 

CRISPR

 

 

 

 

 

Biologist Explains One Concept in 5 Levels of Difficulty - CRISPR        Video        WIRED        24 May 2017

 

YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sweN8d4_MUg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CRISPR,

which stands for

Clustered Regularly

Interspaced Short

Palindromic Repeats,

is the basis

for a revolutionary

genome-editing technology

that allows researchers

to make very precise

modifications to DNA.

http://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2017/06/05/
531537611/crispr-five-ways

 

 

https://www.npr.org/tags/419142387/crispr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014

 

Nobel Prize in Medicine is Awarded

for Discovery of Brain’s ‘Inner GPS’

 

 

A British-American scientist

and a pair

of Norwegian researchers

were awarded this year’s

Nobel Prize

in Physiology or Medicine

on Monday for discovering

“an inner GPS, in the brain,”

that makes navigation possible

for virtually all creatures.

 

(...)

 

The three scientists’ discoveries

“have solved a problem

that has occupied philosophers

and scientists for centuries

— how does the brain create

a map of the space surrounding us

and how can we navigate our way

through a complex environment,”

the institute said in a news release.

 

(...)

 

The positioning system

in the brain

that they discovered

helps us know where we are,

find our way from place to place

and store the information

for the next time,

said Goran K. Hansson,

secretary of the Karolinska’s

Nobel Committee,

in announcing the laureates.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/07/
science/nobel-prize-medicine.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/07/
science/nobel-prize-medicine.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014

 

USA

 

Computing

 

IBM Develops

a New Chip That Functions Like a Brain

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/08/
science/new-computer-chip-is-designed-to-work-like-the-brain.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2014

 

the home of tomorrow / the home of the future

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/20/technology/
building-toward-the-home-of-tomorrow.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013

 

aeronautics

 

solar-powered plane

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/may/04/
solar-powered-plane-first-leg-us

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Higgs Boson        2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2010s

 

3-D printing

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2014/08/11/
will-3-d-printers-change-the-world

 

http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/20/
3-d-printing-moves-closer-toward-the-mainstream/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2010s

 

transportation

 

hydrogen cars / hydrogen-powered cars

 

 

http://www.npr.org/2014/01/02/
259222659/move-over-electric-car-auto-companies-
to-make-hydrogen-vehicles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2010s

 

transportation

 

driverless cars / autonomous cars

 

 

https://www.npr.org/tags/169643848/driverless-cars

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2018/12/10/
675254096/the-revolution-will-be-driverless-autonomous-cars-usher-in-big-changes

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/28/
technology/googles-next-phase-in-driverless-cars-no-brakes-or-steering-wheel.html

http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2014/03/04/
285740673/by-the-time-your-car-goes-driverless-you-wont-know-the-difference

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2008

 

physics

 

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

is the world's largest

and most powerful

particle collider

and the largest machine

in the world.

 

It was built

by the European Organization

for Nuclear Research (CERN)

between 1998 and 2008

in collaboration with

over 10,000 scientists

and hundreds of universities

and laboratories,

as well as more than

100 countries.

 

It lies in a tunnel

27 kilometres (17 mi)

in circumference

and as deep as

175 metres (574 ft)

beneath

the France–Switzerland

border near Geneva.

 

Its first data-taking period

lasted from March 2010

to early 2013

at an energy of 3.5

to 4 teraelectronvolts (TeV)

per beam (7 to 8 TeV total),

about four times

the previous world record

for a collider and accelerator.

 

Afterwards,

the accelerator

was taken offline

and upgraded

over the course of two years.

 

It was restarted in early 2015

for its second research run,

reaching 6.5 TeV per beam

(13 TeV total,

the present world record).

 

At the end of 2018,

it entered a second two-year

shutdown period.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Hadron_Collider

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/12/21/
science/cern-large-hadron-collider-ar-ul.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2008

 

Computing > HECToR

 

the UK's fastest machine

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2008/jan/02/
computing.climatechange

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2006

 

Health

 

Britain's first beating heart transplant

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2006/jun/05/
topstories3.health

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2003

 

Genetics

 

Human code fully cracked

 

 

Cambridge scientists

in global consortium

spell out

the 3bn letters of the genome,

50 years on

from Crick and Watson's

model of DNA

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2003/apr/14/
genetics.research

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2003/apr/14/
genetics.research

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1992

 

Internet

 

the first ever webpage

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2013/apr/30/
your-internet-memories

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1990s-2000s

 

genetics

 

Human Genome Project

 

The Human Genome Project

is an international research effort

to decode the human genome,

the complete genetic instructions

for a human being.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/her_gen.html

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/her_gen.html

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2000/jun/26/
genetics.forensicscience

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1992

 

USA

 

smartphone

 

 

In 1992,

IBM revealed

a revolutionary device

that had more capabilities

than its preceding cell phones.

 

This prototype smartphone

was known as

the Simon Personal Communicator,

but it wouldn’t see its way

to consumers until 1994.

 

The device had many

of the modern elements

we attribute

to current smartphones

and mobile devices.

 

Highlights included:

Touch screen

Email

Fax

Notes and Calendar

Apps and other widgets

that would become widespread

decades later


While it was a bold entry

into the market,

it wasn’t exactly

the smoothest starting point

for a mobile device.

 

You could say

it was ahead of its time,

and most consumers

didn't jump on board.

- 4 May 2020

https://www.textrequest.com/blog/history-evolution-smartphone/

 

 

https://www.textrequest.com/blog/history-evolution-smartphone/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

late 1980s

 

asymmetric digital subscriber line

 

DSL Internet Technology

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/04/
technology/joseph-lechleider-a-father-
of-the-dsl-internet-technology-dies-at-82.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1970s-1980s

 

computing

 

The early days of home computing – in pictures

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/gallery/2020/apr/11/
the-early-days-of-home-computing-in-pictures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1984

 

USA

 

Computing

 

Apple's Mac

 

Apple's original Mac computer

was released in January 1984.

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/feb/02/
apple-super-bowl-mac-ad-launched-1984

 

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jan/24/
apple-mac-ipad-30th-birthday

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1981

 

USA

 

Computing

 

IBM PC 5150 computer

 

released September 1981

 

 

The IBM Personal Computer

("PC")

was not as powerful as many

of the other personal computers

it was competing against

at the time of its release.

 

The simplest configuration

has only 16K on-board RAM

and uses an audio cassette

to load and save data

- the floppy drive was optional,

and a hard drive

was not supported.

 

http://oldcomputers.net/ibm5150.html

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2006/aug/06/
billgates.microsoft

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1980

 

lithium-ion battery

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/05/22/
529116034/at-94-lithium-ion-pioneer-eyes-a-new-longer-lasting-battery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1978

 

Medicine

 

revolutionary scientific advance

in vitro fertilisation (IVF)

 

test tube babies

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2013/jul/12/
story-ivf-five-million-babies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1977

 

USA

 

Computing

 

Apple II is unveiled,

the first personal computer

in a plastic case

with color graphics

 

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/06/
us-apple-history-idUSTRE7950NI20111006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

late 1970s

 

Variola eradicated

 

 

An ancient disease

in existence

for thousands of years,

smallpox was feared

throughout the world.

 

Killing a third of those

it infected,

in the 20th Century alone

an estimated

300 million people

died from the disease.

 

Those who

were infected

but survived

were often left

badly scarred.

 

A global

vaccination programme,

led by the World

Health Organization (WHO),

was carried out

to wipe out the disease

and by the 1970s

cases were rare.

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-birmingham-45101091 - 10 August 2018

 

 

 

Smallpox

was a devastating disease.

 

On average,

3 out of every 10 people

who got it died.

 

Those who survived

were usually left with scars,

which were sometimes severe.

https://www.cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox

https://www.who.int/csr/disease/smallpox/en/

https://www.cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html

 

 

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-birmingham-45101091 - 10 August 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1970s

 

vaccine for rubella

 

 

German measles / rubella

causes only

a mild illness in children,

with a rash

and sometimes a fever.

 

But when pregnant women

catch rubella,

their babies can develop

serious birth defects,

like heart problems,

blindness

and learning disabilities.

 

The virus

can also trigger

miscarriages

early in a pregnancy.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

 

 

In the 1964-1965

rubella pandemic,

an estimated

50,000 pregnant women

in the United States

were exposed to rubella

in pregnancy,

resulting in miscarriages,

stillbirths,

and 20,000 babies born

with congenital

rubella syndrome,

which caused blindness,

deafness,

brain and heart damage.

 

At the height

of the pandemic,

an estimated 1

out of every 100 babies

born in Philadelphia

was afflicted.

 

A vaccine for rubella

was introduced in the 1970s,

so parents no longer

have to live in fear.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/01/30/
464899067/before-zika-virus-rubella-was-a-pregnant-womans-nightmare

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/goatsandsoda/2015/04/30/
403388700/western-hemisphere-wipes-out-its-third-virus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1973

 

USA

 

Computing

 

Alto personal computer

 

 

The Xerox Alto

is the first computer

designed from its inception

 to support an operating system

based on

a graphical user interface (GUI),

later using the desktop metaphor.

 

The first machines

were introduced

on 1 March 1973,

a decade before

mass-market GUI machines

became available.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerox_Alto

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xerox_Alto

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/20/
technology/lawrence-tesler-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1973

 

USA

 

Digital photography

 

First digital camera

- created by Steven Sasson

in 1973.

 

 

https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/08/12/
kodaks-first-digital-moment/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.30pm

on 29 October 1969

 

Internet

 

First internet message

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/oct/29/
world-internet-day-remember-first-tweet-twitter-email

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 20, 1969

 

USA, Moon

 

Apollo 11 Lunar Landing

 

 

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/
moon-landing-anniversary-watch-live-stream-
most-iconic-moments-from-cbs-news-apollo-11-moon-landing-coverage/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968

 

Space

 

Apollo 8 mission to the Moon:

the first human journey to another world

 

Christmas Eve, 1968.

 

 

As one of the most turbulent,

tragic years in American history

drew to a close,

millions around the world

were watching and listening

as the Apollo 8 astronauts

- Frank Borman,

Jim Lovell

and Bill Anders -

became the first humans

to orbit another world.

 

As their command module

floated above the lunar surface,

the astronauts beamed back

images of the moon and Earth

and took turns

reading from the book of Genesis,

closing with a wish for everyone

"on the good Earth."

http://www.nasa.gov/topics/history/features/apollo_8.html#.U-hsw2NDxyo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1968

 

Computing

 

computer mouse

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/31/
technology/william-english-who-helped-build-the-computer-mouse-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1966

 

Medicine

 

first birth

through in vitro fertilization

in the United States

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/01/
science/howard-w-jones-jr-a-pioneer-of-reproductive-medicine-dies-at-104.html

 

http://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1966/03/04/79308763.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964

 

When in 1964

Arno Penzias

and Robert Wilson

of Bell Laboratories

detected radio waves

emitted by celestial objects,

they discovered

that the universe began

in a fiery Big Bang.

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/14/
opinion/sunday/finding-beauty-in-the-darkness.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1963

 

Space > Skylab

America's first space station

 

Skylab

was conceived in 1963,

when the Office of Manned Space Flight

began to study options for programs

to follow Apollo.

https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/skylab/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/15/us/
jack-kinzler-skylabs-savior-dies-at-94.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1963

 

Medicine

 

Measles vaccine

 

 

In 1963,

when the vaccine

first came into existence,

measles virus infected

about three million people

a year in the United States,

hospitalized 48,000

and killed 500.

 

By the turn of the 21st century,

however, measles infections

had been virtually eliminated.

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/28/
opinion/remembering-how-to-fight-measles.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/28/
opinion/remembering-how-to-fight-measles.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

late 1950s - early 1960s

 

Medicine

 

Pacemaker

 

 

Earl E. Bakken,

Pacemaker Inventor

and Medtronic Founder

(1924-2018)

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/25/
obituaries/earl-e-bakken-dead.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/25/
obituaries/earl-e-bakken-dead.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1958

 

USA

 

Banking

 

Credit card

 

 

Until 1958,

no one had been able

to successfully establish

a revolving credit financial system

in which a card

issued by a third-party bank

was being generally accepted

by a large number of merchants,

as opposed to

merchant-issued revolving cards

accepted by only a few merchants.

 

There had been a dozen attempts

by small American banks,

but none of them were able

to last very long.

 

In September 1958,

Bank of America

launched the BankAmericard

in Fresno, California,

which would become

the first successful

recognizably

modern credit card.

 

This card succeeded

where others failed

by breaking

the chicken-and-egg cycle

in which consumers

did not want to use a card

that few merchants would accept

and merchants

did not want to accept a card

that few consumers used.

 

Bank of America

chose Fresno

because 45% of its residents

used the bank,

and by sending a card

to 60,000 Fresno

residents at once,

the bank was able

to convince merchants

to accept the card.

 

It was eventually licensed

to other banks

around the United States

and then around the world,

and in 1976,

all BankAmericard licensees

united themselves

under the common brand Visa.

 

In 1966,

the ancestor

of MasterCard was born

when a group of banks

established Master Charge

to compete with BankAmericard;

 

it received a significant boost

when Citibank merged

its own Everything Card,

launched in 1967,

into Master Charge in 1969.

- 4 May 2020

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credit_card

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credit_card

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1956

 

Medicine

 

Heart surgery

 

Wilson Greatbatch (1919-2013)

Pacemaker inventor

 

 

(Wilson Greatbatch)

was best known

for his pacemaker

breakthrough,

an example

of Pasteur’s observation

that “chance favors

the prepared mind.”

 

Mr. Greatbatch’s

crucial insight came

in 1956, when he was

an assistant professor

in electrical engineering

at the University

of Buffalo.

 

While building

a heart rhythm

recording device

for the Chronic Disease

Research Institute there,

he reached

into a box of parts

for a resistor

to complete the circuitry.

 

The one he pulled out

was the wrong size,

and when he installed it,

the circuit it produced

emitted intermittent

electrical pulses.

 

Mr. Greatbatch

immediately associated

the timing and rhythm

of the pulses

with a human heartbeat,

he wrote in a memoir,

“The Making of the Pacemaker,”

published in 2000.

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/
business/wilson-greatbatch-pacemaker-inventor-dies-at-92.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/
business/wilson-greatbatch-pacemaker-inventor-dies-at-92.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1955

 

Medicine

 

Polio vaccine

 

 

American scientists

announced they had discovered

an effective vaccine against polio

in April 1955.

 

It would save

millions of children

from disability and death.

 

The doctor

who led the research

was Jonas Salk.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01wtd0b

 

 

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01wtd0b

Anglonautes > Vocapedia Health > Viruses > Polio

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/05/22/
860789014/the-race-for-a-polio-vaccine-differed-from-the-quest-to-prevent-coronavirus

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/28/
nyregion/naomi-replansky-eva-kollisch-coronavirus.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

biology, genetrics > discovery of DNA        1953

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1952

 

Jonas Salk (1914-1955)

produces polio vaccine

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm52sa.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bmsalk.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1951

 

UK

 

Computing

 

 

The Ferranti Mark 1,

also known as

the Manchester

Electronic Computer

in its sales literature,

and thus sometimes called

the Manchester Ferranti,

was produced by

British electrical

engineering firm

Ferranti Ltd.

 

Among the world's

first commercially available

general-purpose

digital computers,

it was the tidied up

and commercialised version

of the Manchester Mark I.

 

The first machine was delivered

to the University of Manchester

in February 1951

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferranti_Mark_1

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferranti_Mark_1

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/05/
obituaries/alan-turing-overlooked.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1950s

 

Computing

 

Alan Turing's Pilot Ace computer

 

 

Built in the 1950s

and one

of the Science Museum's

20th century icons,

The Pilot Ace

"automatic computing engine"

was the world's

first general

purpose computer

– and for a while

was the fastest computer

in the world.

 

We now take

the ability to carry out

a range of tasks

on our computers for granted,

but it all started

with the principles developed

by mathematician Alan Turing

in the 1930s

and his design for the Ace.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2013/apr/12/alan-turing-pilot-ace-computer-video

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/jan/20/
unseen-alan-turing-notebook-to-fetch-1m

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/02/
ramatizes-the-story-of-alan-turing.html">
movies/the-imitation-game-dramatizes-the-story-of-alan-turing.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2013/apr/12/
alan-turing-pilot-ace-computer-video

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/grrlscientist/2011/dec/19/1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1954

 

Medicine

 

The first successful kidney transplant

was conducted in 1954

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/23/
health/robert-mccabe-jr-a-kidney-donation-specialist-dies-at-88.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1953

 

maser        USA

 


microwave amplification

by stimulated emission of radiation,

(...)

it would lead

to the building of the first laser,

which amplified light waves

instead of microwaves

and became essential to the birth

of a new technological age.

 

Lasers

have found a wide range

of practical applications

from long-distance

telephone calls

to eye surgery,

from missile guidance systems

to the checkout counter

at the supermarket.

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/28/
science/james-gordon-dies-at-85-work-paved-way-for-laser.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosalind Elsie Franklin        UK        1920-1958

 

In 1951

the young British scientist

began one of the key

scientific investigations

of the century.

 

Rosalind Franklin

produced

an x-ray photograph

that helped show

the structure of DNA,

the molecule

that holds the genetic code

that underpins all life.

 

The discovery

was integral

to the transformation

of modern medicine

and has been described

as one of the greatest

scientific achievements ever.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1948

 

transistor

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/01/
science/01trans.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/01/
science/01first.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1943

 

Computing

 

construction of the ENIAC machine

at the University of Pennsylvania

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/feb/26/
first-computers-john-von-neumann

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1941

 

Germany

 

World War 2

 

Lorenz teleprinter

 

The Lorenz SZ40, SZ42a and SZ42b

were German rotor stream cipher machines

used by the German Army during World War II.

 

 

They were developed

by C. Lorenz AG in Berlin.

 

The model name SZ

was derived from Schlüssel-Zusatz,

meaning cipher attachment.

 

The instruments implemented

a Vernam stream cipher.

 

British cryptanalysts,

who referred to encrypted

German teleprinter traffic as Fish,

dubbed the machine

and its traffic Tunny

(meaning tunafish)

and deduced

its logical structure three years

before they saw such a machine.

 

The SZ machines

were in-line attachments

to standard teleprinters.

 

An experimental link

using SZ40 machines

was started in June 1941.

 

The enhanced SZ42 machines

were brought into substantial use

from mid-1942 onwards

for high-level communications

between

the German High Command

in Wünsdorf close to Berlin,

and Army Commands

throughout occupied Europe.

 

The more advanced SZ42A

came into routine use

in February 1943

and the SZ42B in June 1944.

- 8 May 2020

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenz_cipher

 

 

 

More complex

than the famous

Enigma code,

the Lorenz cipher

could be broken

only thanks to

the mathematician

Bill Tutte

[ 1917-2002 ],

who deduced

the architecture

of a Lorenz machine

without ever

having seen one.

 

Solving the problem

also led to the creation

of Colossus,

the world’s first

programmable computer,

which Tommy Flowers

[ 1905-1998 ],

a Post Office engineer,

invented to work out

the wheel positions

on the Lorenz

encryption machine

and reduce

the time taken

to decrypt messages

from weeks to hours.

 

The decoding

of the top-secret

Lorenz messages

is credited with

shortening the war

and saving countless

lives.

 

“It was the highest

possible level of security

used by the German

high command,”

 

(...)

 

It was thanks

to the breakthroughs

by Tutte and Flowers

that allied commanders

could be certain

Hitler’s high command

had bought their bluff

that the D-Day invasion force

would be landing at Calais,

rather than on the beaches

of Normandy.

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/may/29/nazi-coding-machine-lorenz-teleprinter-ebay

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/may/29/
nazi-coding-machine-lorenz-teleprinter-ebay

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/05/29/
479943359/museum-finds-piece-of-wwii-history-for-sale-on-ebay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Flying Scotsman

 

Britain's most iconic steam engine

 

 

The Flying Scotsman

— the first train to reach

100 miles per hour,

back in 1934 —

was pulled out of service

in 1963.

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/01/08/
462412473/flying-scotsman-hits-the-rails-once-more

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/01/08/
462412473/flying-scotsman-hits-the-rails-once-more

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander Fleming    UK    1881-1955

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1927

 

television

 

 

Philo Farnsworth

demonstrates

the first television

for potential investors

by broadcasting

the image

of a dollar sign.

 

Farnsworth receives

backing and applies

for a patent,

but ongoing patent battles

with RCA will prevent

Farnsworth

from earning his share

of the million-dollar industry

his invention will create.

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/telephone/timeline/timeline_text.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1927

 

London-New York

transatlantic wireless telephone service

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1927/jan/08/
fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1926

 

France

 

tetanus bacteria and diptheria bacteria

 

vaccines

 

 

Diphtheria

is a highly contagious

and potentially fatal infection

that can affect

the nose and throat,

and sometimes the skin.

- April 30, 2020.

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/diphtheria/

 

 

 

Tetanus is a serious

but rare condition

caused by bacteria

getting into a wound.

- April 30, 2020.

https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/tetanus/

 

 

 

"Vaccines"

against diphtheria and tetanus,

comparable as prophylactics

with Jenner's

vaccine against smallpox,

have been discovered

at the Pasteur Institute here

by a French chemist,

M. G. Ramon.

 

They are harmless,

do not cause

the slightest reaction,

and confer an immunity

even more lasting

than that of calf-lymph

against small-pox.

 

It is suggested

that all infants

over twelve months' old

should henceforth

go through

a second vaccination

for diphtheria,

and that all soldiers

on active service

should be vaccinated

against tetanus,

as they are now

against typhus.

- Wednesday 27 January 1926

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2009/jan/27/
tetanus-diptheria-vaccines-discovery

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2009/jan/27/
tetanus-diptheria-vaccines-discovery

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italy

 

Guglielmo Marconi    1874-1937

 

wireless pioneer

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1702037.stm

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guglielmo_Marconi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1920

 

UK

 

Marconi

 

the first live radio broadcast,

from Chelmsford

 

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/essex/hi/people_and_places/history/
newsid_8722000/8722885.stm

 

https://hsm.ox.ac.uk/  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

USA

 

Thomas Alva Edison    1847-1931

 

 

Edison

invented or refined devices

that made a profound impact

on how people lived.

 

The most famous

of his inventions

was the incandescent

light bulb (1878),

which would revolutionize

indoor lighting

and forever separate

light from fire.

 

He also developed

the phonograph

(1877),

the central power station

(1881),

the motion-picture studio

(1892)

and system for making

and showing motion pictures

(1893),

and alkaline storage batteries

(1901).

 

Edison

improved upon

the original designs

of the stock ticker,

the telegraph,

and Alexander Graham Bell's

telephone.

 

He was

one of the first

to explore X-rays,

and in 1875,

he announced

his observation

of "etheric force"

-- radio waves --

although his claim

would be rejected

by the scientific

community.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/edison_lo.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/edison_lo.html

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/key-figures-eastmans-life/

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/04/
books/review/noah-hawley-reviews-last-days-of-night-graham-moore.html

http://www.npr.org/2016/08/13/
489655417/its-electric-novel-re-creates-charged-rivalry-between-edison-and-westinghouse

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/05/05/
404445211/edisons-talking-dolls-can-now-provide-the-soundtrack-to-your-nightmares

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89148959 - March 27, 2008

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3602592 - January 29, 1999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1916

 

general relativity

 

 

In 1916,

Albert Einstein

discovered

a mathematical way

to explain gravity.

 

He called it

his general theory

of relativity.

 

It relied on

a set of coordinates

that described

space and time together,

known as

the space-time continuum.

 

Matter and energy warp

the space-time continuum

like heavy weight

on a mattress.

 

The warping creates

the force of gravity.

 

Gravitational waves

are ripples

in the space-time continuum

(instead of

an ordinary mattress,

think of a waterbed).

 

It isn't all

esoteric mathematics.

 

General relativity

tells us how gravity

affects time,

which must be taken

into account

by your satnav

to tell you accurately

where you are.

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/17/
gravitational-waves-bicep-inflation-big-bang

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/14/
opinion/sunday/finding-beauty-in-the-darkness.html

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2015/11/25/
457355281/the-equation-that-banged-the-cosmos

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/24/
science/a-century-ago-einsteins-theory-of-relativity-changed-everything.html

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/11/24/
science/what-is-einsteins-general-relativity.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/24/
science/space-the-frontier-right-in-front-of-us.html

 

http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/mar/17/
gravitational-waves-bicep-inflation-big-bang

 

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/1955/apr/19/
fromthearchive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1910s

 

Germany

 

 ammonia process

 

 

The ammonia process

– which uses nitrogen

from the atmosphere

as its key ingredient –

was invented

by German chemist

Fritz Haber

to solve a problem

that faced farmers

across the globe.

 

By the early 20th century

they were running out

of natural fertilisers

for their crops.

 

The Haber plant

at Ludwigshafen,

run by the chemical

giant BASF,

transformed

that grim picture

exactly 100 years ago

– by churning out ammonia

in industrial quantities

for the first time,

triggering

a green revolution.

 

Several billion people

are alive today

only because Haber

found a way to turn

atmospheric nitrogen

into ammonia fertiliser.

 

"Bread from air,"

ran the slogan that advertised

his work at the time.

 

But there is another,

far darker side

to the history

of the Haber process.

 

By providing Germany

with an industrial

source of ammonia,

the country was able

to extend its fight

in the first world war

by more than a year,

it is estimated.

 

Britain's sea blockade

would have ensured

Germany quickly ran out

of natural fertilisers

for its crops.

 

In addition,

Germany

would also have run out

of nitrogen compounds,

such as saltpetre,

for its explosives.

 

The Haber process

met both demands.

 

Trains, bursting

with Haber-based explosives

and scrawled with

"Death to the French",

were soon

chugging to the front,

lengthening the war

and Europe's suffering.

 

(...)

 

Bald and absurdly Teutonic

in demeanour,

Haber was an ardent

German nationalist.

 

He was happy his invention

was used to make explosives

and was a fervent advocate

of gas weapons.

 

As a result,

on 22 April 1915 at Ypres,

400 tons of chlorine gas

were released

under his direction

and sent sweeping in clouds

over Allied troops.

 

It was the world's

first major chemical

weapons attack.

 

Around 6,000 men died.

 

Haber later

claimed asphyxiation

was no worse than blowing

a soldier's leg off

and letting him bleed to death,

but many others disagreed,

including his wife,

Clara, herself a chemist.

 

A week after the Ypres attack,

she took Haber's service revolver

and shot herself,

dying in the arms of Hermann,

their only son.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/03/
fritz-haber-fertiliser-ammonia-centenary

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/03/
fritz-haber-fertiliser-ammonia-centenary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Parker    UK    1843-1915

 

English electrical engineer,

inventor and industrialist.

 

He patented

improvements

in lead-acid batteries

and dynamos,

and was a pioneer

of manufacturing

equipment

that powered

electric tramways

and electric lighting.

 

He invented

the smokeless fuel

Coalite.

 

He formed

the first company

to distribute electricity

over a wide area.

 

He was described

by Lord Kelvin

as "the Edison of Europe".

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Parker_(inventor)

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Parker_(inventor)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1914

 

photography

 

The Ur-Leica

 

The original

Leica prototype of 1914

is considered as revolutionary

a technological development

as the advent

of the mobile phone.

 

Compact and lightweight

– a mere 400g –

and using 35mm

cinematic film,

it was small enough

to fit into a coat pocket,

and rapidly became

essential not only

to professional photographers

but also amateurs,

thereby bringing photography

into everyday life.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2017/jul/13/
leica-the-camera-that-freed-the-world-in-pictures

 

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2017/jul/13/
leica-the-camera-that-freed-the-world-in-pictures

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/aug/24/
why-i-love-my-leica-john-naughton-photography-camera-technology-cartier-bresson

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2014/aug/24/
100-years-of-the-leica-camera-in-pictures

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/jan/31/
leica-100-birthday-photographers-messages

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oskar Barnack    GER    1879-1936

 

inventor of the Leica camera

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oskar_Barnack

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2014/aug/24/
why-i-love-my-leica-john-naughton-photography-camera-technology-cartier-bresson

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1912

 

RMS Titanic

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/titanic_01.shtml

https://www.theguardian.com/uk/the-titanic

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/may/03/
opening-of-the-titanic-inquiry-archive-1912

 

https://www.theguardian.com/news/1912/apr/16/
leadersandreply.mainsection

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch    GER    1843-1910

 

German physician

and microbiologist

 

 

As one of the main founders

of modern bacteriology,

he identified

the specific causative agents

of tuberculosis,

cholera, and anthrax

and also gave

experimental support

for the concept

of infectious disease,

which included

experiments on humans

and other animals.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Koch

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Koch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1918

 

Cars

 

Ford Model T

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/telephone/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1900s

 

USA

 

Airplanes

 

 

from the early experiments

with gliders in the 1890s,

to the famous

first powered flight

by the Wright brothers

in December 1903

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/19/
opinion/nocera-greed-and-the-wright-brothers.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/19/
opinion/nocera-greed-and-the-wright-brothers.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1903

 

 

Airplanes

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/telephone/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 17, 1903

 

USA

 

Airplanes

 

 

Wilbur and Orville Wright

make the world's first sustained,

powered, and controlled flight

in a heavier-than-air flying machine,

thereby realizing one of mankind's

oldest and most persistent aspirations

-- human flight.

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/wb-home.html - broken URL

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wright_brothers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1900 - 1930s        Germany        Zeppelins

 

 

 

Graf Zeppelin landing in Friedrichshafen, Germany, 1933.

 

Photograph: The Print Collector/Getty Images

 

When Airplanes and Zeppelins Competed to Conquer the Skies

NYT

April 28, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/28/
books/review/empires-of-the-sky-alexander-rose.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(...)  in July 1900

— three years before

the Wright brothers

would fly —

Zeppelin soared

for almost 18 minutes

over Germany

in a 420-foot airship

filled with nearly

400,000 cubic feet

of hydrogen.

 

He quickly built other,

better models.

 

By 1908,

Germans routinely

turned their heads to the sky,

shouting, “Zeppelin kommt!,”

and even when the count

crashed and crashed badly,

people loved him.

 

(...)

 

Without question,

at this point the airship

— not the airplane —

was the future,

and many experts

still believed

that after Zeppelin’s death

(of natural causes) in 1917.

 

Eckener

— Zeppelin’s disciple,

“as German as one can be,”

and the true protagonist

in this narrative —

would reel off

a string of successes

to prove it.

 

Zeppelins,

not airplanes,

were the first to offer

passenger flights in Europe

and the first

to transport passengers

across the Atlantic Ocean,

connecting to both North

and South America.

 

And the bullet-shaped ships

were always intriguing

to the military.

 

Even the Americans

briefly commissioned airships

in hopes of winning the heavens

— all of which is recounted

in “Empires of the Sky”

with mounting tension,

building to the climax

of the Hindenburg.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/28/
books/review/empires-of-the-sky-alexander-rose.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/28/
books/review/empires-of-the-sky-alexander-rose.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1895

 

Germany

 

X-rays

 

 

in 1895,

physicist

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

(1845-1923)

becomes the first person

to observe X-rays,

a significant scientific

advancement

that would ultimately

benefit

a variety of fields,

most of all medicine,

by making the invisible

visible.

 

Röntgen’s discovery

occurred accidentally

in his Wurzburg,

Germany, lab,

where he was testing

whether cathode rays

could pass through glass

when he noticed

a glow coming from

a nearby chemically

coated screen.

 

He dubbed the rays

that caused this glow

X-rays

because of their

unknown nature.

 

X-rays

are electromagnetic

energy waves

that act similarly

to light rays,

but at wavelengths

approximately

1,000 times shorter

than those of light.

 

Röntgen

holed up in his lab

and conducted

a series of experiments

to better understand

his discovery.

 

He learned that X-rays

penetrate human flesh

but not higher-density

substances

such as bone or lead

and that they can be

photographed.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/german-scientist-discovers-x-rays

 

 

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/
german-scientist-discovers-x-rays

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/video/2010/oct/26/
x-ray-machines-icon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1888

 

Kodak Camera

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/telephone/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1877

 

Thomas Edison > phonograph

 

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/telephone/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1876

 

telephone

 

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/telephone/

 

 

 

Alexander Graham Bell    UK    1847-1922

 

On March 10, 1876,

Professor Alexander Graham Bell

stood in a Boston boarding house

holding a receiving device

connected to a series of wires

that ran into an adjacent room.

 

There, his assistant,

Thomas A. Watson,

waited patiently,

clutching another receiver

to his ear.

 

Bell spoke into his end

of the contraption,

and Watson

heard his voice

in the receiver:

“Mr. Watson!

Come here! I want—!”

 

Watson dashed into

the adjoining room gasping:

“I heard you! I heard you!”

 

From that experiment

using just a few feet of wire

would grow an industry

that would transform

the world.

 

Through the likes

of the American Bell

Telephone Company

and its successor,

AT&T

(known colloquially as Ma Bell),

what was once Bell’s “toy”

became a communications goliath

made up of billions of dollars’

worth of infrastructure

carrying tens of millions

of calls every day.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
obituaries/archives/alexander-graham-bell

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/projects/cp/
obituaries/archives/alexander-graham-bell

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1870s

 

Printing

 

Typewriters

 

 

A typewriter

is a mechanical

or electromechanical machine

for writing characters similar

to those produced

by a printer's movable type.

 

Typically,

a typewriter

has an array of keys,

and each one causes

a different single character

to be produced on the paper,

by means of a ribbon

with dried ink

struck against the paper

by a type element

similar to the sorts

used in movable type

letterpress printing.

 

On some typewriters,

a separate type element

(called a typebar)

corresponds to each key;

others use

a single type element

(such as a typeball or disc)

with a different portion of it

used for each character.

 

At the end

of the nineteenth century,

the term typewriter

was also applied

to a person who used

a typing machine.

 

The first

commercial typewriters

were introduced in 1874,

but did not become

common in offices

until after the mid-1880s.

 

The typewriter

quickly became

an indispensable tool

for practically all writing

other than personal handwritten

correspondence.

 

It was widely used

by professional writers,

in offices,

and for business correspondence

in private homes.

- 4 May 2020

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typewriter

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typewriter

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

July 1, 1862

 

USA

 

Trains > First transcontinental railroad

 

 

Pacific Railway Act

signed into law

by President Abraham Lincoln

on July 1, 1862.

 

This act provided

Federal government

support for the building

of the first

transcontinental railroad,

which was completed

on May 10, 1869.

https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/pacificrail.html

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/pacificrail.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

recording sound

 

19th century

 

France

 

phonautographe

 

 

Édouard-Léon

Scott de Martinville

est un inventeur français

né en 1817 à Paris

où il est mort en 1879.

 

Typographe

et correcteur d'épreuves,

il apprit la sténographie et,

critiquant

toutes les méthodes existantes,

rechercha un moyen mécanique

d'enregistrer la parole.

 

Il inventa

le phonautographe,

traçant sur le papier

des courbes représentant

les ondes sonores ;

 

mais

on ne pouvait pas extraire

de ces tracés un texte,

comme il l'avait espéré,

ni écouter le son.

 

En 2008,

une équipe utilisant l'image

d'un de ses enregistrements,

réalisé le 9 avril 1860,

a pu entendre une voix

chantant Au clair de la lune.

 

C'est la plus ancienne trace

du son d’une voix humaine

qui ait été préservée,

de dix-sept ans antérieure

au phonographe d’Edison.

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard-L%C3%A9on_Scott_de_Martinville

 

 

https://fr.wikipedia.org/
wiki/%C3%89douard-L%C3%A9on_Scott_de_Martinville

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/05/22/
529550254/at-the-dawn-of-recorded-sound-no-one-cared

 

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=89148959 - March 27, 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1857

 

recording sound

 

phonautograph

 

 

In 1857,

Scott patented

the earliest known

sound recording device,

the phonautograph

— a device with a big funnel

for catching sound

and a needle

attached to parchment

that caught the vibrations

and tracked them

on soot-coated glass.

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/05/22/
529550254/at-the-dawn-of-recorded-sound-no-one-cared

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2017/05/22/
529550254/at-the-dawn-of-recorded-sound-no-one-cared

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

photography

 

France

 

Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre

(1787-1851)

and the Invention of Photography

 

daguerreotype

 

 

Each daguerreotype

is a remarkably detailed,

one-of-a-kind

photographic image

on a highly polished,

silver-plated sheet of copper,

sensitized with iodine vapors,

exposed in a large box camera,

developed in mercury fumes,

and stabilized (or fixed)

with salt water or "hypo"

(sodium thiosulphate).

 

https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dagu/hd_dagu.htm

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/cwp/bradynote.html

http://www.niepce.com/pagus/pagus-inv.html

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/sep/05/
emily-dickinson-new-photograph

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1851

 

photography

 

wet collodion

photographic process

 

 

Invented in 1851,

the wet collodion

photographic process

produced a glass negative

and a beautifully

detailed print.

 

Preferred

for the quality of the prints

and the ease with which

they could be reproduced,

the new method thrived

from the 1850s

until about 1880.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MiAhPIUno1o

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1851

 

Photography

 

Wet-plate

 

 

Wet-plate

was first detailed

by Frederick Scott Archer

in 1851,

less than three decades

after the dawn of photography,

and was known ominously

as the "black art",

partly on account

of the potential perils

- death

from cyanide explosions

and blinding from silver

among them.

 

While Brady's

revelatory civil war images

documented the faces

and realities of conflict,

Carleton Watkins

and Eadweard Muybridge

produced stunning images

of Yosemite National Park

by lugging mammoth

wet-plate cameras

high into the mountains,

and Julia Margaret Cameron

created ethereal shots

which promoted photography

as an art form.

 

Production

died swiftly, however,

as the insatiable desire

for photographic innovation

saw the emergence

of dry-plate technology

and collodion emulsion,

followed by

handheld cameras and film.

 

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/photography-blog/2013/jul/22/
photography-art

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19th century

 

Photography

 

Glass Plate Negatives: A Brief History

 

 

Glass plate negatives

comprise two formats:

collodion wet plate negatives

and gelatin dry plate negatives.

 

Both types

have a light sensitive emulsion

with a binder thinly layered

on one side of a glass plate.

 

Frederick Scott Archer,

a British inventor

and photographer,

made the first collodion

wet plate negative in 1851.

 

In order

to prepare a negative,

a photographer coated

a clean sheet of glass

with collodion,

a liquid with ingredients

that included

cellulose nitrate and ether.

 

Then the plate

was quickly put

into a silver nitrate bath

in order to sensitize it to light

and placed in the camera,

where the negative

was exposed.

 

The photographer

had to develop it

very quickly after exposure.

 

Because it was

necessary to prepare,

expose and develop

a negative

while it was still wet,

this process

of making photographs

was complicated,

inconvenient,

and not very portable.

 

Richard Leach Maddox,

a British physician

and photographer,

produced the first practical

dry glass plate negative

in 1871.

 

In his much more

convenient process,

the glass plate

was coated with gelatin

and sensitized

with silver salts.

 

The negative did not need

to be developed immediately

after exposure.

 

Maddox's method

was so well-received

that dry plates replaced wet.

 

Within ten years

they were produced in factories

and became widely available,

especially

for amateur photographers.

 

One no longer

had to be skilled

in mixing potentially

dangerous chemicals

and could store

undeveloped images

for long periods of time.

 

Gelatin

dry plate negatives

were widely used

into the 1920s.

 

By then

gelatin sliver paper negatives

and celluloid roll film

had become popular.

http://archives.syr.edu/exhibits/glassplate_about.html - broken URL

 

 

http://archives.syr.edu/exhibits/glassplate_about.html - broken URL

 

https://library.syr.edu/scrc/collections/archives/index.php

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19th century

 

UK, USA

 

Telegraphs

 

 

The first commercial telegraph

was by Cooke and Wheatstone

following their English patent

of 10 June 1837.

 

It was demonstrated

on the London

and Birmingham Railway

in July of the same year.

 

In July 1839,

a five-needle,

five-wire system

was installed

to provide signalling

over a record distance of 21 km

on a section

of the Great Western Railway

between

London Paddington station

and West Drayton.

 

However,

in trying to get railway companies

to take up his telegraph

more widely for railway signalling,

 

Cooke

was rejected several times

in favour of the more familiar,

but shorter range,

steam-powered pneumatic

signalling.

 

Even when his telegraph

was taken up,

it was considered experimental

and the company

backed out of a plan

to finance

extending the telegraph line

out to Slough.

 

However,

this led to a breakthrough

for the electric telegraph,

as up to this point

the Great Western

had insisted

on exclusive use

and refused Cooke

permission to open

public telegraph offices.

 

Cooke extended the line

at his own expense

and agreed that the railway

could have free use of it

in exchange for the right

to open it up to the public.


Most of the early

electrical systems

required multiple wires

(Ronalds' system

was an exception),

but the system developed

in the United States

by Morse and Vail

was a single-wire system.

 

This was the system

that first used

the soon-to-become-ubiquitous

Morse code.

 

By 1844,

the Morse system

connected

Baltimore to Washington,

and by 1861

the west coast of the continent

was connected to the east coast.

 

The Cooke and Wheatstone

telegraph,

in a series of improvements,

also ended up

with a one-wire system,

but still using their own code

and needle displays.

 

The electric telegraph

quickly became

a means of more general

communication.

 

The Morse system

was officially adopted

as the standard

for continental

European telegraphy

in 1851

with a revised code,

which later became the basis

of International Morse Code.

 

However,

Great Britain

and the British Empire

continued to use

the Cooke and Wheatstone

system,

in some places

as late as the 1930s.

 

Likewise,

the United States continued

to use American Morse code

internally,

requiring translation operators

skilled in both codes

for international messages.

- 2 May 2020

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telegraphy

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telegraphy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18th century

 

 

1796

 

medicine

 

smallpox vaccine

 

Edward Jenner    UK    1749-1823

 

 

The history of smallpox

holds a unique place

in medicine.

 

It was one

of the deadliest diseases

known to humans,

and to date (2016)

the only human disease

to have been eradicated

by vaccination.

 

The smallpox vaccine,

introduced

by Edward Jenner

in 1796,

was the first

successful vaccine

to be developed.

 

He observed

that milkmaids

who previously had

caught cowpox

did not catch smallpox

and showed

that inoculated vaccinia

protected against inoculated

variola virus.

 

The global eradication effort

initially used a strategy

of mass vaccination campaigns

to achieve 80% vaccine coverage

in each country,

and thereafter by case-finding,

followed by ring vaccination

of all known

and possible contacts

to seal off the outbreak

from the rest of the population.

 

In 1961

the bifurcated needle

was developed

as a more efficient

and cost effective alternative,

and was the primary

instrument used

during the eradication campaign

from 1966 to 1977.

 

The bifurcated needle

vaccination

required only one-fourth

the amount of vaccine

needed with previous methods

and was simpler to perform.

- December 2017

https://www.who.int/csr/disease/smallpox/vaccines/en/

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox

https://www.who.int/csr/disease/smallpox/en/

https://www.cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html

 

 

https://www.npr.org/2020/06/04/
869798010/the-very-first-vaccine

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/09/19/
762013515/russian-lab-explosion-raises-question-should-smallpox-virus-be-kept-or-destroyed

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/02/17/
585385308/did-pox-virus-research-put-potential-profits-ahead-of-public-safety

 

 

 

 

http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/08/25/
489950967/tribute-the-man-who-killed-smallpox

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/22/us/
dr-donald-a-henderson-who-helped-end-smallpox-dies-at-87.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/
opinion/errol-morris-demon-in-the-freezer.html

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2018/02/17/
585385308/did-pox-virus-research-put-potential-profits-ahead-of-public-safety

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/02/01/
582370199/whats-the-real-story-about-the-milkmaid-and-the-smallpox-vaccine

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/12/08/
504618235/a-mummys-dna-may-help-solve-the-mystery-of-the-origins-of-smallpox

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/01/07/
375598652/a-cow-head-will-not-erupt-from-your-body-if-you-get-a-smallpox-vaccine

 

 

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/05/09/
310475511/keep-or-kill-last-lab-stocks-of-smallpox-time-to-decide-says-who

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/05/01/
308357520/new-virus-related-to-smallpox-is-found-in-republic-of-georgia

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2011/05/24/
136608195/who-grants-smallpox-a-reprieve

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2011/05/16/
136353663/has-the-time-come-to-destroy-smallpox-for-good

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/26/world/
26fenner.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2006/jun/23/
weaponstechnology.guardianweekly

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Stephenson        UK        1781-1848

 

George Stephenson

was an engineer.

 

He built

steam locomotives

for the first railways.

 

Sometimes people call him

'the Father of the Railway'.

 

(...)

 

George Stephenson

was born in 1781.

 

At this time

Britain

was starting to change

from a land of farms

and small villages

to a land of factories

and big cities.

 

We call this change

the Industrial Revolution.

 

By the time

George Stephenson

died in 1848,

its new railways

and factories

had made Britain

the richest country

in the world.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/famouspeople/george_stephenson/

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/famouspeople/george_stephenson/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1830

 

UK

 

rail-road

 

Liverpool and Manchester railway

 

Stephenson's locomotive engine,

the Rocket

 

 

http://www.theguardian.com/news/1830/jan/02/
mainsection.fromthearchive 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Public Railways

 

George Stephenson

built the world's

first public railways:

 

the Stockton and Darlington railway

in 1825

and the Liverpool-Manchester railway

in 1830.

 

Stephenson

was the chief engineer

for several of the railways.

 

 

https://www.thoughtco.com/history-of-the-railroad-1992457

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1827

 

France

 

The first photograph    1827

 

Nicéphore Niépce    1765-1833

 

 

https://www.telerama.fr/scenes/
ils-ont-fait-la-photo-1-nicephore-niepce-l-homme-qui-a-tout-declenche,71329.php 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1807

 

steam boat

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steamboat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1820s

 

steam train

 

 

Thirty years after James Watt

invented the steam engine,

the first railway engine

was constructed.

 

It was originally used

for pulling coal

for short distances.

 

In 1829

there was a competition

to build something

more useful.

 

The winner

was George Stephenson's Rocket,

which could pull passenger trains

at 50km per hour.

 

The UK became the centre

of the train-building industry,

sending engines

all over the world.

 

Before the development

of the steam-train,

it took 12 days to travel

between

Edinburgh and London

on horseback.

 

The Flying Scotsman

took just 8 hours

to travel the same distance.

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/clips/steam-engines/10911.html - broken URL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

steam engine > James Watt    1736-1819

 

James Watt's Improved Steam Engine

Powers the Industrial Revolution - 1769

 

https://www.thoughtco.com/industrial-revolution-in-pictures-1991940

 

 

 

 

 

James Watt

was a Scottish inventor

and mechanical engineer,

renowned for his improvements

in steam engine technology.

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/watt_james.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Industrial revolution in Britain

 

During the late 18th

and early 19th centuries,

Britain experienced change

in all aspects of life,

as a result

of the Industrial Revolution.

 

Scientific advances

and technological

innovations

brought growth

in agricultural

and industrial production,

economic expansion

and changes

in living conditions,

while at the same time

there was a new sense

of national identity

and civic pride.

 

The most dramatic changes

were witnessed in rural areas,

where the provincial landscape

often became

urban and industrialized

following advances in agriculture,

industry and shipping.

 

Wealth accumulated

in the regions

and there was soon

a need for country banking.

 

 

http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_research_catalogues/
paper_money/paper_money_of_england__wales/the_industrial_revolution.aspx - broken URL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1609

 

Italy

 

Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaulti de Galilei    1564-1642

 

 

When Galileo

turned his telescope

toward Jupiter in 1609,

he observed moons

orbiting the giant planet,

a discovery that destroyed

the Aristotelian notion

that everything in heaven

orbited the Earth.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/14/
opinion/sunday/finding-beauty-in-the-darkness.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/14/
opinion/sunday/finding-beauty-in-the-darkness.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hygiene

 

soapmaking

 

 

https://www.open.edu/openlearn/history-the-arts/history/
history-science-technology-and-medicine/history-science/the-history-soapmaking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Science

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Videos

 

Space, Astronomy

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

idea of progress

 

 

science, measures / units

 

 

health

 

 

health > cells, DNA, cancer, genetics

 

 

space, astronomy

 

 

technology

 

 

broadcasting > radio

 

 

broadcasting > TV

 

 

brodcasting > media, journalism > TV

 

 

transports

 

 

genocide, war

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Arts