Les anglonautes

About | Search | Grammar | Vocapedia | Learning | Docs | Stats | News podcasts | Videos | History | Arts | Science | Translate and listen

 Previous Home Up Next

 

science > scientists > timeline > 17th - 21st century > FR, GER, UK, USA

 

 

 

Dr. Nash and his wife, Alicia,

in Paris in 1960.

 

By then,

mental illness had begun to take its toll on him.

 

Though the couple divorced in 1963,

she stood by him, and they later remarried.

 

John F. Nash Jr., Math Genius Defined by a ‘Beautiful Mind,’ Dies at 86

NYT

MAY 24, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/25/
science/john-nash-a-beautiful-mind-subject-and-nobel-winner-dies-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Kirk English        USA        1929-2020

 

engineer and researcher

who helped build

the first computer mouse

and, in 1968,

orchestrated an elaborate

demonstration of the technology

that foretold the computers,

tablets and smartphones of today

 

(...)

 



In the late 1950s,

after leaving a career in the Navy,

Mr. English joined

a Northern California research lab

called the Stanford Research Institute,

or S.R.I.

(now known as SRI International).

 

There he met Douglas Engelbart,

a fellow engineer who hoped

to build a new kind of computer.

 

At a time

when only specialists

used computers,

entering and retrieving

information

through punched cards,

typewriters and printouts,

Mr. Engelbart

envisioned a machine

that anyone could use simply

by manipulating images

on a screen.

 

It was a concept

that would come

to define the information age,

but by his own admission

Mr. Engelbart had struggled

to explain his vision to others.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/31/
technology/william-english-who-helped-build-the-computer-mouse-dies-at-91.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/31/
technology/william-english-who-helped-build-the-computer-mouse-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Horton Conway        UK / USA        1937-2020

 

He made

profound contributions

to number theory,

coding theory,

probability theory,

topology, algebra

and more

— and created games

from it all.

 

He died of the coronavirus.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/15/
technology/john-horton-conway-dead-coronavirus.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/15/
technology/john-horton-conway-dead-coronavirus.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Murray Gell-Mann        USA        1923-2019

 

Murray Gell-Mann (...)

transformed physics

with his preternatural ability

to find hidden patterns

among the tiny particles

that make up the universe,

earning a Nobel Prize

 

(...)

 

Much as atoms

can be slotted

into the rows

and columns

of the periodic

table of the elements,

Dr. Gell-Mann

found a way, in 1961,

to classify their smaller pieces

— subatomic particles like

protons, neutrons, and mesons,

which were being discovered

by the dozen

in cosmic rays

and particle accelerator blasts.

 

Arranged according

to their properties,

the particles clustered

in groups of eight and 10.

 

In a moment of whimsy,

Dr. Gell-Mann, who hadn’t

a mystical bone in his body,

named his system

the Eightfold Way

after the Buddha’s

eight-step path

to enlightenment.

 

He groaned ever after

when people

mistakenly inferred

that particle physics

was somehow related

to Eastern philosophy.

 

Looking deeper,

Dr. Gell-Mann realized

that the patterns

of the Eightfold Way

could be further divided

into triplets

of even smaller components.

 

He decided to call them quarks

after a line from James Joyce’s

“Finnegans Wake”:

“Three quarks for Muster Mark.”

 

With Dr. Gell-Mann at the forefront,

physics took on a Joycean feel.

 

Before long there were

up quarks and down quarks,

strange quarks and charm quarks,

top quarks and bottom quarks,

all stuck together

with particles called gluons.

 

The funny nomenclature

was as much

a Gell-Mann inspiration

as the mathematics.

 

“Murray Gell-Mann

dominated

theoretical particle physics

during the 1950s and ′60s,

a period with an abundance

of new experimental discoveries,”

his colleague David J. Gross,

another Nobel laureate in physics,

said in an interview

for this obituary

in 2010.

 

“With almost magical intuition

Gell-Mann discerned

the patterns and symmetries

connecting the many new particles

that were found.”

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/24/
obituaries/murray-gell-mann-died-.html

 

 

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/24/
obituaries/murray-gell-mann-died-.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Dombrowski Roberts        USA        1918-2016

 

(...) organic chemist

who pioneered the use

of nuclear magnetic

resonance spectroscopy

and other techniques

to reveal the structures

of molecules

and the dance of atoms

as they rearrange

in chemical reactions

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/07/science/john-roberts-organic-chemistry.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/07/
science/john-roberts-organic-chemistry.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Walter Bannerman Kibble        IND / UK        1932-2016

 

Sir Tom Kibble (...)

was one of the world’s

foremost theoretical physicists

and, with the Nobel laureate

Peter Higgs,

discoverer

of the “Higgs-Kibble mechanism”

for giving mass

to the fundamental particles

of the universe.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/jun/08/sir-tom-kibble-obituary

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/jun/08/
sir-tom-kibble-obituary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harold Krotoschiner        USA        1939-2016

 

Harold Kroto (...)

shared the 1996 Nobel Prize

in Chemistry

for discovering

a new arrangement

of carbon known

as the buckyball

 

(...)

 

As a spectroscopic chemist,

Dr. Kroto used

electromagnetic radiation

to reveal

the structures of molecules.

 

His Nobel Prize-winning

discovery,

which he shared

with Richard E. Smalley

and Robert F. Curl Jr.

of Rice University in Houston,

was the Buckminsterfullerene molecule,

a cage of 60 carbon atoms

made of interlocking

pentagons and hexagons.

 

Dr. Kroto,

who had a passion for art,

named it after Buckminster Fuller,

the visionary architect

whose geodesic

dome-shaped buildings

closely resemble

the fullerene sphere.

 

“Nobody had ever

thought of a molecule

that could be that symmetrical

and only consist of one element

that is carbon,”

said Naresh Dalal,

a chemistry professor

at Florida State University,

where Dr. Kroto worked

for nearly a decade

before returning to England

in the fall of 2015.

 

The buckyball

was the third form of carbon

to be found

after diamonds and graphite.

 

Dr. Kroto often likened

the molecule to a soccer ball

(or a “football”

when speaking to audiences

outside of the United States)

with a cavity in the middle

that could carry smaller molecules.

 

(...)


The fullerene discovery opened

a new field of nanotechnology

that at one point was the subject

of more than 1,000

published papers a year.

 

The molecule

has potential applications

in drug delivery, computing

and high-speed transportation,

Dr. Dalal said.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/05/science/harold-kroto-nobel-prize-winning-chemist-is-dead-at-76.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/05/
science/harold-kroto-nobel-prize-winning-chemist-is-dead-at-76.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wesley Allison Clark        USA        1927-2016

 

physicist who designed

the first modern personal computer

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/
business/wesley-a-clark-made-computing-personal-dies-at-88.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/
business/wesley-a-clark-made-computing-personal-dies-at-88.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Loton Flanagan        USA        1925-2015

 

pioneer

in the field of acoustics,

envisioning and providing

the technical foundation

for speech recognition,

teleconferencing,

MP3 music files

and the more efficient

digital transmission

of human conversation

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/31/
business/james-l-flanagan-acoustical-pioneer-dies-at-89.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/31/
business/james-l-flanagan-acoustical-pioneer-dies-at-89.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jacob David Bekenstein        USA        1947-2015

 

physicist

who prevailed in an argument

with Stephen Hawking

that revolutionized

the study of black holes,

and indeed the nature

of space-time itself (...)

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/22/science/space/
jacob-bekenstein-physicist-who-revolutionized-theory-of-black-holes-dies-at-68.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/22/
science/space/jacob-bekenstein-physicist-
who-revolutionized-theory-of-black-holes-dies-at-68.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jennifer A. Doudna

 

biochemist

at the University of California,

Berkeley

(who) helped make one

of the most monumental

discoveries in biology:

a relatively easy way

to alter any organism’s DNA,

just as a computer user

can edit a word in a document.

 

The discovery

has turned Dr. Doudna

(the first syllable

rhymes with loud)

into a celebrity of sorts,

the recipient of numerous

accolades and prizes.

 

The so-called Crispr-Cas9

genome editing technique

is already widely used

in laboratory studies,

and scientists hope it may one day

help rewrite flawed genes in people,

opening tremendous new possibilities

for treating, even curing, diseases.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/12/science/jennifer-doudna-crispr-cas9-genetic-engineering.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/12/
science/jennifer-doudna-crispr-cas9-genetic-engineering.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John F. Nash Jr        USA

 

mathematician

who shared a Nobel Prize in 1994

for work that greatly extended

the reach and power

of modern economic theory

and whose long descent

into severe mental illness

and eventual recovery

were the subject

of a book and a film,

both titled “A Beautiful Mind”

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/25/science/john-nash-a-beautiful-mind-subject-and-nobel-winner-dies-at-86.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/25/
science/john-nash-a-beautiful-mind-subject-and-nobel-winner-dies-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander Rich        USA        1924-2015

 

James Watson

and Francis Crick

worked out

the spiral structure of DNA

in 1953,

but they were not proved right

until Dr. Alexander Rich

used X-rays

to produce a distinct image

of the famous double helix

in 1973.

 

(...)

 

For nearly six decades,

Dr. Rich,

who died at 90

on April 27 in Boston,

doggedly investigated

DNA and RNA,

the fundamental

molecules of life.

 

He helped puzzle out

the structure of collagen,

a protein that is abundant

in ligaments and skin,

and he discovered that DNA

can exist in an odd zigzag form,

which he called Z-DNA.

 

His work provided insights

into how cells manufacture proteins,

and laid the groundwork

for techniques that scientists use

to identify, manipulate

and replace bits of genetic material.

 

Diagnostics for H.I.V. infection

and tests for genes

that cause breast cancer

are among the technologies built on

his discoveries.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/06/us/alexander-rich-dies-at-90-confirmed-dnas-double-helix.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/06/us/
alexander-rich-dies-at-90-confirmed-dnas-double-helix.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ernest Joachim Sternglass        USA        1923-2015

 

Ernest J. Sternglass ('s)

research in radiation physics

laid the foundation

for important technological advances

and who became

a prominent opponent

of nuclear weapons

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/21/science/ernest-sternglass-physicist-and-nuclear-critic-dies-at-91.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/21/
science/ernest-sternglass-physicist-and-nuclear-critic-dies-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Val Fitch teaching at Princeton in 1980,

the year he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics.

 

The research that led to his winning discovery

was conducted at the Brookhaven National Laboratory.

 

William Sauro/The New York Times

 

Val Fitch, Who Discovered Universe to Be Out of Balance, Is Dead at 91

By DENNIS OVERBYE        NYT        FEB. 10, 2015

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/11/us/val-fitch-who-discovered-universe-to-be-out-of-balance-is-dead-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Val Logsdon Fitch        USA        1923-2015

 

Val Fitch (...)

shared

the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics

for work that revealed

a surprising imbalance

in the laws of nature

and helped explain

why the collision

of matter and antimatter

has not destroyed

everything in the universe

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/11/us/val-fitch-who-discovered-universe-to-be-out-of-balance-is-dead-at-91.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/11/us/
val-fitch-who-discovered-universe-to-be-out-of-balance-is-dead-at-91.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Martin Lewis Perl        USA        1927-2014

 

Martin Perl (...)

was awarded

the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics

for discovering

a new subatomic particle,

one of the building blocks

of the universe

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/04/
science/martin-perl-physicist-who-discovered-electrons-long-lost-brother-dies-at-87.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/04/
science/martin-perl-physicist-who-discovered-electrons-long-lost-brother-dies-at-87.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Woodland Hastings        USA        1927-2014

 

Harvard biochemist

whose improbable discovery

of how bacteria communicate

became the foundation

for groundbreaking research

in the development

of more effective antibiotics

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/science/j-w-hastings-87-a-pioneer-in-bioluminescence-research-dies.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/10/
science/j-w-hastings-87-a-pioneer-in-bioluminescence-research-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Robert Huizenga        USA        1921-2014

 

physicist

who helped build

the world’s first atom bomb,

solve dozens of atomic riddles

and debunk claims

that scientists in Utah

had achieved nuclear fusion

in a jar of water

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/30/science/john-r-huizenga-physicist-at-fore-of-nuclear-era-dies-at-92.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/30/science/
john-r-huizenga-physicist-at-fore-of-nuclear-era-dies-at-92.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Warcup Cornforth        1917-2013

 

Australian-born scientist

who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

in 1975

(...)

Dr. Cornforth was awarded the Nobel

for deciphering a class of chemical reactions

that are important in living organisms.

 

His research,

centering on the behavior

of hydrogen atoms and molecules,

helped reveal

the chemical steps necessary for the body

to produce a precursor to cholesterol

and the role of enzymes in shepherding such reactions.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/20/world/asia/john-w-cornforth-96-nobel-winning-chemist-dies.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/20/world/asia/
john-w-cornforth-96-nobel-winning-chemist-dies.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harold Melvin Agnew        USA        1921-2013

 

last surviving major figure

to have been present at the birth of the nuclear age

— who helped build the world’s

first reactor and atomic bombs,

flew on the first atomic strike against Japan,

filmed the mushroom cloud,

helped perfect the hydrogen bomb

and led the Los Alamos National Laboratory

at the height of the cold war

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/02/us/
harold-m-agnew-physicist-present-at-birth-of-the-nuclear-age-dies-at-92.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/02/us/
harold-m-agnew-physicist-present-at-birth-of-the-nuclear-age-dies-at-92.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

James Power Gordon        USA        1928-2013

 

Distinguished Columbia University physicists,

some of them Nobel Prize winners,

called it a “harebrained scheme.”

 

But James P. Gordon,

principal builder of a refrigerator-size device

that would help revolutionize modern life,

believed in it enough to bet a bottle of bourbon that it would work.

 

He was a 25-year-old graduate student

in December 1953

when he burst into the seminar room

where Charles H. Townes,

his mentor and the inventor of the device,

was teaching.

 

The device, he announced,

had succeeded in emitting

a narrow beam of intense microwave energy.

 

Dr. Townes’s team named it the maser,

for microwave amplification

by stimulated emission of radiation,

and it would lead to the building of the first laser,

which amplified light waves instead of microwaves

and became essential

to the birth of a new technological age.

 

Lasers have found

a wide range of practical applications

from long-distance telephone calls to eye surgery,

from missile guidance systems

to the checkout counter at the supermarket.

 

In 1964, Dr. Townes and two Russians,

Nikolai G. Basov and Aleksandr M. Prokhorov,

shared the Nobel Prize for Physics

for the development of masers and lasers,

the Russians having worked separately from Dr. Townes.

 

Some thought Dr. Gordon,

who died on June 21 at 85,

deserved a share as well.

 

At the time of the maser’s invention,

Dr. Townes credited it

“to the triumph and glory” of Dr. Gordon.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/28/science/james-gordon-dies-at-85-work-paved-way-for-laser.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/28/
science/james-gordon-dies-at-85-work-paved-way-for-laser.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Donald Arthur Glaser        USA        1926-2013

 

Donald A. Glaser (...)

won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1960

for inventing, at 25,

an ingenious device called the bubble chamber

to trace the paths of subatomic particles

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/05/science/donald-glaser-nobel-winner-in-physics-dies-at-86.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/05/
science/donald-glaser-nobel-winner-in-physics-dies-at-86.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kenneth Ira Appel        1932-2013

 

Kenneth I. Appel

(...)

helped usher

the venerable mathematical proof into the computer age,

solving a longstanding problem concerning colors on a map

with the help of an I.B.M. computer making billions of decisions

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/29/technology/
kenneth-i-appel-mathematician-who-harnessed-computer-power-dies-at-80.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/29/
technology/kenneth-i-appel-mathematician-
who-harnessed-computer-power-dies-at-80.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Janet Davison        USA        1925-2013

 

physician who four decades ago

became the first person to show a conclusive link

between certain genetic abnormalities and certain cancers

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/21/us/janet-d-rowley-who-discovered-that-cancer-can-be-genetic-dies-at-88.html

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/21/us/
janet-d-rowley-who-discovered-that-cancer-can-be-genetic-dies-at-88.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carl Richard Woese        USA        1928-2012

 

biophysicist and evolutionary microbiologist

whose discovery 35 years ago

of a “third domain” of life

in the vast realm of micro-organisms

altered scientific understanding of evolution

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/01/
science/carl-woese-dies-discovered-lifes-third-domain.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1995/05/09/
science/clues-to-fiery-origin-of-life-sought-in-hothouse-microbes.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

George Arthur Cowan        USA        1920-2012

 

chemist who helped build

the first atomic bomb,

detect the first Soviet nuclear explosion

and test the first hydrogen bomb

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/25/
science/george-cowan-nuclear-scientist-dies-at-92.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Irving Millman        USA        1923-2012

 

microbiologist

whose work led to the creation

of a vaccine against hepatitis B

that is credited with saving millions of lives

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/27/
health/research/irving-millman-dies-at-88-created-hepatitis-vaccine.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

David Leigh Waltz        USA        1943-2012

 

computer scientist

whose early research in information retrieval

provided the foundation for today’s Internet search engines

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/24/
science/david-l-waltz-computer-science-pioneer-dies-at-68.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baruch Samuel Blumberg        USA        1925-2011

 

Nobel Prize-winning biochemist

and medical anthropologist

who discovered the hepatitis B virus,

showed that it could cause liver cancer

and then helped develop a powerful vaccine to fight it,

saving millions of lives

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/07/
health/07blumberg.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosalyn Sussman        USA        1921-2011

 

medical physicist

who persisted in entering a field largely reserved for men

to become only the second woman to earn a Nobel Prize in Medicine

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/us/
02yalow.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norman Bernard Krim        USA        1913-2011

 

electronics visionary

who played a pivotal role

in the industry’s transition

from the bulky electron vacuum tube,

which once lined the innards of radios and televisions,

to the tiny, far more powerful transistor

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/21/
business/norman-krim-who-championed-the-transistor-dies-at-98.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norman Foster Ramsey Jr.        USA        1915-2011

 

Nobel Prize-winning physicist

who developed a precise method

to probe the structure of atoms and molecules

and used it to devise a remarkably exact way to keep time

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/07/us/
norman-ramsey-dies-at-96-work-led-to-the-atomic-clock.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Horace Freeland Judso        USA       1931-2011

 

science writer whose 1979 book “The Eighth Day of Creation”

is regarded as the definitive account of the breakthroughs

that transformed molecular biology in the mid-20th century

 

(...)

 

Ten years in the making

and based on interviews with more than a hundred scientists,

“The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology”

revisited the critical discoveries in molecular biology,

notably the double-helix structure of DNA, its mode of replication

and the role of RNA and proteins in carrying out its commands.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/11/
science/11judson.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Willard Sterling Boyl        USA        1924-2011

 

Willard S. Boyle

won the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for helping to develop

a device that is at the heart of virtually every camcorder,

digital camera and telescope in use

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/10/
science/space/10boyle.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Nunn Lipscomb Jr.        USA        1919-2011

 

Harvard chemistry professor

who won a Nobel Prize in 1976

for his research on the structure of molecules

and on chemical bonding

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/16/us/
16lipscomb.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John McCarthy        USA        1927-2011

 

computer scientist who helped design

the foundation of today’s Internet-based computing

and who is widely credited with coining the term for

a frontier of research he helped pioneer, Artificial Intelligence, or A.I.

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/26/
science/26mccarthy.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/oct/25/
james-murdoch-shareholders-news-corp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betty Jean Jennings / Bartik        USA        1924-2011

 

one of the first computer programmers

and a pioneering forerunner

in a technology that came

to be known as software

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/08/
business/08bartik.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Max Palevsky, pioneer in computers        USA        1924-2010

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/07/us/
07palevsky.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

H. Edward Roberts, PC pioneer        USA        1941-2010

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/03/
business/03roberts.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John B. Fenn        USA        1917-2010

Nobel winner who studied large molecules

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/13/
science/13fenn.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eugene Goldwasser        USA        1922-2010

 

a largely unsung biochemist

whose 20-year pursuit of an elusive protein

led to the development of a widely used anemia drug

that became one of the biggest products of the biotechnology industry

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/21/
health/21goldwasser.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frank Whittle        1907-1996

 

British Royal Air Force (RAF) engineer officer.

 

He is credited with independently inventing the turbojet engine

(some years earlier than Germany's Dr. Hans von Ohain)

and is regarded by many as the father of jet propulsion.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Whittle

 

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/
obituarysir-frank-whittle-1310073.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/1996/08/10/
world/frank-whittle-89-dies-his-jet-engine-propelled-progress.html

 

https://www.theguardian.com/life/opinion/story/0,12981,1229751,00.html 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosalind Elsie Franklin        1920-1958

 

In 1951 the young British scientist

began one of the key scientific investigations

of the century.

 

Rosalind Franklin produced an x-ray photograph

that helped show the structure of DNA,

the molecule that holds the genetic code

that underpins all life.

 

The discovery was integral

to the transformation of modern medicine

and has been described

as one of the greatest scientific achievements ever.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04r7h7k - Mon. 6 February 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jonas Salk        USA        1914-1955

 

Dr. Jonas Salk (...) in the 1950's

developed the first successful

vaccine against poliomyelitis,

the viral illness

that had gripped a fearful nation

with images of children

doomed to death or paralysis

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1028.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm52sa.html

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bmsalk.html

 

 

http://www.npr.org/blogs/npr-history-dept/2015/04/10/
398515228/defeating-the-disease-that-paralyzed-america

http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/1028.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John von Neumann        1903-1957

http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/feb/26/
first-computers-john-von-neumann

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Albert Einstein        GER / USA        1879-1955

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander Fleming    UK    1881-1955

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alan Mathison Turing        UK        1912-1954

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francis William Aston        UK        1877-1945

 

 

 

Francis Aston.

 

Nobel medal sale highlights

work of forgotten chemist who predicted the atom bomb

O

Saturday 21 May 2016        13.51 BST

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/may/21/francis-aston-nobel-medal-forgotten-chemist-predicted-atom-bomb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

He won the Nobel prize

for his work on atoms,

in particular isotopes

and formulation

of the whole-number rule.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/may/21/
francis-aston-nobel-medal-forgotten-chemist-predicted-atom-bomb

 

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/may/21/
francis-aston-nobel-medal-forgotten-chemist-predicted-atom-bomb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Alva Edison        USA        1847-1931

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charles Darwin        UK        1809-1882

 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/charles-darwin

https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/pages/science/sciencespecial2/index.html 

 

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/05/
opinion/the-animated-life-of-ar-wallace.html

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/mar/19/
darwin-evolutionary-science-media-coverage

http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/11/24/
an-evolve-by-date/

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/10/
science/10evolution.html

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/10/
science/10species.html

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/jan/21/
charles-darwin-evolution-species-tree-life

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/gallery/2009/jun/11/
charles-darwin-evolution?picture=348742467

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/interactive/2009/feb/12/
charles-darwin

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/video/2009/jan/30/
david-attenborough-charles-darwin

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/jan/21/
charles-darwin-evolution-species-tree-life

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/jan/19/
charles-darwin

 

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/jun/22/
darwinbicentenary.evolution

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/apr/17/
darwinbicentenary.evolution

 

http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSL1685231520080416

http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2007/may/17/
research.science 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Samuel Finley Breese Morse        USA        1791-1872

 

Contrary to myth,

Samuel Morse

did not invent

the telegraph,

but he made

key improvements

to its design,

and his work

to deploy it

would transform

communications

worldwide.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/morse_lo.html

 

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/morse_lo.html

 

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/25/
books/carleton-mabee-biographer-of-morse-dies-at-99.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward Jenner        UK        1749-1823

 

English physician

who was a contributor

to development

of the smallpox vaccine.

 

The practice of vaccination

was popularized by Jenner,

and since then has been used

ubiquitously

to prevent several diseases.

 

The terms

vaccine and vaccination

are derived from

Variolae vaccinae

(smallpox of the cow),

the term devised by Jenner

to denote cowpox.

 

He used it in 1798

in the long title of his Inquiry

into the Variolae vaccinae

known as the Cow Pox,

in which he described

the protective effect of cowpox

against smallpox.

 

Jenner is often called

a pioneer of immunization.

 

Using a method

valid in immunology

before the discovery

of germ theory,

his work saved many lives.

 

In Jenner's time,

smallpox killed around 10%

of the British population,

with the number as high as 20%

in towns and cities

where infection spread

more easily.

 

In 1821,

he was appointed

physician extraordinary

to King George IV,

and was also made

mayor of Berkeley

and justice of the peace

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Jenner

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Jenner

https://www.cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html

 

 

https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2018/02/01/
582370199/whats-the-real-story-about-the-milkmaid-and-the-smallpox-vaccine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benjamin Franklin        America / USA        1706-1790

 

 

https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/franklin/loc.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isaac Newton        UK        1643 - 1727

 

English physicist

and mathematician

 

(...)

 

In 1667,

Newton returned

to Cambridge,

where he became a fellow

of Trinity College.

 

Two years later

he was appointed

second Lucasian

professor of mathematics.

 

It was Newton's

reflecting telescope,

made in 1668,

that finally brought him

to the attention

of the scientific community

and in 1672

he was made

a fellow of the Royal Society.

 

From the mid-1660s,

Newton conducted

a series of experiments

on the composition of light,

discovering that white light

is composed

of the same system of colours

that can be seen in a rainbow

and establishing

the modern study of optics

(or the behaviour of light).

 

In 1704,

Newton published 'The Opticks'

which dealt with light and colour.

 

He also studied and published

works on history, theology

and alchemy.

 

In 1687,

with the support of his friend

the astronomer Edmond Halley,

Newton published

his single greatest work,

the 'Philosophiae Naturalis

Principia Mathematica'

('Mathematical Principles

of Natural Philosophy').

 

This showed

how a universal force,

gravity, applied to all objects

in all parts of the universe.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/newton_isaac.shtml

 

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/newton_isaac.shtml

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Science

 

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Videos

 

explainers

 

documentaries > USA > space

 

 

 

 

Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia

 

surveillance > biometrics

 

 

economy > jobs > robots

 

 

science

 

 

space, astronomy

 

 

body, medicine, drugs,

genetics / DNA, health, mental health,

viruses, bacteria, diseases,

disability, health insurance