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At Trump’s inauguration, January 2017.


Photograph:  J Scott Applewhite

Pool/Getty Images


Barack Obama:

‘Donald Trump and I tell very different stories about America’

Four years after leaving office,

he’s officially the world’s most admired man.

But what is Obama’s legacy?

The former president talks Trump, Biden and America’s new dawn


Sat 21 Nov 2020    08.00 GMT

Last modified on Sat 21 Nov 2020    21.59 GMT




















President Obama Delivers His Second Inaugural Address


President Obama takes the oath of office

at the U.S. Capitol and delivers his second inaugural address.


YouTube > White House        Jan 21, 2013




















The Inauguration of a President        Video


Historians Robert Caro, Doris Kearns Goodwin,

Douglas Brinkley and Michael Beschloss

speak on the historical significance

of a Presidential Inauguration and a President's second term.


YouTube > White House        Jan 21, 2013
















take office











President Obama takes office > Cagle cartoons        January 2009










inauguration        UK










































Inauguration Day attendees










witness the transition of power to N



















Chris Britt



Jan 21, 2017
















Donald Trump's inauguration









politics/100000004885343/trump-declares-america-first-vision.html - Jan. 21, 2017

100000004863342/donald-trump-full-inaugural-address-2017.html - Jan. 20, 2017















along the Pennsylvania Avenue parade route










Donald Trump's inauguration - January 20, 2017










The 57th Presidential Inauguration

Obama's second inauguration - January 2013

























cartoons > Cagle > Obama's second inauguration        January 2013






inauguration ceremonies

on Capitol Hill in Washington





parade / inaugural parade




















The Inauguration of Barack Obama - January 20, 2009        UK / USA


















Michelle Obama






Inaugural Address / speech



















inaugural events






Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy - January 20, 1961

United States Capitol Building, Washington, D.C.







Behind the Scenes: Lincoln's Inauguration


Abraham Lincoln

delivered his first Inaugural Address

on the East Portico of the Capitol













Inauguration balls in pictures        2013        UK






inaugural balls











Inaugural Address > Obama's inaugural speech        2009







inauguration speech        UK






Analyzing Obama’s Inaugural Speech


Interactive video and transcript

of President Barack Obama's inaugural remarks

on Jan. 20, 2009






Photographs From Barack Obama's Inauguration







Picturing the Inauguration: The New York Times Readers’ Album
















take the oath of office













Library of Congress > "I Do Solemnly Swear . . .":


Presidential Inaugurations

is a collection of approximately 400 items

or 2,000 digital files relating to inaugurations

from George Washington's in 1789

to George W. Bush's inauguration of 2001













take the Oath of Office from Supreme Court Justice...


I do solemnly swear (or affirm)

that I will faithfully execute

the Office of President of the United States,

and will to the best of my ability,

preserve, protect and defend

the Constitution of the United States.

Executive Oath of Office

The Constitution of the United States,

Article II, Section 1, Clause 8



















violate (...) Oath of Office










be sworn in

















be inaugurated

as the 45th president of the United States






















Corpus of news articles


USA > Politics > White House


USA > Politics > President > Inauguration




Obama Offers Liberal Vision:

‘We Must Act’


January 21, 2013

The New York Times



WASHINGTON — Barack Hussein Obama ceremonially opened his second term on Monday with an assertive Inaugural Address that offered a robust articulation of modern liberalism in America, arguing that “preserving our individual freedoms ultimately requires collective action.”

On a day that echoed with refrains from the civil rights era and tributes to the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Mr. Obama dispensed with the post-partisan appeals of four years ago to lay out a forceful vision of advancing gay rights, showing more tolerance toward illegal immigrants, preserving the social welfare safety net and acting to stop climate change.

At times he used his speech, delivered from the West Front of the Capitol, to reprise arguments from the fall campaign, rebutting the notion expressed by conservative opponents that America risks becoming “a nation of takers” and extolling the value of proactive government in society. Instead of declaring the end of “petty grievances,” as he did taking the oath as the 44th president in 2009, he challenged Republicans to step back from their staunch opposition to his agenda.

“Progress does not compel us to settle centuries-old debates about the role of government for all time — but it does require us to act in our time,” he said in the 18-minute address. “For now decisions are upon us, and we cannot afford delay. We cannot mistake absolutism for principle or substitute spectacle for politics or treat name-calling as reasoned debate. We must act.”

Mr. Obama used Abraham Lincoln’s Bible, as he did four years ago, but this time added Dr. King’s Bible as well to mark the holiday honoring the civil rights leader. He became the first president ever to mention the word “gay” in an Inaugural Address as he equated the drive for same-sex marriage to the quests for racial and gender equality.

The festivities at the Capitol came a day after Mr. Obama officially took the oath in a quiet ceremony with his family at the White House on the date set by the Constitution. With Inauguration Day falling on a Sunday, the swearing-in was then repeated for an energized mass audience a day later, accompanied by the pomp and parade that typically surround the quadrennial tradition.

Hundreds of thousands of people gathered on a brisk but bright day, a huge crowd by any measure, though far less than the record turnout four years ago. If the day felt restrained compared with the historic mood the last time, it reflected a more restrained moment in the life of the country. The hopes and expectations that loomed so large with Mr. Obama’s taking the office in 2009, even amid economic crisis, have long since faded into a starker sense of the limits of his presidency.

Now 51 and noticeably grayer, Mr. Obama appeared alternately upbeat and reflective. When he re-entered the Capitol at the conclusion of the ceremony, he stopped his entourage to turn back toward the cheering crowds on the National Mall.

“I want to take a look, one more time,” he said. “I’m not going to see this again.”

If the president was wistful, his message was firm. He largely eschewed foreign policy except to recommend engagement over war, and instead focused on addressing poverty and injustice at home. He did little to adopt the language of the opposition, as he has done at moments in the past, and instead directly confronted conservative philosophy.

“The commitments we make to each other — through Medicare and Medicaid and Social Security — these things do not sap our initiative; they strengthen us,” he said. “They do not make us a nation of takers; they free us to take the risks that make this country great.”

The phrase, “nation of takers,” was a direct rebuke to Republicans like Representative Paul D. Ryan of Wisconsin, last year’s vice-presidential nominee, and several opposition lawmakers took umbrage at the president’s tone.

“I would have liked to see a little more on outreach and working together,” said Senator John McCain of Arizona, the Republican who lost to Mr. Obama four years ago. “There was not, as I’ve seen in other inaugural speeches, ‘I want to work with my colleagues.’ ”

Representative Pete Sessions of Texas, a member of the Republican leadership, said that from the opening prayer to the closing benediction, “It was apparent our country’s in chaos and what our great president has brought us is upheaval.” He added, “We’re now managing America’s demise, not America’s great future.”

Mr. Obama struck a more conciliatory note during an unscripted toast during lunch with Congressional leaders in Statuary Hall after the ceremony. “Regardless of our political persuasions and perspectives, I know that all of us serve because we believe that we can make America for future generations,” he said.

For the nation’s 57th presidential inauguration, a broad section of downtown Washington was off limits to vehicles and a major bridge across the Potomac River was closed to regular traffic as military Humvees were stationed at strategic locations around the city.

Joining the president through the long day were the first lady, Michelle Obama, and their daughters, Malia, 14, and Sasha, 11. The young girls were playful. Malia at one point sneaked up behind her father and cried out, “Boo!” Sasha used a smartphone to take a picture of her parents kissing in the reviewing stand, then made them do it again. Both girls bounced with the martial music at the Capitol.

Mr. Obama’s day began with a service at St. John’s Episcopal Church, across Lafayette Square from the White House, where the Rev. Andy Stanley told him to “leverage that power for the benefit of other people in the room.” At the Capitol, Myrlie Evers-Williams, the civil rights leader, delivered the invocation and the Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir performed the “Battle Hymn of the Republic.”

Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. was sworn in at 11:46 a.m. by Justice Sonia Sotomayor. The singer James Taylor then performed “America the Beautiful.”

At 11:50 a.m., Mr. Obama was sworn in again by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. After the two mangled the 35-word oath four years ago, necessitating a just-in-case do-over the next day, the president and chief justice this time carefully recited the words in tandem without error, although Mr. Obama did swallow the word “states.”

Mr. Obama was more specific in discussing policy than presidents typically are in an Inaugural Address. Particularly noticeable was his recommitment to fighting climate change. “We will respond to the threat of climate change, knowing that the failure to do so would betray our children and future generations,” he said.

He referred only implicitly to terrorism, the issue that has so consumed the nation for the past decade, but offered a more inward-looking approach to foreign policy, saying that “enduring security and lasting peace do not require perpetual war.” He also talked of overhauling immigration rules so “bright young students and engineers are enlisted in our work force, rather than expelled from our country.”

For a president who opposed same-sex marriage as recently as nine months ago, the speech was a clear call for gay rights, as he noted the journey “through Seneca Falls and Selma and Stonewall,” symbolically linking seminal moments in the struggles for equal rights for women, blacks and gay men and lesbians.

“Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law — for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well,” he said.

The expanse between the Capitol and the Washington Monument was filled with supporters, many of them African-Americans attending only the second inauguration of a black president. As large TV screens flickered in and out and the audio often warbled, the ceremony was difficult to follow for many braving the Washington chill.

The speech was followed by song, poem and benediction from Kelly Clarkson, Richard Blanco, the Rev. Luis Leon and Beyoncé. The president and first lady got out of their motorcade twice to walk stretches along Pennsylvania Avenue. Mr. Biden and Jill Biden did as well, and the vice president greeted bystanders with fist-pumping gusto.

The two families then settled into the specially built bulletproof reviewing stand to watch the parade. Mr. Obama, who often uses Nicorette to tame an old smoking habit, was spotted chewing as the bands marched past.

In the evening, the Obamas attended two official inaugural balls, down from 10 four years ago. The president, in tuxedo with white tie, danced at each of them with the first lady, in a custom Jason Wu ruby chiffon and velvet gown, to Al Green’s “Let’s Stay Together,” performed by Jennifer Hudson. The Obamas were back at the White House by 10:15 p.m.


Reporting was contributed by Jeremy W. Peters,

Michael D. Shear, Jennifer Steinhauer

and Jonathan Weisman.

Obama Offers Liberal Vision: ‘We Must Act’,






Obama Takes Oath,

and Nation in Crisis

Embraces the Moment


January 21, 2009

The New York Times



WASHINGTON — Barack Hussein Obama was sworn in as the 44th president of the United States on Tuesday and promised to “begin again the work of remaking America” on a day of celebration that climaxed a once-inconceivable journey for the man and his country.

Mr. Obama, the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas, inherited a White House built partly by slaves and a nation in crisis at home and abroad. The moment captured the imagination of much of the world as more than a million flag-waving people bore witness while Mr. Obama recited the oath with his hand on the same Bible that Abraham Lincoln used at his inauguration 148 years ago.

Beyond the politics of the occasion, the sight of a black man climbing the highest peak electrified people across racial, generational and partisan lines. Mr. Obama largely left it to others to mark the history explicitly, making only passing reference to his own barrier-breaking role in his 18-minute Inaugural Address, noting how improbable it might seem that “a man whose father less than 60 years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath.”

But confronted by the worst economic situation in decades, two overseas wars and the continuing threat of Islamic terrorism, Mr. Obama sobered the celebration with a grim assessment of the state of a nation rocked by home foreclosures, shuttered businesses, lost jobs, costly health care, failing schools, energy dependence and the threat of climate change. Signaling a sharp and immediate break with the presidency of George W. Bush, he vowed to usher in a “new era of responsibility” and restore tarnished American ideals.

“Today, I say to you that the challenges we face are real,” Mr. Obama said in the address, delivered from the west front of the Capitol. “They are serious and they are many. They will not be met easily or in a short span of time. But know this, America, they will be met.”

The vast crowd that thronged the Mall on a frigid but bright winter day was the largest to attend an inauguration in decades, if not ever. Many then lined Pennsylvania Avenue for a parade that continued well past nightfall on a day that was not expected to end for Mr. Obama until late in the night with the last of 10 inaugural balls.

Mr. Bush left the national stage quietly, doing nothing to upstage his successor. After hosting the Obamas for coffee at the White House and attending the ceremony at the Capitol, Mr. Bush hugged Mr. Obama, then left through the Rotunda to head back to Texas. “Come on, Laura, we’re going home,” he was overheard telling Mrs. Bush.

The inauguration coincided with more bad news from Wall Street, with the Dow Jones industrial average down more than 300 points on indications of further trouble for banks.

The spirit of the day was also marred by the hospitalization of Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Democrat of Massachusetts, whose endorsement helped propel Mr. Obama to the Democratic nomination last year. Mr. Kennedy, who has been fighting a malignant brain tumor, suffered a seizure at a Capitol luncheon after the ceremony and was wheeled out on a stretcher.

The pageantry included some serious business. Shortly after he and Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. were sworn in, Mr. Obama ordered all pending Bush regulations frozen for a legal and policy review. He also signed formal nomination papers for his cabinet, and the Senate quickly confirmed seven nominees: the secretaries of homeland security, energy, agriculture, interior, education and veterans’ affairs and the director of the Office of Management and Budget.

When he arrives in the Oval Office on Wednesday, aides said, Mr. Obama will get to work on some of his priorities. He plans to convene his national security team and senior military commanders to discuss his plans to pull combat troops out of Iraq and bolster those in Afghanistan. He also plans to sign executive orders to start closing the detention center at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, and could reverse Mr. Bush’s restrictions on financing for groups that promote or provide information about abortion.

Delays in the confirmation process have left both the State Department and the Treasury Department in the hands of caretakers. But Hillary Rodham Clinton was expected to win Senate confirmation as secretary of state on Wednesday, and the Pentagon remains under the control of Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates, who was kept on from the Bush administration and did not attend the inauguration so someone in the line of succession would survive in case of terrorist attack.

In his address, Mr. Obama praised Mr. Bush “for his service to our nation as well as the generosity and cooperation he has shown throughout this transition.” But he also offered implicit criticism, condemning what he called “our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age.”

He went on to assure the rest of the world that change had come. “To all other peoples and governments who are watching today,” Mr. Obama said, “from the grandest capitals to the small village where my father was born, know that America is a friend of each nation and every man, woman and child who seeks a future of peace and dignity, and that we are ready to lead once more.”

Some of Mr. Obama’s supporters booed and taunted Mr. Bush when he emerged from the Capitol to take his place on stage, at one point singing, “Nah, nah, nah, nah, hey, hey, hey, goodbye.” By day’s end, Mr. Bush had landed in Texas, where he defended his presidency and declared that he was “coming home with my head held high.”

The departing vice president, Dick Cheney, appeared at the ceremony in a wheelchair after suffering a back injury moving the day before and was also booed.

The nation’s 56th inauguration drew waves of people from all corners and filled the expanse between the Capitol and the Washington Monument. For the first transition in power since the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, much of the capital was under exceptionally tight security, with a two-square-mile swath under the strictest control. Bridges from Virginia were closed to regular traffic and more than 35,000 civilian and military personnel were on duty.

Mr. Obama secured at least part of his legacy the moment he walked into the White House on Tuesday, 146 years after the Emancipation Proclamation, 108 years after the first black man dined in the mansion with a president and 46 years after the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. declared his dream of equality.

Mr. Obama, just 47 years old and four years out of the Illinois State Senate, arrived at this moment on the unlikeliest of paths, vaulted to the forefront of national politics on the strength of stirring speeches, early opposition to the Iraq war and public disenchantment with the Bush era. His scant record of achievement at the national level proved less important to voters than his embodiment of change.

His foreign-sounding name, his childhood in Hawaii and Indonesia and his skin color made him a unique figure in the annals of presidential campaigns, yet he toppled two of the best brand names in American politics — Mrs. Clinton in the primaries and Senator John McCain in the general election.

Mr. Obama himself is descended on his mother’s side from ancestors who owned slaves and he can trace his family tree to Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy. The power of the moment was lost on no one as the Rev. Joseph E. Lowery, one of the towering figures of the civil rights movement, gave the benediction and called for “inclusion, not exclusion; tolerance, not intolerance.”

The Rev. Rick Warren, a conservative minister selected by Mr. Obama to give the invocation despite protests from liberals, told the crowd, “We know today that Dr. King and a great cloud of witnesses are shouting in heaven.”

For all that, Mr. Obama used the occasion to address “this winter of our hardship” and promote his plan for vast federal spending accompanied by tax cuts to stimulate the economy and begin addressing energy, environmental and infrastructure needs.

“Now there are some who question the scale of our ambitions, who suggest that our system cannot tolerate too many big plans,” he said. “Their memories are short, for they have forgotten what this country has already done, what free men and women can achieve when imagination is joined to common purpose and necessity to courage.”

He also essentially renounced the curtailment of liberties in the name of security, saying he would “reject as false the choice between our safety and our ideals.” He struck a stiff note on terrorism, saying Americans “will not apologize for our way of life, nor will we waver in its defense.”

“For those who seek to advance their aims by inducing terror and slaughtering innocents, we say to you now that our spirit is stronger and cannot be broken,” he said. “You cannot outlast us, and we will defeat you.”

But Mr. Obama also added a message to Islamic nations, a first from the inaugural lectern. “To the Muslim world, we seek a new way forward, based on mutual interest and mutual respect,” Mr. Obama said. “To those who cling to power through corruption and deceit and the silencing of dissent, know that you are on the wrong side of history — but that we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist.”

Mr. Obama’s public day started at 8:45 a.m. when he and his wife, Michelle, left Blair House for a service at St. John’s Church, then joined the Bushes, Cheneys and Bidens for coffee at the White House.

The Obamas’ daughters, Malia, 10, and Sasha, 7, joined them at the Capitol, as did Mrs. Clinton and Mr. McCain, as well as former Presidents Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter and the elder George Bush.

While emotional for many, the ceremony did not go entirely according to plan. Mr. Biden was sworn in by Justice John Paul Stevens behind schedule at 11:57 a.m., and Mr. Obama did not take the oath until 12:05 p.m., five minutes past the constitutionally proscribed transfer of power.

Moreover, Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. stumbled over the 35-word oath, causing Mr. Obama to repeat it out of the constitutional order. Instead of swearing that he “will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States,” Mr. Obama swore that he “will execute the office of president of the United States faithfully.”

Following time-honored rituals, the Obamas attended lunch with lawmakers in Statuary Hall at the Capitol, then rode and walked to the White House, where they watched the parade from a bulletproof reviewing stand. They planned to attend all 10 official inaugural balls before spending their first night in the White House.

In his Inaugural Address, Mr. Obama seemed at times to be having a virtual dialogue with his predecessors. “What is required of us now is a new era of responsibility,” he said, “a recognition on the part of every American that we have duties to ourselves, our nation and the world, duties that we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly.” Mr. Bush and Mr. Clinton likewise called for responsibility at their inaugurations, but Mr. Obama offered little sense of what exactly he wanted Americans to do.

Mr. Obama also seemed to take issue with Ronald Reagan, who declared when he took office in 1981 that “government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem.” Mr. Clinton rebutted that in 1997, saying, “government is not the problem and government is not the solution.”

Mr. Obama offered a new formulation: “The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small but whether it works, whether it helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a retirement that is dignified. Where the answer is yes, we intend to move forward. Where the answer is no, programs will end.”

Mr. Clinton, at least, applauded the message. In a brief interview afterward, he said Mr. Obama’s installation could change the way America was viewed.

“It’s obviously historic because President Obama is the first African-American president, but it’s more than that,” Mr. Clinton said. “This is a time when we’re clearly making a new beginning. It’s a country of repeated second-chances and new beginnings.”

    Obama Takes Oath, and Nation in Crisis Embraces the Moment,
    NYT, 21.1.2009,






Inaugural History:

The Exuberant Parade of 1905


January 17, 2009

Filed at 4:33 a.m. ET

The New York Times



WASHINGTON (AP) -- Theodore Roosevelt loved a parade and on March 4, 1905, Washington gave him one as spirited as the man himself.

Roosevelt became president in September 1901 with the assassination of William McKinley. Now, an election victory behind him, he would serve in his own right. An estimated 30,000 marched, among them Roosevelt's beloved Rough Riders from the Spanish-American War, in an exuberant inaugural procession that placed the beaming president up front.

The Associated Press has been going back into history to finds its stories on some of the most notable inauguration days. Here is an excerpt from AP's story on the parade, as it appeared on the front page of The Racine (Wis.) Daily Journal that day:


WASHINGTON, March 4 -- President Roosevelt led his inaugural parade in quick marching time from the capitol to the White House. No president in recent years has been as prompt in moving from one end of the avenue to the other. The troops marched in ideal weather, the sky being clear, the sun warm, and a fair breeze blowing. The president lost no time in formalities. He descended the steps which were put in place in front of the inaugural stand and took his carriage without re-entering the capitol. The inaugural march began at 1:20 o'clock and as the president's carriage, followed by that of Vice President Fairbanks and those of the members of the cabinet, proceeded through the capitol grounds, the vast throng hastily placed itself on either side of the line of march and cheered without ceasing.


The procession moved slowly and Mr. Roosevelt in acknowledging the salutes from either side rose to his feet repeatedly and with his silk hat in his hand bowed to right and left. The buildings facing the capitol grounds through which the procession passed, were occupied to their full capacity with cheering people, who waved flags and handkerchiefs. No incident marred in the slightest degree the inaugural procession as it left the scene of the inaugural address and proceeded down past the peace monument and took its way toward the White House on the broad avenue.

The procession formed immediately behind the carriages of the presidential party and in the order previously arranged, marched from the capitol. Many times along the line of march the president arose in his carriage and lifted his hat. A broad smile lit up his face and it was easy to see the cheers of the admiring throngs greatly pleased him.

The military grand divisions of the procession came after the rough riders.


Major General James F. Wade was chief marshal and with a splendidly uniformed staff representing each staff corps of the army led the division. Foremost in the line were the pets of the army and navy, the West Point cadets and the ''middies'' from Annapolis with the District of Columbia national guard, which has come to be looked upon as almost a part of the regular army organization. The cadets headed by Brigadier General Frederick Grant and under their own superintendent, Brigadier General Mills, acquitted themselves splendidly. There was a diversity about their organization which made it very attractive, for it represented infantry, field artillery, new mountain battery platoons and the cavalry which makes West Point famous throughout the world.


The boys marched like veterans and although many of them had friends and relatives and sweethearts along the line of march, they never turned their eyes to the right or left, but marched like clockwork.

The midshipmen surprised everybody. Sailors are not supposed to be good foot soldiers, yet beyond question the two battalions from Annapolis, 700 strong, gave the West Pointers the hardest contest they had ever had for first place in a parade. The boys ... marched with a precision that was wonderful and were cheered at almost every step. ...


Also on the front page in Racine: Roosevelt is given a ring containing a lock of Abraham Lincoln's hair, cut after he was shot and before he died. The government anticipates a $28.5 million surplus. Two special trains from Cleveland that were ''making a good run'' to Washington collide the night before, killing seven passengers.


AP Corporate Archives Director Valerie Komor contributed
to this report from New York.


NEXT: Woodrow Wilson.

Inaugural History: The Exuberant Parade of 1905,
NYT, 17.1.2009,











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