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Vocapedia > Terrorism, Politics > Northern Ireland


20th century > The Troubles


Protestants / Loyalists / Unionists


UDF, UVF, UDA, Orange Order





A mural supporting the LVF in north Belfast.


The loyalist splinter group

says it is considering giving up its arms


Photograph: Charles McQuillan



Loyalist terror group stands down members

Angelique Chrisafis, Ireland correspondent

The Guardian

p. 4

Tuesday November 1, 2005



















A loyalist memorial in West Belfast.


Photograph: Ivor Prickett

for The New York Times


Will Brexit Bring the Troubles Back to Northern Ireland?

As the United Kingdom confronts the prospect of dissolution,

old factions are bracing for the possibility of new violence


Published Dec. 30, 2019

Updated Jan. 6, 2020


























Protestant > Geordie Courtney > mob lynching










the Glenbryn estate,

a small Protestant enclave

in the predominantly Catholic Ardoyne area

- September 2001




























Edward Henry Carson    Ireland    1854-1935


 Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge.


From 1905

Carson was both

the Irish Unionist Alliance MP

for Trinity College Dublin

and leader of the Ulster Unionist Council

in Belfast.


In 1915 he entered

the war cabinet of Herbert Asquith

as Attorney-General.


Carson was defeated in his ambition

to maintain Ireland

as a whole in union with Great Britain.


His leadership, however,

was celebrated

for securing a continued place

in the United Kingdom

for the six north-east counties,

albeit under a devolved

Northern Ireland Parliament

that neither he nor his fellow unionists$

had sought.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Carson - 24 Jnauary 2021











UK > union flag        UK / USA



















Ulster loyalist










loyalist paramilitaries












loyalist > Ulster Freedom Fighters










loyalist > Red Hand Defenders










Symbols Used in Northern Ireland  > Unionist and Loyalist Symbols










West Belfast > loyalist memorial        USA
















Protestant / Unionist leader > Ian Paisley    1926-2014










































Paisley heartland > North Antrim










Ian Paisley's Democratic Unionist party    DUP


























Unionism at crossroad after UUP defeat in polls

The Guardian        p. 12        17 May 2005



















Protestants parading on July 12,

in commemoration of William of Orange’s

defeat of King James II, a Catholic.


Photograph: Ivor Prickett

for The New York Times


Will Brexit Bring the Troubles Back to Northern Ireland?

As the United Kingdom confronts the prospect of dissolution,

old factions are bracing for the possibility of new violence.


Published Dec. 30, 2019    Updated Jan. 6, 2020



















Orangemen marching past a Catholic church

on July 12 in Belfast.


Photograph: Ivor Prickett

for The New York Times


Will Brexit Bring the Troubles Back to Northern Ireland?

As the United Kingdom confronts the prospect of dissolution,

old factions are bracing for the possibility of new violence.


Published Dec. 30, 2019

Updated Jan. 6, 2020
















the Protestant marching season










At the start

of the siege of Londonderry in 1689,

13 apprentice boys

slammed the city gates

against the army

of the Catholic King James II.


The Apprentice Boys of Derry,

one of the Protestant Loyal Orders,

is based upon

this defiant action of "no surrender".


New Apprentice Boys

can only be initiated inside the city,

in ceremonies in August and December

each year.


The order

holds its main parade

in Derry on 12 August

to celebrate the relief of the city

and the end of the siege.

BBC - Saturday, August 14, 1999

Published at 04:59 GMT 05:59 UK












Protestant William of Orange's victory

over Catholic James II

at the Battle of the Boyne

in 1690










"The Twelfth”,

when Protestants celebrate

King William’s victory

at the Battle of the Boyne.










The Protestant William of Orange's

seizure of the throne

from the Catholic James II

was blatant usurpation,

but it settled once and for all

the conflict

between crown and parliament










the Orange order


The largest

Protestant organisation

in Northern Ireland

with at least 75,000 members,

some of them

in the Republic of Ireland.



























an Orange gathering








orange sashes and red, white and blue bandanas








the Orange anthem > The Sash My Father Wore


"The Sash"

(also known as "The Sash My Father Wore")

is a ballad from the Irish province of Ulster

commemorating the victory of King William III

in the Williamite War in Ireland in 1690–1691.


The lyrics mention the 1689 Siege of Derry,

the 1689 Battle of Newtownbutler

near Enniskillen,

the 1690 Battle of the Boyne

and the 1691 Battle of Aughrim.


It is popular amongst Ulster loyalists

and many other unionists in Northern Ireland,

as well as in parts of Scotland.

- 27 December 2020










Orange march










loyalist parade
















loyalist killer / hitman > Michael Stone


Loyalist hitman

joined Ulster Defence Association at 16





























loyalist > Ulster Defence Force    UDF








loyalist > Ulster Defence Association    UDA


























UDA > Brian Nelson, paramilitary    1948-2003

























The Loyalist Volunteer Force    LVF












hardline leader

of the outlawed Loyalist Volunteer Force > Billy Wright












John Kennaway,

one of the three-man hit squad who gunned down

Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) founder Billy Wright

in 1997










Ulster Volunteer Force    UVF























http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/4681069.stm - 13 July, 2005























Royal Ulster Constabulary    RUC




















undercover army unit

















Political Wall Murals in Northern Ireland






















Loyalist mural

http://peacelinetours.g2gm.com/murals.html - broken link

added 13 July 2004

































Northern Ireland Assembly










first minister








Ulster Unionist








Ulster Unionist party    UUP










loyalist paramilitaries








dissident loyalist paramilitaries















The United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Ireland

was a sovereign state

that existed between 1801 and 1922.


It was established

by the Acts of Union 1800,

which merged the kingdoms

of Great Britain and Ireland

into a unified state.


The establishment

of the Irish Free State in 1922

led to the country

later being renamed to

the United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

in 1927,

which continues to exist

in the present day

(27 December 2020)




















The Acts of Union 1800

(sometimes referred to

as a single Act of Union 1801)

were parallel acts

of the Parliament of Great Britain

and the Parliament of Ireland

which united the Kingdom of Great Britain

 and the Kingdom of Ireland

(previously in personal union)

to create

 the United Kingdom

of Great Britain and Ireland.


The acts came into force

on 1 January 1801,

and the merged

Parliament of the United Kingdom

had its first meeting

on 22 January 1801.

- 27 December 2020














Corpus of news articles


Terrorism, Politics > Northern Ireland





Fraught Anglo-Irish conflict

goes back centuries


Tue May 17, 2011

7:38am EDT



(Reuters) - Britain's Queen Elizabeth arrived in Dublin on Tuesday on a four-day state visit to the Irish Republic, the first visit by a British monarch since Ireland won independence from London in 1921.

Here are details of the historical roots of Anglo-Irish relations:

* English King Henry II landed in Ireland in 1172 after winning support from the pope to become its overlord. The next five centuries were marked by repeated battles for control.

* In the 14th century, the Crown tried to prevent English settlers integrating with the locals by outlawing the Irish language and making intermarriage illegal.

* Battles for Ireland have had a religious dimension since the 1530s, when England's King Henry VIII broke with Roman Catholicism to found the Protestant Church of England. Catholic estates in Ireland were dissolved and the land given to the king's supporters. A 1534 revolt was crushed.

* In the reign of Henry's daughter Elizabeth I, more British aristocrats took over estates in Ireland in a colonization, or "plantation," policy justified as a moral crusade to turn Gaelic Irish away from Catholicism. A rebellion led by Hugh O'Neill was thwarted in 1603.

* Settlers from Scotland came to Northern Ireland in large numbers under King James I. They were allowed to buy up grants of land very cheaply in the early 17th century.

* In 1649 Oliver Cromwell, a strict Protestant who had taken power in England after a civil war, landed in Ireland with 3,000 men and overran the country, killing one quarter of Ireland's Catholics. A reviled Penal Code barred Catholics from teaching, owning land, voting or serving in the military.

* In 1690 Catholics were defeated by England's Protestant King William III -- William of Orange -- at the epic Battle of Boyne. Ulster Protestants still call themselves Orangemen and commemorate the battle.

* The Irish parliament was abolished by Britain in 1801, heralding a century during which demands grew steadily for Irish home rule.

* The horrific potato famine of 1845 cut the Irish population by at least 2 million through emigration and starvation, and fueled hatred of absentee landlords who levied high taxes on their malnourished workers.



* In 1905 Sinn Fein ("We Ourselves") became a political party committed to Irish independence. Ireland's main political parties today, Fianna Fail and Fine Gael, both would later emerge from Sinn Fein.

* In April 1916, a band of nationalists in Dublin led the abortive Easter Rising against British rule. They were forced to surrender by British artillery shelling and leaders were court-martialed and executed, releasing a wave of anger toward the British authorities.

* Eamon de Valera, the senior survivor of the rising, led Sinn Fein to win a majority of Ireland's seats in the British parliament in the election of 1918. Instead of joining the British parliament, they formed their own assembly, which declared independence. An Anglo-Irish war followed.

* The British government partitioned the island in 1921, separating Northern Ireland with its "loyalist" Protestant majority from predominantly Catholic Ireland.

* The 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty between a delegation of Irish pro-independence leaders and Britain established the Irish Free State, a self-governing dominion within the British Empire, in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom.

* De Valera refused to accept the treaty. Ireland was plunged into civil war between supporters and opponents, who believed the treaty did not do enough to secure independence.

* Ireland broke its remaining ties with Britain at the end of 1937 with a new constitution, which replaced the Free State with the modern state of Ireland. The 1948 Republic of Ireland Act declared Ireland a republic, ending its status as a dominion of the British crown.

* Many members of the Catholic minority in British-ruled Northern Ireland have continued to seek the unification of the island, while Protestants favored continued British rule. Between the late 1960s and 1990s, a period known as "The Troubles," about 3,600 people died in violence there, which largely ended with a peace agreement in 1998.


Sources: Reuters/www.britannica.com/

Penguin Dictionary of 20th Century History/


(Writing by David Cutler; Editing by Peter Graff;

London Editorial Reference Unit)

Factbox: Fraught Anglo-Irish conflict goes back centuries,
us-ireland-queen-britain-relations-idUSTRE74G2UI20110517 - broken link






The hands of history:

Two worlds come together

to broker a new era of hope


David McKittrick witnesses the first meeting

between the two commanding political figures in Belfast

as they calmly sit side by side to discuss

the future of Northern Ireland


Published: 27 March 2007

The Independent


Ian Paisley and Gerry Adams did not shake hands yesterday: they had no need to, since their manner of signalling they are ready to go into government together produced an even more telling and forceful image.

The substance of what they said was breathtaking enough, but the way they did it was even more phenomenal: they sat calmly side by side, exuding a sense of purpose and the intention of doing serious business together.

The picture of Belfast's two commanding political figures, flanked by their senior lieutenants, carried a subliminal but unambiguous message: after 3,700 deaths the Troubles are over and real politics can begin.

The two warriors of the Troubles believe they can work together. The statements they delivered in the ornate surroundings of a Stormont dining-room were exquisitely crafted to avoid giving anyone offence.

The big news they contained was that Sinn Fein and the Democratic Unionist Party will be going into government together, launching a new era and underpinning the peace process with a political foundation.

But even more striking was the absence of accompanying threats or conditions - no begrudgery, no condemnations, no blame game. The two listened carefully and politely to each other, conveying something new in Belfast politics - mutual respect.

For many months, London, Dublin, Washington, republicans and just about everyone else have pressed Mr Paisley to go for power-sharing with Sinn Fein. He has finally done so, and done so handsomely, with no hint of reservation or even tension. Until now, he has not even spoken to Mr Adams or any Sinn Fein representative, leading some to assume that no breakthrough could be expected at their first encounter.

But a breakthrough came and, by letting the cameras in to witness it, the parties provided an image that will take its place among key moments in other peace processes across the world.

Many in Belfast reacted with shock and awe: shock that the leaders of loyalism and republicanism should have finally struck a deal, awe that it had been done without histrionics but in such a business-like manner. Mr Paisley announced the timetable for devolution with a phrase no one has ever heard him use before: "Today we have agreed with Sinn Fein that this date will be Tuesday 8th May 2007." He added: "We must not allow our justified loathing of the horrors and tragedies of the past to become a barrier to creating a better and more stable future."

The two statements were studiously symmetrical. Mr Adams provided an echo by accepting that "the relationships between the people of this island have been marred by centuries of discord, conflict, hurt and tragedy." He continued: "The discussions and agreement between our two parties shows the potential of what can now be achieved."

The sense of mutual satisfaction was also evident in London and Dublin, with the two governments cock-a-hoop at what they describe as the successful slotting in of the last piece of a jigsaw that has taken a painstaking decade to put together.

Tony Blair said proudly: "Everything we have done over the past 10 years has been a preparation for this moment." The Irish Prime Minister, Bertie Ahern, lauded the deal as having "the potential to transform the future of this island."

There was also a welcome from the United States, since the Bush and especially the Clinton administration have been closely involved in the peace process. Washington said it looked forward to the dawning of "a new era for Northern Ireland".

Although long anticipated, the actual accomplishment of an agreement for government caused near-incredulity on the streets of Belfast.

The Government long ago set yesterday as a deadline, with the Northern Ireland Secretary, Peter Hain, proclaiming - more than 50 times, by the DUP's count - that it was "devolution or dissolution." A meeting of the Assembly set for noon yesterday was abandoned, and the transfer of powers from London postponed until 8 May. But the loss of six weeks of devolution is regarded as a negligible price to pay for such an advance.

Although a devolved administration was expected at some stage, until yesterday many wondered how well it could function if Mr Paisley maintained his no-talk stance. As First Minister he would, in particular, be expected to work alongside Martin McGuinness, who last night accepted the post of Deputy First Minister after being nominated by Sinn Fein. Mr Paisley has, however, now specifically said he will have regular meetings with Mr McGuinness.

It will be fascinating to see what relationship may develop between the Protestant patriarch and the one-time IRA commander. But if yesterday's introductory Paisley-Adams performance is anything to go by, the expected friction may be less than anticipated, given that the two men have spent a full generation eyeing each other from opposite ends of the political spectrum.

Their lives have in a sense been intertwined. One of the formative political experiences of Gerry Adams's life was a bout of serious rioting that broke out in the Falls Road area of Belfast in 1964, when he was 16.

In his biography, Mr Adams blamed the disturbances on "a rabble-rousing, sectarian anti-Catholic demagogue named Ian Paisley" who had threatened to remove an Irish tricolour from the district. In the years since then, Mr Paisley has reciprocated by describing Mr Adams with a battery of uncomplimentary names. Those early riots pre-dated the Troubles proper, in which the loyalist and the republican were to play prominent roles.

For decades, Mr Paisley flew a strictly fundamentalist flag, insisting that attempts to form power-sharing governments involving Unionists and nationalists were to be opposed at all costs. As leader of the Democratic Unionist party he denounced Unionist leaders who sought to set up cross-community governments as traitors, an attitude that he maintained with extraordinary consistency from the 1960s until a few years ago.

Mr Adams, as the republican movement's outstanding leader, was equally opposed to such arrangements, though from an entirely different perspective. He held they were diversions from the central problem, which he defined as the British presence in Northern Ireland.

While the pair maintained those positions for decades, Mr Adams was the first of the two to broaden his analysis and definition of the issues, seeking secret meetings with a range of political figures and others.

By the 1990s, those efforts produced an IRA ceasefire as republicans tested the proposition that the negative power of their violence could be replaced by entry into politics, with votes proving more effective than guns.

This peace process, which reduced but did not remove violence, was - in its early years - a highly controversial project, with Mr Paisley leading the ranks of those who condemned it and wanted it closed down.

But as the death rate fell and a semblance of normality returned to Belfast, the benefits of the process became clear. It provided huge benefits to Sinn Fein, whose vote rose dramatically so that it has become Northern Ireland's largest nationalist party.

The process was much more problematic for Mr Paisley, who was opposed to the whole thing in principle and by gut instinct. But his party nonetheless accepted posts in a power-sharing administration while refusing to attend cabinet meetings with Sinn Fein, a stance that rivals described as "semi-detached".

Republicans have remained solidly attached to the peace process, with the IRA eventually decommissioning its armoury and saying it was going out of business.

A key moment came when the DUP grew to become the largest Unionist party, a position that meant Mr Paisley would get to be First Minister in any new administration. That gave him the chance of moving on from perpetual opposition and into powerful office.

He and his party brooded on the options for many months. Its choices were to simply say no, thus blocking the formation of a new administration, or to agree to take part in a coalition dominated by itself and Sinn Fein. He would be First Minister but it would mean placing hmself at the head of a project he had spent years condemning.

While the signs are that he decided some time ago that he would go for devolution, a defining moment came earlier this month with elections to the Assembly. His party scored a triumphant victory, banishing candidates who were opposed to power-sharing.

On Saturday, a resolution supporting power-sharing was put to his party executive and passed overwhelmingly, with some in the ranks who had seemed to be doubters changing their position to one of support for the idea. All of that amounted to approval for Mr Paisley going into government with a united party and indeed a united Protestant electorate behind him, a level of support that gave him the confidence to do business with his lifelong foes.

What happens next?

* The clock is ticking towards 8 May, the date set for the transfer of powers from London to the Belfast Assembly. In the meantime, both Sinn Fein and the DUP will attempt to postpone unpopular new water rates. They will also be calling on Gordon Brown to increase a £1bn boost planned for the new administration. In the next few days, work will also begin on a programme for government to be ready for devolution. On 8 May, Ian Paisley and Martin McGuinness are to be nominated as First Minister and Deputy First Minister. The Assembly's four largest parties will also nominate 10 departmental ministers.




Shaking the world


GORBACHEV and REAGAN (19 November 1985)

After more than 40 years of nuclear brinkmanship, the two met in Geneva to talk about scaling back their arsenals and did the unthinkable - they shook hands.


RABIN, ARAFAT and CLINTON (13 September 1993)

Bitter rivals Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat shook hands at the White House. It was the ultimate symbol of commitment to the Middle East peace process by two men who were seen as lifelong enemies


MANDELA and DE KLERK (4 May 1990)

Mandela shook hands with the person who had come to symbolise the government that imprisoned him. Although they remained bitter rivals, the moment came to symbolise their commitment to South African society


NIXON and MAO (February 1972)

Setting aside two decades of bitter animosity, Nixon's surprise visit to Communist China in 1972 and his subsequent handshake with the Chinese leader, Mao Zedong, was described at the time as a meeting that "shook the world".


BEGIN and SADAT (26 March 1979)

The first of the Middle East's momentous handshakes, with Jimmy Carter at the White House, sent shockwaves through the region. It ended 30 years of war between Israel and Egypt, but led to Anwar Sadat's assassination.

    The hands of history:
    Two worlds come together to broker a new era of hope,
    I, 27.3.2007,






November 28, 1975


Enemy of IRA bombers

killed outside home


From the Guardian archive


Friday November 28, 1975
Peter Chippindale
and Martin Walker


Mr Ross McWhirter, the television broadcaster and co-editor of the Guinness Book of Records, was shot dead at his London home last night, three weeks after he had launched a £50,000 Beat-the-Bombers campaign.

He was hit in the head and stomach when he answered the door at his home in Enfield, north London.

He was taken to Chase Farm hospital, nearby, where he later died. There was strong speculation that the shooting was the work of the IRA, and yet another escalation of their present terrorist campaign.

Mr McWhirter lived in a house standing in its own grounds. When [he] opened his front door, it was to greet his wife, who had just arrived by car. The gunmen had apparently been hiding in bushes in the garden. Last night his wife was staying locally with friends. Their two sons, Ian and Jamie, were at school at Marlborough.

Mr McWhirter was best known for co-editing the Guinness Book of Records with his identical twin, Norris. The publication has grown to become one of the most successful books ever published. However, he had recently gained publicity with his plans to combat terrorism. His organisation Self-Help offered a reward of between £20,000 and £50,000 for information leading to the conviction of terrorist bombers in Britain.

In October, Mr John Nundy, licensee of the Bay Horse Hotel, Winteringham, near Scunthorpe, won a High Court injunction with financial help from Mr McWhirter, to free his vehicle from the Eagle car ferry, which was held up by a labour dispute at Southampton.

Mr Nundy said last night: "I am deeply sorry. He was very much a people's man. He was in favour of justice and fairness for ordinary people."

MPs immediately condemned what Tory MP Mr John Stokes said was the first killing in England which had followed the examples of scores of murders in Northern Ireland.

Mr Eldon Griffiths, Conservative MP for Bury St Edmunds, said: "There is no way of dealing with this kind of obscenity without a return to the capital sentence."

Three weeks ago, launching his Beat-the-Bombers campaign, Mr McWhirter said a man had to live by his beliefs, and he was prepared to back them with action. "We are gradually wallowing into a situation of terror and violence, and not enough is being done to stop it." This was one of eight killings for which the so-called Balcombe Street gang of IRA terrorists received jail terms in 1977.

From the Guardian archive >
November 28, 1975 >
Enemy of IRA bombers killed outside home,
Republished 28.11.2006,










Related > Anglonautes > Vocapedia


terrorism, politics  > Northern Ireland



terrorism, politics > Northern Ireland > Catholics



genocide, war,

weapons, arms sales,

espionage, torture



conflicts, wars, climate, poverty >

asylum seekers, displaced people,

migrants, refugees




terrorism, global terrorism,

militant groups,

intelligence, spies, surveillance



miscarriage of justice > UK, USA






violence > Northern Ireland > The Troubles



politics > UK









painting > street art > artwork, graffiti, murals






Related > Anglonautes > History


England, Great Britain,

British Empire, United Kingdom

From Ancient Britain

to the early 21st century



20th century > Northern Ireland






Related > Anglonautes > History > Maps


UK > Definition, maps and flags


Northern Ireland > Maps








Reuters > Factbox: Fraught Anglo-Irish conflict goes back centuries







Reuters > Timeline: Long road to Northern Irish settlement







Reuters > Timeline - Worst IRA bomb attacks on mainland Britain    1974-2011







Lockerbie bombing

Pan Am Flight 103

Lockerbie, Scotland    21 December 1988









Terror fiction > 'the Paris bombing of 2009'








Related > Anglonautes > Videos > Documentaries > 2010s


Surveillance > NSA



Terrorism > 9/11



Terrorism > 9/11 > CIA > torture



USA / Cuba > Terrorism > Guantánamo Bay







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