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learning > grammaire anglaise - niveau avancé


be + -ing


énoncés en be + -ing


sens et valeurs énonciatives




(référenciations visuelles, contextuelles, linguistiques)


valeurs énonciatives



be + -ing





be + being + verbeau participe passé





modal + be + -ing





référenciations (anaphores)

en -ing / be + -ing










Valeurs :


reprise, référence, reformulation,

développement, commentaire,

explication, justification,

présupposé, conséquence, inférence,



(= insistance, dramatisation)




He has $60bn to give to charity.



How is he going to spend it?








énoncé 1


action potentielle, virtuelle :


He has $60bn to give to charity.






énoncé 2


à partir du déjà-dit (énoncé 1),

l'énonciateur s'interroge

sur l'actualisation / la réalisation

de ce potentiel financier

dans l'extra-linguistique / la réalité :


How is he going to spend it?


L'énonciateur se réfère ici

à du déjà-formulé

(référenciation linguistique),

puis fait

un développement logique,

prévisible, non surprenant,

en posant la question attendue :


Mais que va-t-il bien faire de cet argent ?
















référenciation linguistique


référence à du déjà énoncé,

reprise / reformulation / développement d'un déjà dit :

"rebond" énonciatif


valeur énonciative possible > effet emphatique



He behaved like a wild man...

He was acting crazy!





Police officer - He behaved like a wild man...

He was acting crazy!


Climbing the Eiffel tower is forbidden.


We took only those measures necessary,

I assure you

and there is the small matter of animal cruelty!



Tarzan - Animal cruelty?

That man, Dahaml, is mistreating those apes!

I was trying to help.


Police officer - By chasing them around the Eiffel tower?


There was only one ape on the tower

and he was chasing me!



Edgar Rice Burroughs


June 18, 2023















(référence à du déjà énoncé)



(référence à la réalité)






Where are we going again?


d'une référenciation spatiale, visuelle (extra linguistique).




I'm worried about these shoes.

They're acting weird.

Référenciation visuelle, commentaire.



I think they're developing consciousness.

Référenciation visuelle, commentaire




Maybe they're magic soccer shoes

and they can't wait to play!




Mom! You're mocking me!

Référenciation linguistique,

commentaire portant sur l'énoncé de la mère.


I want some too!




I. Am. Joking.

Référenciation linguistique,

commentaire portant sur l'énoncé du fils.




Cul de Sac

Richard Thompson


April 30, 2021












linguistique (déjà dit)


extralinguistique (déjà perçu)




Enonciateur 1 / énoncé 1

Anaphore / référenciation visuelle

(référence à du déjà-vu, perçu, observé) :


Ugh. They've built another cell phone tower!





Enonciateur 2 / énoncé 2

Anaphore / référenciation linguistique et contextuelle

(référence à du déjà-dit, mais aussi à du déjà-vu) :


They seem to be popping up everywhere!


Anaphore linguistique et visuelle


L'énonciateur 2 répond à,

reprend / développe / commente l'énoncé 1,

tout en voyant lui-aussi les antennes-relais.



Jeff Koterba

editorial cartoon

Omaha World Herald, NE


3 February 2006











référenciation extralinguistique > référenciation visuelle





What a crummy place to be voting!


[ infinitif en -ing ]



Joe Heller

editorial cartoon


The Green Bay Press-Gazette


2  August 2010










référenciation extralinguistique > référenciation visuelle


je dis que... après avoir vu / constaté / observé que...





You don't seem to be having a good time, Garfield


A keen observation



Garfield Classics

Jim Davis


April 25, 2021











référenciation linguistique > référenciation textuelle


texte de référence :

 Israel Palestine conflict

référenciation (anaphore) > reformulation > valeur > commentaire :

I see

the world is returning to normal





Jeff Stahler

May 18, 2021


April 25, 2021




May 2021 > fall of Covid cases in the U.S.


new Israel-Gaza crisis












référenciations (anaphores)

linguistique / textuelle


extralinguistique / visuelle



anaphore textuelle :

référence à du déjà-dit,

reformulation d'un déjà-dit

pour en modifier / commenter / expliquer

le sens




cartoon ci-dessous


référenciation visuelle (déjà-vu)


référenciation linguistique / textuelle :


d'un énoncé au présent simple


un énoncé en be + -ing :


Who watches this?

[ présent simple ]




we're watching it.

beconjugué au présent + -ing  ]





Who watches this?

[ présent simple ]



 we're watching it.

[ reformulation en en be + -ing ]




Garry Trudeau


April 04, 2021





valeur de be + -ing

dans ce contexte

(des amis regardent un jeu télévisé




Dernière case :


l'énonciateur de

Dude, we're watching it

fait un retour

sur ce qui vient de lui être dit /

sur la question

qui vient de lui être posée :


Who watches this?

[ présent simple ]


Traduction explicative :

mais c'est tellement nul,

qui peut regarder ça ?



La reprise en be + -ing,

ici sous forme de réponse / réplique,

- Dude, we're watching it. -

tombe de façon laconique,

sans apport de nouveaux mots,

avec un sous-entendu ironique,

pour que le co-énonciateur

prenne bien conscience

de ce qu'il vient de demander /

du jeu consternant

qu'il regarde à la télévision.



Traduction explicative :

mais mon pote / gros,

en fait

est-ce que tu te rends compte

que c'est nous qui regardons ça.




Dude, we're watching it

au présent simple :


???! Dude, we watch it.



Cette transposition ne fait pas sens :

on voit bien, a contrario,

que be + -ing

apporte un "plus" sémantique,

renforce le message de l'énoncé théorique

Dude, we watch it.










énoncé au présent simple


énoncé en be + -ing





entre un énoncé au présent simple

(ici en mode mineur,

énonciateur en retrait)


un énoncé en be + -ing

(ici en mode majeur,

dramatisation, focalisation,

forte implication

du co-énonciateur you) :



"I quite understand

that if you are being terrorized

and your shop is being burned

and you are being looted

minutes seem like hours".

On This Day, The Times, September 11, 1985,
Birmingham violence spreads to new areas,
T, p. 37, 11.9.2003.

















The Guardian        Film & Music        p. 10       14 October 2005

















The Guardian        G2        p. 1        27 July 2005















    1.    Le texte ci-dessous

comprend 2 déclencheurs de

be + -ing :




- anaphore textuelle (ici référence à du déjà énoncé).

Cette référenciation est marquée par -ing,

qui est ici la trace, le marqueur linguistique

du déjà écrit, déjà lu, déjà perçu.



- commentaire de l'énonciateur,

qui souligne, recadre, met en évidence le sens d'un énoncé.



Sous-entendu :

mais est-ce que vous vous rendiez compte ... ?,

Vous avez vu ça ?,

Vous avez bien vu / lu ?



It is past nine now. UM 006 has begun to put out a subtle gamey smell, the mild but unmistakable fetor of a butcher's shop on a hot day. John Cavanaugh calls down that there's pizza upstairs, and the three of us, Deb, Matt Mason and I, leave the dead man by himself. It feels a little rude.

By half past eleven, all that remains is to get UM 006 into driving posture. He is slumped and leaning to one side. Cavanaugh takes the cadaver by the ankles and pushes back on him, to try to get him to sit up in the seat. He steps back. The cadaver slides toward him. He pushes again. This time he holds him while Matt encircles UM 006's knees and the entire circumference of the car seat with duct tape. "This probably won't make it into the '101 Uses' list," observes Matt.

"His head's wrong," says John. "It needs to be straight ahead." More duct tape. The radio is playing the Romantics' That's What I Like About You.

"He's slumping again."

"Try the winch?" Deb loops a canvas strap under his arms and presses a button that raises a ceiling-mounted motor winch. The cadaver shrugs, slowly, and holds it, like a Borscht Belt comedian. He lifts slightly from his seat, and is lowered back down, sitting straighter now. "Good, perfect," says John.

Everyone steps back. UM 006 has a comic's timing. He waits a beat, two beats, then slips forward again. You have to laugh. The absurdity of the scene and the punch-drunk hour are making it hard not to. Deb gets some pieces of foam to prop up his back, which seems to do the trick.

Matt runs a final check of the connections. The radio - I'm not making this up - is playing Hit Me with Your Best Shot. Five more minutes pass. Matt fires the piston. It sounds a loud bang as it shoots out, though the impact itself is silent. UM 006 falls over, not like a villain shot in a Hollywood movie, but slowly, like an off-balance laundry sack. He falls over onto a foam pad set out for this purpose, and John and Deb step forward to steady him. And that's that. Without the screech of skidding tires and the crunch and fold of metal, an impact is neither violent nor disturbing. Distilled to its essence, controlled and planned, it is now simply science, no longer tragedy.

Extracted from Stiff:
The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers by Mary Roach.
To order a copy for £12.99 plus p&p (rrp £14.99),
call the Guardian book service on 0870 066 7979.
Published by Viking on July 3. © Mary Roach 2003

'The smell is not too bad today', GI/G2, p. 14,
26 June 2003.















2.    Anaphore contextuelle




Une anaphore ne renvoie pas toujours à un déjà-écrit.



Le titre de l'article ci-dessous,

publié en octobre 2003,

fait référence à un déjà-dit contextuel.



La question de savoir si l'on peut à nouveau

passer ses vacances à Bali - Going back to Bali? -

n'a rien de neuf ;

nombre de touristes se la posent

depuis les attentats de 2002.



Should we be going back to Bali?


A year after the bombings,

the Foreign Office still says no -

but the French and Germans say yes.

John Aglionby visits the island to find out

G, 11.10.2003,


















Big Brother

Nineteen Eighty-Four

(Michael Radford, 1984)















    3.    Anaphore textuelle, contextuelle et visuelle




Autre exemple d'anaphore,

extrait du roman 1984 de George Orwell ;



le personnage principal, Winston,

vit dans un monde totalitaire

où le portrait du dictateur, Big Brother,

est omniprésent :



Outside, even through the shut window-pane,

the world looked cold.

Down in the street little eddies of wind

were whirling dust and torn paper into spirals,

and though the sun was shining

and the sky a harsh blue,

there seemed to be no colour in anything,

except the posters that were plastered everywhere.

The black-moustachio'd face

gazed down from every commanding corner.

There was one on the house-front immediately opposite.


the caption said,

while the dark eyes looked deep into Winston's own.

Nineteen Eighty-Four, p. 2, 1968 Penguin edition.






Le fait que Big Brother, et sa Thought Police,

infiltrent et surveillent la population en permanence,

est connu de tous.



L'avertissement n'est pas nouveau,



il est sans cesse ré-annoncé, relancé, répété, réitéré

(fonction de be).



L'anaphore (la référence) est ici à la fois :


- contextuelle

(référence à un fait bien connu de l'opinion).



- textuelle

(démultiplication des affiches,

qui se reflètent les unes les autres).



- visuelle

(le slogan renvoie aux yeux de Big Brother ->

Traduction explicative : au cas où vous en doutiez,

voici les yeux du dictateur,

JE vous surveille, soyez-en sûr).






A l'inverse des anaphores

qui apportent un complément d'information

via une reformulation

(étymologie : ana-phore > porter vers le haut),


est une séquence qui ne renvoie qu'à elle-même,

et se reproduit à l'infini, à l'identique.


Ce slogan totalitaire

ne peut connaître de développement, d'interrogation.
















The Guardian > Work        p. 1        24.9.2005
















The Guardian        p. 4        20.2.2006















    4.    Anaphore > Commentaire / point de vue




Dans les énoncés suivants,

extraits d'un article du Herald (A Season of hope for economy),

be + -ing a fonction de commentaire,

avec une valeur emphatique (This is ...).



Cet article,

au centre de la première page

de l'International Herald Tribune,

est présenté comme une News Analysis.


Le texte n'est pas informatif.


Le journaliste revient sur / reprend / commente

des données économiques qui sont supposées connues,

puisque au-dessus de cette analyse figure l'article informatif :


U.S. growth rate jumps to 7.2%

Quarterly figure is highest since '84,

but pace may slow as tax cuts wane

Headline / sub, IHT,
- broken URL



A la différence de l'analyse,

cet article informatif ne comprend aucune occurrence de be + -ing,

sauf dans deux citations,

l'une d'un économiste et l'autre du président George W. Bush,

qui font chacun un commentaire à tonalité emphatique / volontariste,

une fois l'information connue :



"It looks like the economy is shrugging off its lethargy,"

said Richard Rippe, chief economist of Prudential Securities.


Speaking to campaign donors in Columbus after the report,

Bush said: "We're laying the foundations for greater prosperity."






A la différence du texte informatif,

le commentaire comprend plusieurs formes

en be + -ing.


En voici le début :


A season of hope for economy

This is the autumn of economic optimism.


Profits are soaring,

the U.S. economy is expanding at its fastest rate

in nearly two decades

and there are signs

that businesses are finally beginning to hire.

That is in sharp contrast to the U.S. outlook just last winter.

In February, share prices were falling,

the economy was stumbling along at a 1.4 percent growth rate.

The talk among many seers was

of the failure of fiscal and monetary easing to rescue the economy.

The specter of Japan-style deflation loomed.

Headline and first §§, IHT, p.1, 31.10.2003,







(avec jeu de mot :

la récolte des agriculteurs

est une récolte record de paperasse administrative.

On est dans le langage figuré,

donc dans une énonciation seconde)

extrait de la page Comment du Times :



Farmers are harvesting

a bumper crop of red tape


A blizzard of crazy regulations

is threatening the country's side future

Headline / sub, T, p. 20, 5.11.2003.










Autres commentaires en be + -ing




Wall Street pulls back


Wall Street pulled back as wary investors decided to cash in

recent gains despite upbeat news on IBM Corp. and Intel Corp.

Analysts said

many investors were again questioning current stock valuation levels

after several weeks of advances.

A suicide car bombing in Saudi Arabia that killed 17 people

over the weekend also weighed on stocks.

"People are being guarded," said Paul McManus,

senior vice president and director of research

at Independence Investment LLC.

"People are looking at the market

and wondering, 'Have I missed the rally,

can I continue to be aggressive at these levels?"'

Headline, sub and first §§, PA, 11.11.2003.




Commentaires du Financial Times

(avec photo et nom en gros caractères du journaliste

au-dessus de chaque premier paragraphe -> mise en évidence

de l'énonciateur / énonciatrice).



L'anaphore prend ici diverses formes :

simple reformulation de l'énoncé-titre de départ,

sans apport majeur d'information (énoncés 1a-3),

reprise d'un titre allusif avec développement informatif

(les investisseurs se trompent - 2).



Dans ce type d'énoncés en be + -ing,

le commentateur revient sur un fait marquant,

une donnée significative, en se mettant en avant.



Son point de vue diffère

de celui du journaliste d'agence anonyme

qui rédige une dépêche,

ou du journaliste de la presse audiovisuelle

qui décrit un match ou un événement

(information / description au présent perfect simple

ou au présent simple).



1 -    Protectionism emerges

from dustbin of history


A spectre is haunting the global economy;

the spectre of protectionism.

This force is most powerful in the US,

where the $500bn trade deficit is encouraging some

to propose desperate measures.

Headline and first §, FT, 8/9.11.2003.






2 -    Spicy menu of Asian opportunity


The international investors currently piling into Asia

are missing the point.

Headline and first §, FT, 8/9.11.2003.






3 -    Junk bonds making a comeback

as companies diversify their finances


European companies are beginning to overcome their

*reluctance to make use of "junk bonds".

Headline and first §, FT, 8/9.11.2003.   










5.    Anaphore > pas d'information / les mots pour le redire >











6.    Anaphore > reprise / reformulation simple, factuelle,

sans commentaire



Qaeda Ally May Target U.S. Theaters,

Schools -Report


Sun Mar 13, 2005


04:42 PM ET


WASHINGTON (Reuters) -

 Abu Musab al-Zarqawi,

al Qaeda's chief ally in Iraq,

may be planning attacks on "soft targets" in the United States

including movie theaters, restaurants and schools,

Time magazine reported on Sunday.

White House national security adviser Stephen Hadley

would not discuss the specific warning,

which Time said was circulated

among U.S. security agencies

last week in a restricted bulletin.

But he said the administration was concerned about reports

-- "which we think are very credible" --

that Zarqawi is working more closely

with Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda organization.

Qaeda Ally May Target U.S. Theaters, Schools -Report,
R, Sun Mar 13, 2005 04:42 PM ET,






BA wages long-haul price war


Top California fares to be cut by 42 per cent

British Airways is extending the savage airline price war

to long-haul routes with a summer offensive

that will see ticket prices fall by up to 42 per cent.

Headline, sub and §1,
O, 23.5.2004,






US probes deaths of 37 Afghan

and Iraqi detainees


American investigators are investigating the deaths

of 37 detainees held in US custody in Iraq and Afghanistan,

it emerged yesterday.

Headline and §1, O, 23.5.2004






Indian television crews and photographers

had turned out in droves to the event

after rumours that Bollywood's reigning queen

and the female lead of the film, Aishwarya Rai,

was to plant a kiss on the Prince's cheek

as one of her predecessors had done

on a royal visit two decades ago.

There was disappointment, however, when it was learned

that the former Miss World would not be meeting her Prince,

due to the overrunning of filming on location in Southern India.

Article sur la visite de Prince Charles en Inde,
Times, p. 15, 11.2003.



Traduction explicative :

... lorsque l'on a appris

que l'ex-Miss Monde ne rencontrerait pas,

comme prévu / annoncé / pré-énoncé,

son Prince ...






Enoncé premier


rumours that Bollywood's reigning queen

and the female lead of the film, Aishwarya Rai,

was to plant a kiss on the Prince's cheek






Equivalences théoriques / Reformulations


the female lead of the film, Aishwarya Rai was to meet the Prince


the female lead of the film, Aishwarya Rai will meet the Prince






Anaphore / Reformulation / Reprise des équivalences


the former Miss World would be meeting her Prince










Branson eyes £1bn float for Virgin Mobile


Britain's favourite businessman Richard Branson

is considering a stock market flotation for Virgin Mobile,

which will value it at about £1 billion.

Headline and §1, O, 18.1.2004,










7.    Anaphore textuelle / contextuelle > reformulation >

effet emphatique





Mike Lane

editorial cartoon

Baltimore Sun


5 March 2004

















The pharmacy rip-offs

Why you could be paying too much for your favourite product

Headline and sub, ES, p. 24, 3.2.2004.



pharmacy rip-offs

équivaut à / est repris par

paying too much for your favourite product   






While Tony Blair travels the world,

the world is travelling here.

As Oliver Letwin has pledged,

under the Conservatives

there'll be 80,000 fewer asylum seekers

- and 40,000 more police officers.

'Get out of our way - the Quiet Man is staying":
The following is an edited text of Iain Duncan Smith's speech,
T, 10.10.2003.






Record industry claims

it is winning the battle against

illegal music downloads   










8.    Anaphore en -ing / be + -ing


simple reprise


peu ou pas de développement informatif





Larry Wright

editorial cartoon

The Detroit News

Detroit, Michigan


3 August 2010










IRA threats continue

say McCartneys


Witnesses still intimidated, sisters claim


Witnesses to the murder of Robert McCartney

are still being intimidated,

his family alleged yesterday

as it emerged that detectives are questioning

a man expelled by the organisation

in connection with the Belfast bar killing.

Headline, sub and §1, G, 10.3.2005,



L'article ci-dessus,

en première page du Guardian,

n'est pas le premier sur ce sujet ;

la veille,

ce journal avait déjà titré sur la famille McCartney.


La séquence being intimidated,

qui précise l'information du titre,

fait partie dans un continuum énonciatif.






Silence from Mars:

hopes fade for missing Beagle


Hopes are fading for Beagle 2,

the British space probe

that was due to touch down on Mars

early on Christmas day.

Efforts to detect the probe's radio signal,

which would indicate the Beagle had landed safely,

have so far drawn a blank.

Headline and §1, G, 27.12.2003,






Hutton: 48% think Blair lied


Poll reveals public pressure

for resignation if PM criticised


Tony Blair is losing the battle for public opinion

on two key issues - the Hutton inquiry and tuition fees -

that will next week determine the fate of his premiership,

according to the results of this month's

Guardian/ICM opinion poll.

Headline, sub and §1,
G, 20.1.2004,











renvoyant à une page précédente


mise au passif




Microsoft refines image after EU ruling


Titre en page 9,

International Herald Tribune,

mai 2004

(page de droite)




le lecteur / la lectrice tourne la page :



Its image is being refined

Suite de l'article > Titre en page 10

(page de gauche)










Autre anaphore en -ing

(pas en be + -ing)

renvoyant à une page précédente :



Fireman awakes


A brain-damaged firefighter

has suddenly begun to speak again

after almost a decade in a coma


Information en première page

de l'édition électronique du Times



Un clic sur

Fireman awakes

affiche l'article :


Alive again after a decade of silence


From James Bone in New York


THE wife of a brain-damaged American fireman

who suddenly began speaking again

after almost a decade of silence

said yesterday

that the family was trying to cope

with the “incredible experience”.

The Times, 5.5.2005,

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,11069-1598195,00.html - broken link




Voir aussi


begin + to -> Base Verbale    /     begin + N-ing














9.    Anaphore >


Développement informatif / reformulation



Donor stem cells restore sight


Therapy which kickstarts repair could cut transplant need

A pioneering stem cell treatment is restoring sight to patients

who had given up hope of their eyes recovering

from chemical accidents or disease,

the surgeon behind the procedure said yesterday.

Headline, sub and §1, G, 29.4.2005,






Children's Fund faces 40% cut


Protest meeting on threat to Brown's pet scheme

One of Gordon Brown's pet programmes,

which he hailed as a new front

in Labour's "war on poverty" four years ago,

is facing a 40% budget cut which threatens

to shut some children's charities.

Headline, sub and §1, G, 11.2.2004,






US Anglicans plot to break up church


American Anglican traditionalists are plotting the break-up

of their national church and the creation

of a new fundamentalist church

in the wake of its consecration of the openly gay bishop

Gene Robinson.

Headline and §1, G, 15.1.2004,






NHS sues drug companies

over price-fixing claims


The NHS is suing seven pharmaceutical companies for £30m

over allegations that they fixed the price of common antibiotics,

it has emerged

Headline and §1,
G, 22.12.2003,






Retailers braced for a miserable Christmas

as shares tumble


High Street retailers are hoping for a last minute surge in sales

as they face the prospect of the worst trading Christmas in years.

Headline and §1,
I, 29.9.2003,






UK warns of more terrorist attacks


The Foreign Office warned today

that more terrorist attacks are being planned in Turkey

and urged British citizens not to travel

to any major city in the country

Web frontpage headline, sub and photo, I, 21.11.2003.






Heads want safer buses for children


Head teachers are calling for a shake-up

of the legislation governing school transportin England

and Wales, claiming that animals carried on trucks

are safer than the hundreds of thousands of youngsters

ferried to and from school on sub-standard buses.

Headline and §1,
G, 20.11.2003,






Black faces illegal payments inquiry


Conrad Black, the owner of The Daily Telegraph,

is facing an investigation by American regulators

into his financial affairs

after unauthorised payments he received

at Hollinger International forced his resignation

as the group's chief executive yesterday.

Headline and first §,
I, 18.11.2003,






Pretend you are gay,

Church tells worshippers


Grassroots members of the Church of England

are being urged to pretend to be gay

to help them to better understand homosexuality.

Bishops are urging worshippers to "walk in the moccasins"

of those they disagree with by taking part in role-play

n parish groups.

Headline and §§ 1-2, T, 5.11.2003.






Disgruntled peers sabotage

Blair's legislative plans


Tony Blair fears that his legislative programme is being

sabotaged by hereditary peers who have helped to inflict

63 defeats on the Government in the House of Lords this year,

the highest number since 1976.

Headline and § 1, T, 5.11.2003.






One drop of blood can show diseases


A technique used to study light from distant galaxies

is helping geneticiststrying to diagnose diseases

from a single drop of blood.

Headline and § 1, T, 5.11.2003.










10.    Anaphore


conséquence, explication, justification


tonalité neutre ou emphatique





I was feeling threatened!


Traduction explicative :

si j'ai tiré,

vous voyez bien que c'est parce que

je me sentais vraiment menacé!


Valeurs de be + -ing

dans cet énoncé :

explication, justification,

emphase, dramatisation



John Darkow

has been a professional cartoonist for over 20 years,

spending the last 10 as the staff cartoonist

at the Columbia Daily Tribune.

He is syndicated internationally by Cagle Cartoons.


24 January 2013











référenciation linguistique

(référence à du déjà énoncé)





Case 4


Mère : You're very quiet, Loomus.


[ comportement inhabituel pour Loomus,

garçon souvent agité et insupportable.


Sa mère ne peut que s'étonner d'un tel calme :


replacée dans un contexte général,

sa question est tout sauf anodine, neutre.


Les lecteurs / lectrices du comics

savent que Loomus prépare sans cesse des coups

avec ses amis les monstres,

cachés derrière le fauteuil (case 5)


case 4 > remarque de la mère > sous-entendu :

Je m'étonne de te voir aussi calme /

Qu'est-ce que tu peux bien manigancer ? ]



Loomus : : I'm writing a letter to Santa.



Steven Appleby

The Guardian        Family        p. 2        24 December 2005




Bien qu'il se superpose au temps de l'énonciation

(Loomus fait

- et en même temps explique ce qu'il fait -),

I'm writing a letter to Santa

a essentiellement

une valeur non pas temporelle,

mais anaphorique

(référence, reprise,

réponse à la remarque faite par sa mère),

explicative et démonstrative :


Puisque tu me le demandes,

j'écris une lettre au Père Noël...


Mais tu ne vois pas

que j'écris une lettre au Père Noël ?!


je suis en train d'écrire une lettre au Père Noël.


Rappelons qu'en français,

l'expression "être en train de"

a une valeur emphatique

qui n'est pas nécessairement liée

au présent :


"T'es toujours en train de me rabaisser !"


"Si demain je suis en train de mourir,

ça sera de ta faute!"




Dernière case > Contre-champ :

on découvre que la lettre

contient en fait une demande de rançon

faite au père Noël.


En dépit des apparences,

la réponse de Loomus est un mensonge.














référenciation linguistique

(référence à du déjà énoncé / formulé)


valeur de be + -ing > justification





Gary Markstein

editorial cartoon

Copley News Service


13 January 2006






















The Guardian        Work        p. 1        25 February 2006


Out with the old?

From October, new ageism rules

will mean laying off older staff could cost firms dear.

Get rid of them now and the penalties are lower.

What's a boss to do? By Ian Wylie and Chris Ball

The Guardian        Work        p. 3

Saturday February 25, 2006





Dans le titre ci-dessus,


ne doit pas faire illusion.



Ce marqueur de temps

ne déclenche pas ici be + -ing.



La question en be + -ing

- présupposante -

est une conséquence logique de l'affirmation

Age discrimination will soon be illegal...



Cette question n'en est pas une.

Les trois points de suspension

sont présupposants et conséquentiels


Il sera bientôt illégal

de discriminer une personne

en raison de son âge :


ne serait-ce

- être au présent du conditionnel -

pas pour cela

que les entreprises se débarrassent maintenant

de leurs vieux employés ?










Dans le texte ci-dessous,

Microsoft runs search

for a way to take over internet giant Google,

la première séquence en -ing

est une reformulation / développement

de l'information du titre et du sous-titre.



Valeur du deuxième énoncé en be + -ing :

explication emphatique.



A noter le ":" explicatif - rare en anglais -

dans l'énoncé

But Google differs from the other dotcoms

that rushed to join the stock market in a key respect:

it is making money.



Microsoft runs search

for a way to take over internet giant Google


The phenomenal success of Google,

the internet search engine,

has attracted the attention of the biggest name in hi-tech business,

the Microsoft founder Bill Gates.

Microsoft is said to be pursuing talks to buy

the Silicon Valley firm. Google,

which was started from scratch five years ago

by two Stanford computer science graduate students,

was recently valued at between $15bn and $25bn.

According to a report in the New York Times,

Microsoft executives have approached Google

about a range of options,

including a takeover by the software company,

at meetings in the past two months.


The story of Google's rise

recalls the tales of internet entrepreneurs

during the gold rush of the late 90s.

Sergey Brin and Larry Page were just 25

when they set the business up in 1998

from Mr Brin's dorm room.

Its name was a play on the word "googol",

coined for the number represented

by one followed by 100 zeros.

These days the business operates from offices,

called the Googleplex,

which bear the usual hallmarks of a dotcom firm,

including the lava lamps and staff on scooters.

But Google differs from the other dotcoms

that rushed to join the stock market in a key respect:

it is making money.

It is expected to produce

around $800m in revenues this year

and up to $200m in profits,

generated by selling advertising

that appears alongside search results.

It also licenses its technology to companies

such as America Online.

Headline and first §§,
G, 1.11.2003,






Article suivant :


l'énoncé en be + -ing

donne l'explication du titre, l'argument.


Si notre machine de guerre devient folle,

c'est que / parce que

des milliards sont dépensés en pure perte

dans des projets inutiles.



The folly of our war machine


Billions are being wasted on defence projects

that will have no place in the type of future conflict Britain

is likely to face 

Comment, headline and sub,






Une femme a reçu un embryon cloné

(information donnée par le titre),


elle espère donner naissance

au premier être humain cloné :



Cloned embryo implanted in woman


A 35-year-old woman

is hoping to give birth to the world's first cloned human being

after a freshly-cloned embryo was implanted in her,

US reproductive specialist Dr Panos Zavos has announced.

Headline and sub, Ananova,
http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_856883.html - broken link










11.    Marquage du connu, supposé, présupposé par -ing >

refrains du discours familier



be + -ing

est souvent utilisé dans les textes publicitaires

pour présenter un produit comme étant déjà connu,

faisant partie du quotidien.



Dans la publicité ci-dessous,

downing a Hen

fait référence à une habitude

supposée bien connue du lecteur

(le renard en bleu / le lecteur) :

boire de la bière Hen.



-ing fait entrer own-a-Hen

dans le discours familier, routinier,

prévisible, préfabriqué.



Equivalent en français :


(Kro = bière Kronenbourg).



Traduction explicative :

Comme tu le sais,

je préfèrerais / j'aimerais bien ->  boire / descendre /

me taper une Hen.





Guardian frontpage    14 May 2004
















The Guardian        19 June 2004















référenciation linguistique

(référence à du déjà énoncé)






Listen to this, George.

Astronomers say

the number of stars in the sky are dropping.


Et je suppose / je parie

qu'on dit que c'est ma faute?.



Larry Wright

The Detroit News





R: U.S. President George W. Bush














Americans admit

hand of Saddam

may be guiding resistance operations

against occupiers


The growing view that the former Iraqi leader

may be co-ordinating the resistance,

which claimed yet another soldier's life yesterday,

was first reported by The New York Times yesterday.

The revelation is bound to heighten doubts

about the success of the invasion,

and the ability of the occupation forces to restore stability,

especially in the so-called Sunni Triangle

to the north and west of the capital,

where attacks on troops have been frequent.

Headline, I, 1.11.2003,










Voir aussi


Présupposé > questions en be + -ing















be + -ing


anaphore / intervention

de l'énonciateur / l'énonciatrice

reprise, commentaire,

présupposé, conséquence, inférence, emphase



autres énoncés





Joanne Drake, chief of staff for Reagan's office,

told the Los Angeles Times Nancy Reagan

was stunned by the affection being displayed for Reagan,

beloved by many for his work in ending the Cold War

but also reviled by some for his support of

right-wing governments in Latin America and elsewhere.

"It is unbelievable what I am seeing on TV,"

Drake quoted the former first lady as saying.

"The outpouring of love for my husband is incredible."

Reagan Starts Last Journey to Washington, R, 9.6.2004,






Cathedral £4.5m in debt

after millennium fiasco


Bradford Cathedral is facing a financial catastrophe

after a failed millennium project left it with debts of £4.5m.

Headline / sub,

G, 10.11.2003,






Wildcat postal strikes end

after pledge on victimisation


The Royal Mail could take between three and four weeks

to clear a backlog of letters left by wildcat strikes

which appeared to be coming to an end yesterday.

As more than 20,000 wildcat strikers

began returning to work yesterday,

the Post Office started the hefty task

dealing with a backlog of tens of millions of letters,

by re-opening sealed letter boxes

and urging the public to "carry on posting".

Headline and sub, I, 4.11.2003,






Wildlife threatened

by sweeping reforms of countryside watchdogs


Ministers are preparing to weaken protection for wildlife

and the countryside in an unprecedented shake-up

of England's official watchdogs.

The move, which is certain to cause a public outcry,

is being seen as revenge for a successful obstruction

of the Government's push for GM crops,

and as a pre-emptive strike to undermine opposition

to building new roads, reservoirs and airport runways

across the country.

Ministers vigorously deny having ulterior motives,

but are planning to push the changes through

without holding the public consultation

traditionally undertaken before changes of this kind.

Headline and first §§, IoS, 2.11.2003,






Estate agents urge buyers

to lie about income to get mortgage


First-time home buyers are being encouraged to lie

about their incomes by mortgage brokers

in some of Britain's biggest estate agents,

an investigation says today.

Headline and §1, G, 29.10.2003,






New drug scandal shakes sport

Olympic champions

among athletes accused of cheating


Leading British athletes are facing a rigorous investigation

to discover whether they have been using a new "designer"

anabolic steroid that is threatening to shatter the credibility

of athletics less than a year before the Olympics in Athens.

Headline, sub, §1,
G, 18.10.2003,






Prescott index shows

house prices remain buoyant


House prices are continuing to show strong growth,

with more than £2,700 added

to the value of a typical home in August,

according to new government figures.

Headline and §1, G, 14.10.2003,






Lethal replicas fuel gun crime fears


The menace of gun crime,

highlighted by a recent spate of murders across England,

is being exacerbated by a growing supply

of replica guns converted to fire live ammunition,

a Scotland Yard analysis has concluded.

Headline and §1, G, 11.10.2003,






Kids know him

as Harry Potter's pal Nearly Headless Nick.

But back in the day,

John Cleese used to star in Monty Python,

whose hilarious "Meaning of Life"

will soon be released on DVD.

NEWSWEEK's Andrew Phillips quizzed Cleese

about the old days and those to come:


I hope the new DVD has some wild outtakes.

I haven't seen it myself. I have not reached

that sad stage of sitting at home in the evenings

and watching my own movies.

I will say, in my final week, as I lie there at the age of 104,

I shall no doubt be watching this DVD with my 18-year-old bride.

Periscope, QA, John Cleese, N, 15.9.2003.

Question en gras dans l'article.






BBC accused

of plot to stop rivals showing its classics


The BBC is being accused by senior industry executives

of "discriminatory trading" to prevent its classic television

programmes being shown by rival broadcasters.

Headline and first paragraph,
I, p. 7, 16.9.2003.






Devotees of Lord of the Rings

will think they have died and gone to Middle Earth.

From today,

hundreds of props, costumes and and gadgetry

from the epic production of the JJR Tolkien trilogy,

directed by Peter Jackson,

go on display in a £750,000 show in London.

The exhibition is being held at London's

Science Museum in South Kensington,

founded from the proceeds of the Great Exhibition.

It's a hit -
but should the Science Museum showcase
props from a Hollywood movie?,
I, p. 3, 16.9.2003.






All available West Midlands detectives

were called in yesterday

to launch a murder inquiry and investigation

into the looting, arson, and violent assaults. (...)

The Home Secretary arrived at the top of Lozells Road,

scene of the the worst looting and arson

on Monday, at 1.30pm yesterday. (...)

The group moved on down Lozells Road,

to talk to some of the Asian shop owners

worst hit by Monday's riot and looting,

the stoning attacks became more intense

and the minister's entourage

looked in danger of being surrendered.


But Mr Hurd rejected

criticism of the police and fire services

"I quite understand

that if you are being terrorized

and your shop is being burned

and you are being looted

minutes seem like hours".

On This Day, The Times, September 11, 1985,
Birmingham violence spreads to new areas, T, p. 37,
11 September 2003.










Voir aussi > Anglonautes > Grammaire anglaise explicative - niveau avancé


be + -ing



Présent simple



Present Perfect > Breaking news



Glossaire > Anaphores







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