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learning > grammaire anglaise - niveau avancé


temps, formes verbales


groupe verbal


temps et formes verbales


temps chronologique,

temps grammatical,

effets énonciatifs /

mise en scène énonciative







present perfect

(haveauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé)




(également appelé prétérit)



past perfect

(hadauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé)






Un temps grammatical (présent, passé)

ou une forme verbale (present perfect)

ne reflète pas toujours le temps chronologique.



Temps grammatical (tense)

et temps chronologique (time)

ne sont pas nécessairement "synchrones".



La "réalité" / le temps chronologique

n'impose pas un temps grammatical

à l'énonciateur / l'énonciatrice.



Ce n'est pas parce qu'un fait est passé

que l'on va nécessairement le relater

au passé.



De même, le présent peut s'utiilser

pour parler du passé ou du futur.



En utilisant tel temps ou telle forme verbale

à un point de son discours

(instant de l'énonciation, du discours),

celui qui parle / écrit relie certes ce qu'il dit

au temps chronologique (passé - présent - futur),

mais il cherche aussi à faire un effet énonciatif :


effet d'annonce,








prise de conscience, etc.






- le présent simple

peut rendre compte de faits passés,

présents, ou futurs :



Bill Clinton speaks to the Guardian

Exclusive Guardian interview


On Monday we publish an exclusive interview

in which the former president speaks

to the Guardian's Alan Rusbridger

and Jonathan Freedland.

Clinton speaks candidly about the war in Iraq

and his quest for peace in the Middle East; his friend Tony Blair;

the wife who might one day succeed him into the White House;

and the Monica Lewinsky scandal that nearly brought him down.

Bill Clinton speaks to the Guardian, G ad, 19.6.2004,
http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/clinton/0,14575,1219435,00.html - broken link






The second act opens before dawn tomorrow,

100m miles from Earth, when Spirit,

a US robot rover the size of golf buggy,

hurtles through the thin atmosphere

and bounces to a halt

on the parched deserts of Mars,

to begin a search for water on the arid planet.

The third act of the drama is revealed later that day

when a European spacecraft called Mars Express

completes a series of huge elliptical swings

around the red planet

and settles down to a steady polar orbit

which will allow it

to probe the secrets of the Martian air and rock.

But even before it starts to send back valuable data,

Mars Express has a more urgent role:

to make contact with its baby, Beagle 2,

the tiny British lander that it carried for six months

and then pushed gently towards a dusty basin

near the Martian equator just before Christmas.

To boldly go in search of comets and Mars secrets,
G, 3.1.2004,






Ex-PM Callaghan dies, aged 92


LORD Callaghan of Cardiff,

Britain’s longest living prime minister,

died yesterday on the eve of his 93rd birthday

and only 11 days after his wife Audrey passed away.

Headline and §1, ST, 27.3.2005,






Blow Up star David Hemmings dies


Cult British actor has heart attack on film set,

aged 62.

Web frontpage, G, 4.12.2003.   






Early next year,

the industry that once sustained much of the north,

from Yorkshire to Lancashire and the north east,

effectively closes down:

Britain's largest deep mining complex,

the huge Selby coalfield, ends production.

The end of Selby, O / The Northerner, 26.9.2003,










Via la concordance des temps (CT),

le passé peut s'employer pour parler

du futur (1)


du présent (2 et comics) :


1 - House prices rose 2.1% in July

to stand 14.3% higher than July last year,

government data showed yesterday.

The annual rise was up from 13.9% in June

but the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister warned

that its figures were based on completions in July

and so were not comparable

with the latest Nationwide or Halifax numbers,

which are based on mortgage approvals

and point to a slowing market.

The ODPM said

the weakening in prices would not show up in its figures

until September completions were available in November.

14% rise in house prices, G, September 14, 2004,






2 - As the home secretary,

David Blunkett,

announced record police numbers,

the daughters of Marian Bates claimed

that while in the past

they had known their local bobby well,

nowadays they did not set eyes

on a police officer from one week to the next.

Bring back our bobby, say gun victim's daughters:
Family of woman shot dead in jewellery shop
reveal husband's pleas for more police patrols
as they urge Blunkett to do more to stop crime,
G, 3.10.2003,









Mark Trail    Jack Elrod

Created by Ed Dodd in 1946

6 December 2004









- le passé modal / hypothétique

- même forme que le passé temporel,

sauf pour be) -

s'emploie pour parler

de ce qui pourrait avoir lieu (hypothèse) :


If I won the lotto

I would carry on working in my current position.







L'emploi d'un temps, d'une forme verbale

ou d'une forme -ing

n'est pas nécessairement imposé

par le sujet de l'article

ou par la chronologie des faits relatés.


Il peut relever d'un choix stylistique / énonciatif

(voir aussi formes en be + -ing) :



TWO sentences into Iain Duncan Smith's speech

and the woman sitting next to me in the Winter Gardens Ballroom Bar

tries to start a plot.

"If we all write in to Conservative Central Office,

they will have to get rid of him," she whispers.

Here, just a few yards from the conference hall

where delegates are cheering IDS to the rafters,

some 200 Tory members,

including chairmen and women of local associations,

are watching him on a huge television screen

with stone-faced expressions and folded arms.

The party plotter, who is a veteran party activist,

explained the reason for the stark disparity :

"This is the real opinion.

Everyone in there is desperate to try and make it work.

I've never seen an audience work so hard.

The reaction in here is closer to the one outside."

This is a tale of two speeches.

The speech taking place inside the hall

where delegates have been whipped

into a near-hysterical frenzy,

and the speech being relayed

to un-whipped-up Tories in the room next door.

When Mr Duncan Smith complains that Tony Blair will not do

the decent thing and resign, a woman member complains:

"Neither will you."

When the Tory leader accuses Mr Blair

of being "good on telly",

a phalanx of middle-aged Tory men in the front three row

roar loudly and shout: "Yes!"

When the camera pans to Michael Howard,

a group of Tories mutter:

"There he is."

The lady plotter remarks:

"The bookies in Blackpool are offering odds

on him being the next Prime Minister, you know."

    'Double-dealing, deceitful, incompetent, shallow,
    inefficient, ineffective, corrupt, mendacious, fraudulent, shameful, lying Government...' :
    Is this enough to save him?, T, p. 1, 10.11.2003.









autres énoncés au

présent / present perfect

passé / past perfect




A woman of 94 has been released from Broadmoor high-security hospital after being kept there for 40 years, it is disclosed today.

By the end of her detention, the woman was so frail that she was capable of very little movement. She is now in a care facility with no security provision.

The case is being highlighted by the government's Mental Health Act Commission to show the continuing problem of people held inappropriately in the high-security hospitals at Broadmoor in Berkshire, Rampton in Nottinghamshire and Ashworth on Merseyside.

The commission says that two other recent discharges from the hospitals have been a teenager who uses a wheelchair and a blind patient with severely restricted mobility.

It costs about £2,300 a week to keep a patient in a high-security hospital. Yet an official report three years ago estimated that as many as one in three of the hospitals' 1,600 patients did not need such a level of security and called for their transfer to other facilities.

Broadmoor lets out woman, 94, after 40 years:
Commission criticises media exposure of mentally ill, G, 10.12.2003,







a Buenos Aires-based fund manager,

woke up with a start

when she felt a hand clamped over her mouth.

As she looked up,

the man standing over her took out a gun

and pressed the warm metal barrel against her head.

"I was nine months pregnant and he said to me:

'Don't even dream of going into labour now',"

she recalls.

Two other men forced

Ms X' two young daughters into the room

and made them all huddle under the sheets

while they plundered the house

The ordeal, which happened at Ms X' home

in a wealthy suburb six months ago,

lasted just over an hour.

But it haunts her to this day:

"Things like that leave a scar for life."

Argentina's traumatic lurch into high crime,
FT, p.4, 4.6.2003.






For months,

the citizens of Baghdad have known

that this moment would arrive;

now it is upon them.

Diplomacy died yesterday.

President Bush delivered his final ultimatum.

Baghdad is now the bulls-eye

for the deadliest weapons

mankind has created.

Iraquis pack up their homes and head for the café,
T, p.1, 18.3.2003.


Schéma :


Bilan jusqu'au présent de l'énonciation :

present perfect actif affirmatif (have known)


Constat / information :

présent (is)


Rappel d'un fait révolu :

passé (died)


Rappel d'un 2e fait révolu

-> concordance des temps -> passé (delivered)


Constat / information :

présent (is)


Information-bilan :

present perfect actif affirmatif (has created)






Chris McGreal,

who has reported for the Guardian

for the past 10 years from Africa,

last night won the coveted James Cameron award.

GE2, Award for Guardian reporter, p. 1, 26.11.2002.






One of the seven Israeli troops killed

[ sous-entendu : who were killed ]

by a Palestinian sniper

at a West Bank roadblock on Saturday

had considered joining the reservists

who have refused

to serve in the occupied territories,

it emerged yesterday.

War weary troops draw line in sand, p. 4,
6.March 2002.


Passé + marqueur de temps passé (on Saturday)


Past perfect

(antériorité par rapport au passé)


Present perfect

(relation Sujet / Prédicat toujours valide -> traduction au présent)


Passé :

l’information date d’hier


Traduction explicative :


L’un des sept soldats israéliens qui ont été tués samedi

par un tireur embusqué palestinien à un barrage en Cisjordanie

avait envisagé de rejoindre ces réservistes

qui refusent de servir dans les territoires occupés,

a-t-on appris hier.





Over the years,

St Enda's has been subjected

to a catalogue of bombings,

shootings and arson attacks,

earning it the unenviable reputation

as the most terrorised sports club in Northern Ireland.


In 1972, a workman was killed

by a booby-trap device left in a flask

on a path the players used as a short cut.

The same year,

an explosion ripped through the clubrooms,

and again in 1973.


The following year,

50 players and officials escaped injury

when a player flopped down

on a sofa in the changing rooms

and a bomb rolled out but failed to detonate.


Arsonists struck in 1983, 1986, 1992

and twice in 1993.

Pitch battle, GE2, p. 14, 22.8.2002,


Schéma :

Present perfect passif (has been subjected) :

bilan sur une période indéfinie (over the years),


Passé actif ou passif :

bilan détaillé sous forme de récit / chronologie,

ponctué de marqueurs / adverbes de temps passé.






Men are on the moon.

At 3:39 am this morning - nearly four hours ahead of schedule -

Armstrong, the lunar module commander,

opened the hatch and clambered slowly down to the surface of the moon.

Minutes later Aldrin followed him down the steps of the ladder

- already renamed Tranquility Base -

to join in this moving, clumsy culmination

of eight years of intense dedication.

It was the fulfilment of a dream

which men have shared since the beginning of recorded history.

The decision to walk early was made three hours

after the lunar module Eagle had made a perfect landing at 9:17 pm,

four miles downrange from the chosen site.

The spacecraft was steered manually

to clear a boulder-strewn crater "the size of a football pitch."

It was a moment of extraordinary tension and silence.

The Moonwalkers, G, 21.7.1969,






When the satellite transmitter showed

thatconjonction AC-8 had not moved for one day, then two,

Mark Hall knew something was wrong.

Condors, like AC-8, tend to fly.

On the third day, Mr. Hall,

who manages the Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge

near this Southern California town,

went to investigate and found the body of AC-8,

a female condor with a 10-foot wing,

in the branches of an oak tree

on a ranch about a 45-minute drive north of here.

She had been shot to death.

A Most Valuable Condor Is Shot to Death,
NYT / Le Monde, p. 5, 4/5.5.2003.






On New Year's Day 1985,

Ernie Wise made Britain's first cellphone call.

Now, less than two decades later,

most people in this country have a mobile

and every sixth person in the world owns one.

They have launched revolutions,

saved lives, destroyed relationships,

and, of course, spawned a whole new genre

of utterly pointless communication.

James Meek looks at

how the mobile phone has changed our world

Sub headline, GE2, p. 2, 11.11.2002.






Hubbard denies manslaughter.

In interviews, he told police

he had used the bolt gun too often

to lark around with them.

« They are not toys, » he had said.

Sheep culler ‘killed colleague with bolt gun’,
p. 5, 6.3.2002,








Voir aussi > Anglonautes >

Grammaire anglaise explicative - niveau avancé


temps, formes verbales


past perfect > haveauxiliaire


passé modal > it's time + Nsujet + passé modal




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