20th century > 1929 > Crash
1930s - early 40s > Great Depression
The Daily Mail, continental edition
October 25, 1929
The American stock market collapses.
John Ford's The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
is a 1940 American drama film
directed by John Ford.
It was based
on John Steinbeck's
1939 Pulitzer Prize-winning
novel of the same name.
The screenplay was written
by Nunnally Johnson
and the executive producer
was Darryl F. Zanuck.
tells the story of the Joads,
an Oklahoma family,
who, after losing their farm
during the Great Depression
in the 1930s,
become migrant workers
and end up in California.
The motion picture
details their arduous journey
across the United States
as they travel to California
in search of work
for the family members.
The FSA photographs,
along with Pare Lorentz's
The Plow That Broke the Plains (1936)
and The River (1937),
with their images of drought, flood,
and other rural calamities,
helped Gregg Toland
and John Ford (the director)
to their 1940 screen adaptation
The Grapes of Wrath.
(Indeed, the poetic narration
and visual beauty of the Lorentz films
actually influenced Steinbeck
as he was writing the original novel.)
The Ford film, in turn,
fixed the iconography of the thirties
for future generations.
We can see its long afterlife
in films like Hal Ashby's
1976 biography of Woody Guthrie,
Bound for Glory.
Secular stagnation was an idea first conceived
in the aftermath of the Great Depression.
Photograph: New York Times Co.
Weak economic recovery
was down to flawed policies, not secular stagnation
Lesson to be learned from 2008 financial crisis
is that the challenge was – and is - political
Wed 29 Aug 2018 16.19 BST
Last modified on Thu 30 Aug 2018 07.57 BST
Migrant agricultural workers,
Nipomo, California, 1936
Photograph: Dorothea Lange
A Vision Shared:
the photographers who captured the Great Depression
Tue 24 Jul 2018 11.00 BST
Last modified on Tue 24 Jul 2018 11.01 BST
Migrant family, Texas. 1936.
Photograph: Dorothea Lange/
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
In Search of the American Family
Nov. 20, 2017
Migratory farmers (pea pickers)
changing their flat tire along route US 101.
Location: Santa Maria, CA, US
Date taken: February 1936
Photographer: Dorothea Lange
Dust bowl drought victims
(migratory farm workers)
at ramshackle building,
meant to be permanent home,
north of Shafter.
Location: CA, US
Date taken: February 1936
Photograph: Dorothea Lange
A booking photograph of a vagrant in the early 1930s
Real life film noir:
crime scenes from the LAPD – in pictures
this gallery contains images
some people may find distressing
Crime scene photographs
shot by Los Angeles police officers
in the line of duty between 1925 and the 1970s
are on show at the city’s Lucie Foundation.
More than 80 images are on display,
drawn from the thousands discovered
in a warehouse in 2000
by the fototeka Gallery.
Tue 16 Jul 2019 10.28 BST
America from the Great Depression to WW2
The Dust Bowl or the Dirty Thirties
Buried machinery in barn lot
in Dallas, South Dakota,
United States during the Dust Bowl,
an agricultural, ecological, and economic disaster
in the Great Plains region of North America in 1936
Date: 13 May 1936
Source: United States Department of Agriculture;
Image Number: 00di0971 (original link now dead)
Portrait of Dust Bowl farmer John Barnett and his family.
Location: OK, US
Date taken: 1942
Photographer: Alfred Eisenstaedt
A period of severe dust storms
causing major ecological
and agricultural damage
to American and Canadian
from 1930 to 1936
(in some areas until 1940)
drought, economic depression
and devastating dust storms
created the perfect conditions
for migration in the 1930s,
the southern Plains states
and towards the west,
Facing millions of dollars
of crop losses per day
in the Dust Bowl,
millions of residents
from Oklahoma, Texas,
Arkansas and Missouri
had no choice
but to move or starve.
They packed their bags,
with many traveling west
The state of California resisted,
citing the 1933 Indigent Act
to turn back poor migrants
along the state's
major points of entry.
John Steinbeck's novel
The Grapes of Wrath,
written in 1939,
depicted this vilification
of climate migrants
through its story
of a poor family of tenants
driven out of the Dust Bowl
and mistreated in California.
World’s Highest Standard of Living
by Margaret Bourke-White, 1937.
Courtesy of the estate of Margaret Bourke-White
'Families were devastated':
looking back on the Great Depression via art
In a powerful new exhibition,
photography and folk art are used
to provide potentially relevant lessons
on how to deal with economic hardship
Wed 18 Sep 2019 06.01 BST
in Life Magazine’s February 1937 issue,
World’s Highest Standard of Living
became instantly recognizable
to many Americans during the Great Depression
for its starkly ironic juxtaposition of an idealized America
alongside the grimmer aspects of everyday reality.
Often thought to be an unemployment line,
the photo was actually taken in Louisville
after the flooding of the Ohio River,
which killed almost 400 people
and displaced about a million more across four states.
Works Progress Administration WPA
The Works Progress Administration
(WPA; renamed in 1939
as the Work Projects Administration)
was an American New Deal agency,
employing millions of job-seekers
(mostly unskilled men)
to carry out public works projects,
including the construction
of public buildings and roads.
It was established
on May 6, 1935,
by Executive Order 7034.
By the time the agency
closed up shop in 1943,
it had put
8.5 million Americans to work
— a sizable chunk of the workforce
in a country less than half
as populous as it is today.
Most of that direct employment
was organized and done
by the WPA, an icon
of the "bold persistent
FDR said would characterize
his approach to recovery.
National Industrial Recovery Act NIRA
Following the enactment
of the the National Industrial
Recovery Act (NIRA),
the National Recovery
on June 16, 1933
in an effort by President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
to assist the nation's
during the Great Depression.
The passage of NIRA ushered in
a unique experiment
in U.S. economic history -
the NIRA sanctioned, supported,
and in some cases,
enforced an alliance of industries.
The National Recovery
a separate executive order,
was put into operation soon
after the final approval
of the act.
to make voluntary agreements
dealing with hours of work,
rates of pay,
and the fixing of prices.
were made to the public,
and firms were asked
to display the Blue Eagle,
an emblem signifying NRA
Franklin Delano Roosevelt 1882-1945
32nd president of the United States 1933-1945
Great Depression New Deal 1930's
Franklin Delano Roosevelt,
the 32nd president
of the United States,
held that title longer
than any man in history
and dealt, during his time,
with some of the greatest problems
internal or external,
which had faced the nation.
The internal crisis which existed
at the time of his first inauguration,
on March 4, 1933,
when the nation’s economic system
and its financial organism
paralyzed by fear,
was followed in his third term
by the global war during which
he and Winston Churchill
emerged as leader
of the English-speaking world.
The years in between
were packed with swift and drastic
social and economic changes
to make Mr. Roosevelt
the most controversial figure
in American history.
Beloved by millions, hated,
admired, feared and scorned
by countless adversaries,
he did much to shape the future
of the nation he headed
and the world.
Title : Roosevelt or reaction?
Wage earners - your vote is your answer
Date : 1936
Subjects : Democratic Party
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Folder : 1936 - Presidential Elections - Democratic Party
UCLA Online Campaign Literature Archive
Wall Street Crash 1929
The Great Depression / The New Deal 1930s
1929 Crash and The Great Depression
Herbert Hoover 1874-1964
Thirty-first President of the United States 1929-1933
facing slightly right]
Underwood & Underwood, Washington.
LC-USZ62-24155 DLC (b&w film copy neg.)
LC-USZ61-296 DLC (b&w film copy neg.)
(b&w film copy neg.) cph 3a25105
(b&w film copy neg.) cph 3a02089
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division
Washington, D.C. 20540 USA
Swamped under an avalanche of selling orders
from every part of the country and from abroad
which had been accumulating over the week-end,
the stock market today continued to sink,
though at a less rapid rate than Saturday.
Before the tumble became a crash, however,
a rally in the final half-hour saved prices
from closing on the lowest levels
and gave rise to hopes
that the market had touched rock bottom.
The wild rush to sell put the ticker more than an hour
behind the actual transactions nearly all day,
and at the close it was still seventy-two minutes behind.
The late rally, however, brought prices back slightly,
and at the close most stocks showed two to five points
above their lowest levels in the course of the session."
International Herald Tribune, 1929
In a day replete with bankers' meetings,
conferences of Stock Exchange officials,
meetings of brokers
and publication of opinions from high and low
in the world of finance, business and all else,
stock prices broke to new low levels
in a volume of trading
far in excess of anything hitherto seen.
In five hours' trading,
16,419,000 shares changed hands,
in comparison with 12,894,600
which made the previous record day
last Thursday [Oct. 24].
Sales on the Curb market
added another 7,096,300 shares
to the day's total.
Today [Oct. 29]
came the first failure of the present reaction.
It was insignificant
compared with the failures
during the panics of the past,
but it was seized upon by a hysterical public
as an occasion for fresh worry.
The failure was
that of the firm of John J. Bell and Company,
members of the Curb Exchange,
whose officials announced its suspension
through the inability to meet its engagements.
Its obligations, it was said, were small.
Today's transactions broke all records,
even those established in Thursday's collapse.
The first three and a half hours
saw 12,652,000 shares change hands,
or within 250,000 of the record
for a full five-hour session,
established during Thursday's debacle."
International Herald Tribune 1929
John Cohen 1932-2019
of the New Lost City Ramblers,
the New York-based string band
at the forefront of the old-time music
revival of the 1950s and ’60s
Although best known
as a performer,
Mr. Cohen was also
an accomplished photographer,
filmmaker and musicologist.
all his artistic pursuits
on a single goal:
the traditional music
of the rural American South
a movement around it.
Established in 1958,
the Ramblers consisted
of Mr. Cohen
on banjo, guitar and vocals;
the folklorist Mike Seeger,
also on vocals,
as well as fiddle
and other instruments;
and Tom Paley,
who left the trio in 1962,
on banjo, guitar and vocals.
the three men introduced
a generation of young urbanites
to the work of Depression-era
rural performers like Dock Boggs,
and Blind Alfred Reed.
Mr. Paley’s replacement,
played fiddle and guitar
and sang with the group
from 1962 until the early 1970s.)
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