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learning > grammaire anglaise - niveau avancé


temps, formes verbales


present perfect


present perfect actif affirmatif


haveauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé




adverbe / marqueur de temps





present perfect


valeurs énonciatives


bilan jusqu'au présent


Since the day

President Obama took [ passé actif affirmatif ] office,


he has failed

[ present perfect actif affirmatif ]


to bring to justice

anyone responsible

for the torture of terrorism suspects

— an official government program

conceived and carried out

in the years after the attacks

of Sept. 11, 2001.

Prosecute Torturers and Their Bosses,

21 December 2014    NYT,







Since passage of the Affordable Care Act,

has the number of uninsured Americans

increased, decreased or stayed the same?

 [ present perfect actif affirmatif ]


Since passage of the Affordable Care Act,

has the number of uninsured Americans increased,

decreased or stayed the same?


Jan. 12, 2017







E-cigarette users have tripled

[ present perfect actif affirmatif ]


to 2 million since 2012,

[ since + début du bilan ]


study finds


Monday 28 April 2014
















































The Guardian        p. 1        29 January 2007






























marqueurs de temps




present perfect actif affirmatif

(haveauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé)




In the span of a couple of weeks,


in 2021,


this year,


in five years,


in one year,


in two decades,


in years,


in almost 20 years,


in recent years,


in recent days,






Over five decades,


over the last 25 years,


Over the past two years,


Over the past week,


Over the years,






as yet,






in the year,










never ever










so far,


so far this year,










Three times this month,



It is the first time



For the time being,






Throughout history,



Throughout history and across cultures

















marque le début

de la période de référence du bilan :


E-cigarette users have tripled to 2 million

since 2012, study finds

Monday 28 April 2014,





Since early this year,


in the weeks since,


ever since,


Since the 9/11 attacks,


In the nine years

since the first American troops landed in Afghanistan,


Since the mid-1960s













Jeff Parker


Florida Today


16 December 2010


R: U.S. president Barack Obama


Donkey = Democrats

Elephant = Republicans
















[ depuis > durée de la période du bilan ]


the past several years,


for years,


for X years,


For the last several years,


for the last 30 years,


for more than three decades,


for a third month in a row


for  [ pour ] the first time in a generation,


for  [ depuis ] more than a year,


for the past year,


for [ depuis ] the past 26 years,


For the past few days,


for a matter of days


For  [ depuis ] 50 years,


For [ depuis ] the last couple of hours,


For [ depuis ] too long,










since  [ depuis > point de départ de la période du bilan ]

1999 / then / Christmas / the last recession,



since she disappeared [ passé ],



since separating from my husband five years ago,



since he was [ passé ] 13,



since the start of the year,

since time immemorial,



Since his release in January

after serving time for a 2006 theft conviction,









present perfect + for + N


traduction : depuis


I have been waiting for you for two hours!





passé + for + N

traduction : pendant / durant


I lived in NYC

for two years.








since = depuis.


Ce mot peut être préposition (+ N) :

since the start of the year

since separating from my husband five years ago,




conjonction (+ S + Vintransitif  /  S + Vtransitif + O) :

since she disappeared [ passé actif ],




Le segment en since

marque le début / l'ancrage

de la période de référence du bilan :



since (ancrage dans le passé ( = perfect )) ------  bilan  ----- > énonciation (present)



















proposition (SVO)

au passé actif ou passif




Cette proposition marque le début

de la période de référence du bilan.


Exemple :


 "It has created a strong and effective leadership team.



not one of the 13 members of that team has left

[ present perfect actif ]


 since it was established 18 months ago".

[ proposition au passé passif

= ancrage dans le passé temporel ]

Psyched up for CEO search:
13 September 2005,
















Comme toutes les prépositions,


porte sur

une forme nominale (N)





sincepréposition + N

marque le début

de la période de référence du bilan :




last Christmas,

2 o'clock,


the start of the Iraq war,

separating from my husband five years ago



Exemple :

Remember who's gone vegetarian

[ present perfect actif ]


since last Christmas

[ marqueur temporel du passé = ancrage dans le passé ]

Watch the birdie,
4 December 2007,






Names of the Dead


April 9, 2007

The New York Times


The Department of Defense has identified

[ present perfect actif affirmatif ]


3,258 American service members who have died

[ present perfect actif affirmatif ]


since the start of the Iraq war.


It confirmed the deaths

of the following Americans over the weekend:

CAJIMAT, Jay S., 20,

Pfc., Army; Lahaina, Hawaii; First Infantry Division.

CAUTHORN, Forrest D., 22,

Sgt., Army; Midlothian, Va.; 25th Infantry Division.

FUENTES, Daniel A., 19,

Pfc., Army; Levittown, N.Y.; First Infantry Division.

SCHWEDLER, Joseph C., 27,

Petty Officer Second Class, Navy;

Crystal Falls, Mich.; East Coast Navy Seal Team.

SHAFFER, Jason A., 28,

Specialist, Army; Derry, Pa.; First Cavalry Division.

Names of the Dead,
NYT, 9.4.2007,






Sincepréposition + N > Autre exemple :


I've been having an affair with a married man

 [ present perfect actif -ing ]

since separating from my husband five years ago.

Privates Lives,
Fri 26 Oct 2001,






Grammaire prescriptive


grammaires descriptives / explicatives


Après sinceconjonction,

on peut rencontrer

- c'est rare et considéré incorrect

dans les grammaires prescriptives -

une proposition au present perfect :


'It has been a long time

since I have seen my sister's grave'

Coming home,
GE/GE2, p. 4,
27 November 2002.
















The Guardian        G2        p. 16        29 January 2007















since (depuis) : préposition / adverbe






since (depuis que) : conjonction






portée nominale ou verbale de

since (depuis)






since (puisque) : conjonction





- sincepréposition + N


Portée du N introduit par sincepréposition.


En 1, la portée est verbale ;


déclenche donc le present perfect.


1 -    I haven't seen her since last Christmas






Portée nominale :


2 -    Hong-Kong plunged [ passé actif ]

into its deepest political crisis [ <- ] since the 1997 handover to China


when the territory's leader, Tung Chee-hwa,

was this week forced

[ passé passif ]

into a humiliating u-turn

on security legislation demanded by Beijing.

Marchers throw Hong-Kong into crisis, GW,
Thursday July 10 to Wednesday July 16 2003,
p.1, 1ère phrase de l'article.



since the 1997 handover to China

détermine / porte sur / est relatif à

its deepest political crisis.


since n'a donc ici aucune influence

sur la forme verbale (plunged  [ passé actif ]).



Il en va de même

dans la note blibliographique ci-dessous,

où since 1950

contribue à délimiter

American religion.



Op-Ed Contributor

The Presidency’s Mormon Moment


April 9, 2007

The New York Times



IN May, Mitt Romney,

the former Massachusetts governor

and 2008 Republican presidential hopeful,

will give the commencement address

at Pat Robertson’s Regent University.

What better opportunity for Mr. Romney to discuss

the issue of his Mormon faith

before an audience of evangelicals?


The issues above are real to many people,

and Mr. Romney should take the opportunity

to address them at Regent University.

But none of these popular reservations

about the Mormon Church

are reasons to vote for or against Mitt Romney.

History was bound to have

its Mormon moment in presidential politics,

just as it had its Catholic moment when Kennedy ran.

Now that the moment has arrived,

much depends on Mr. Romney.


Kenneth Woodward,

a contributing editor at Newsweek,

is writing a book about American religion since 1950.

The Presidency’s Mormon Moment,











- sinceadverbe + ø (depuis)


After Blair's election to leader,

the pair became much closer,

and Caplin has since been employed

[ present perfect passif ]

to advise on many aspects of dress,

health and fitness,

and is credited with introducing Blair

to a number of alternative therapists.

The court of Cherie,
GE/GE2, p. 4, 06.12.2002.










- sinceconjonction (depuis)


proposition (SVO)

avec verbe au passé


I haven't seen her

[ present perfect actif ]


since she lost her job.

[ passé actif ]










- sinceconjonction

(puisque, étant donné que, vu que)


Since Dr Pearce died

[ passé actif ]

fewer than 24 hours after he left a police cell,

Suffolk police have voluntarily referred the incident

[ present perfect actif ]

to the police complaints authority,

as is standard practice.

Investigation into death of arrested pathologist,
p. 5, 2.1.2003,















confusions possibles


marqueurs de temps + present perfect


in the past + N




in the past + N

 n'est pas un marqueur de temps passé

qui appellerait le passé

(également appelé prétérit).



in the past + N,

associé au

present perfect affirmatif actif,

permet à l'énonciateur

de partir d'un point passé annuel


puis de remonter jusqu'au présent

pour faire un bilan.


Traduction explicative :


si vous vous êtes

tant soit peu intéressé

à la politique en Israel

ces dernières années,

dont l'année écoulée...



If you’ve paid

any attention to Israeli politics

in the past few years,

you will have been following the rise,

fall and rise again of Benjamin Netanyahu.


Israel’s longest-serving prime minister

is still facing trial on corruption charges

but is now due to return to office

after the most recent election,

the fifth in four years.


The far-right radical in Israel’s new government

Itamar Ben-Gvir has spent a lifetime on the fringes of Israeli politics.

He was once considered so extreme

that he wasn’t allowed to serve in the Israeli army.

Now he is the country’s security minister. Bethan McKernan reports


Tue 6 Dec 2022    03.00 GMT




















In the past year

[ ces douze derniers mois / de février 2006 à février 2007 ],


more than 500 people have been killed

[ present perfect passif affirmatif ]


by explosions

while shopping or selling goods

in the capital’s markets.


Photograph: Khalid Mohammed

Associated Press


At Least 67 Killed at Baghdad’s Largest Market


12 February 2007

















marqueurs de temps / bilan


present perfect



ces marqueurs intègrent

last ou past,

mais ils ne déclenchent pas

le passé :




during the past decade,


during the past year,


during the past four years,




for the past few years,




in the past,


in the past decade,


in the past year,


in the past week,


in the past few years,


just in the past two years,




in the last six weeks,


in the last three months,


in the last year,


in the last ten years,


for much of the last decade,




in the last decade,


in the last decade or so,




over the last three years,


over the last year,


over the last year or so,


Three times over the last two years,


Three times over the last two decades,


over the past few weeks,


over the past three years,


over the past year,


over the past week, 


over the past several months,


over the past 21 years,


over the years,


over the past few years,


over the last few days,










anglais américain > expression du bilan


L'expression du bilan

peut se faire au passé




No Need for All These Nukes


January 7, 2012

The New York Times




OVER the last three years,

as I delved into the world

of American nuclear weapons,

I felt increasingly

[ passé actif affirmatif

du verbe irrégulier feel ]

as though I had stepped into a time warp.

Despite the nearly total rearrangement

of the international security landscape

since the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991,

the rise of Islamic terrorism

and the spread of nuclear materials and technology

to volatile nations like Pakistan,

North Korea and Iran,

the Defense Department remains enthralled

by cold war nuclear strategies and practices.

No Need for All These Nukes,






American Dream

Is Elusive for New Generation


July 6, 2010

The New York Times



GRAFTON, Mass. — After breakfast,

his parents left for their jobs,

and Scott Nicholson, alone in the house

in this comfortable suburb west of Boston,

went to his laptop in the living room.

He had placed it on a small table

that his mother had used for a vase of flowers

until her unemployed son found himself

reluctantly stuck at home.

The daily routine seldom varied. Mr. Nicholson, 24,

a graduate of Colgate University,

winner of a dean’s award for academic excellence,

spent his mornings searching corporate Web sites

for suitable job openings.

When he found one,

he mailed off a résumé and cover letter

— four or five a week, week after week.


Over the last five months

[ ces cinq derniers mois /

du 1er janvier 2010 à juin 2010 ],

only one job materialized

[ passé actif affirmatif ].


After several interviews,

the Hanover Insurance Group in nearby Worcester

offered to hire him as an associate claims adjuster,

at $40,000 a year.

But even before the formal offer,

Mr. Nicholson had decided not to take the job.

American Dream Is Elusive for New Generation,
NYT, 6.7.2010,






At Least 67 Killed

at Baghdad’s Largest Market


February 12, 2007

The New York Times



BAGHDAD, Feb. 12 — Four bomb explosions

at Baghdad’s oldest market

killed at least 67 people and wounded 155 today,

charring families in their cars, shredding stores

and setting ablaze a seven-story clothing warehouse,

where black smoke billowed for hours,

witnesses and officials said.

The blasts at Central Baghdad’s Shorja Market

— the capital’s largest bazaar — struck shortly

after Iraq’s Shiite-led government

marked the first anniversary,

by the Islamic calendar,

of an attack that destroyed

a revered Shiite mosque in Samarra.

That bombing,

which shattered the shrine’s golden dome,

ignited a wave of sectarian violence in Iraq

that has yet to be extinguished.

With its timing and severity,

today’s attack seemed designed

to fuel the country’s sectarian hatreds,

and to identify weaknesses

in the new American-Iraqi security plan for Baghdad

that has just begun.


It was

[ passé affirmatif du verbe irrégulier be ]

at least the fifth bombing

at the Shorja market since August [2006],

and one of roughly a dozen attacks at markets

over the past year,

killing more than 500 people

as they bought or sold what they needed to survive.

At Least 67 Killed at Baghdad’s Largest Market,
February 12, 2007,






Less than two weeks

after its stock price smashed

through $600 for the first time,

Google Inc. showed why it might not be long

before the Internet search leader's shares

are flirting with $700.

[. . .]

In the past few months,

Google unveiled

[ passé actif affirmatif ]

a way to show text-based ads

across the bottom of videos

supplied by its YouTube subsidiary

and also began distributing ads within ''widgets''

-- the interactive capsules

that are becoming Internet staples.

Google 3Q Profit Soars 46 Percent,
aponline/technology/AP-Earns-Google.html - broken link
















present perfect actif affirmatif


haveauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé




marqueurs de temps

incluant the first time


for the first time, That's the first time





That's the first time

I've ever heard that cat laugh...



Charles Schulz


April 07, 2024

















For the first time,

U.S. dairy cows have tested positive for bird flu


March 31, 2024    NPR



















present perfect actif affirmatif


haveauxiliaire + verbeau participe passé


avec ou sans

marqueur de temps





autres énoncés






























Voir aussi > Anglonautes >

Grammaire anglaise explicative - niveau avancé


present perfect



present perfect passif



depuis : since / for



past perfect > valeurs énonciatives




de l'adverbe / du marqueur de temps

dans un groupe verbal

au present perfect



passé temporel

avec adverbe / marqueur de temps



adverbes > temps > yet



adverbes > temps > ever



adverbes > temps > never



verbes réguliers



verbes irréguliers




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